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Hamont-Achel dialect (Dutch: Hamonts-Achels, Limburgish: Haëmets-Achels) or Hamont-Achel Limburgish is the city dialect and variant of Limburgish spoken in the Belgian city of Hamont-Achel alongside the Dutch language (with which it is not mutually intelligible).[1][2]

Native speakers of the dialect tend to call it either Haëmets or Achels, depending on where they are from (the former city of Hamont or the former village of Achel).

Phonology

The following section describes the dialect as it is spoken in Hamont.[3]

Consonants

  • The starting points of /ɛi(ː), œy(ː)/ are close to the corresponding cardinal vowels [ɛ, œ].[6]
  • The starting point of /ɑu(ː)/ is near-open central [ɐ].[6]
  • The ending points of /ɛi(ː), œy(ː), ɔu(ː)/ are rather close, more like [i, y, u] than [e, ø, o].[6]
  • The ending point of Dialect of Hamont-Achel contrasts long and short closing diphthongs. The long ones are on average 70 ms longer than their short equivalents. Centering diphthongs are all long.[6]

    [13][14] the prosody of the Hamont-Achel dialect has a lexical tone distinction, which is traditionally referred to as stoottoon ('push tone') or Accent 1 and sleeptoon ('dragging tone') or Accent 2. In this article, they are transcribed as a distinction between falling and rising tone. The difference between Accent 1 and Accent 2 can signal either lexical differences or grammatical distinctions, such as those between the singular and the plural forms of some nouns. It is phonemic only in stressed syllables, an example of a minimal pair is /ˈɦûs/ ('(record) sleeve') vs. /ˈɦǔs/ ('house').[15]

    In final position, Accent 1 is realised as a steady fall [V˥˩] through the rhyme, the Accent 2 is falling-rising [V˥˩˩˥]; the first half of the rhyme is falling, whereas the rest is rising. In non-final position, Accent 1's F0 stays high in the first 45% of the rhyme and then falls rapidly towards the end of the rhyme (in IPA, that can be transcribed [V˦˥]). When the focus of the sentence is on a word with Accent 2, it is realized as a very shallow fall-rise combination [V˥˩˩˥].[16]

    Vowels with Accent 1 are generally shorter than those with Accent 2.[16]

    Sample

    The sample text is a reading of the first sentence of The North Wind and the Sun, read by a 75-year-old male middle-class speaker.[1]

    Phonetic transcription

    [də noːʀdəʀβɪːnd ɛn də zɔn | di βɑʀə ʀyzi n̩t maːkə ʔoːvəʀ βi t̩ stɛʀkstə βɑs | tun əʀ ənə vɛːnt fəʀbɛiː kβɑːm mɛ nə βɛʀmə jɑz ɔːn][17][stress and tone?]

    Orthographic version

    De noorderwind en de zon, die warre ruzie aan 't make over wie 't sterkste was toen er ene vèènt verbij kwààm met ne werme jas aon.

    References

    1. ^ a b c d e f Verhoeven (2007), p. 219.
    2. ^ Bernaerts (1991).
    3. ^ Verhoeven (2007).
    4. ^ a b c d e f Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
    5. ^ Verhoeven (2007), pp. 220–221.
    6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
    7. ^ Verhoeven (2007), pp. 220–222.
    8. ^ Verhoeven & Van Bael (2002).
    9. ^ Verhoeven (2007), pp. 220–221, 223.
    10. ^ Verhoeven (2007), pp. 221, 224.
    11. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007), pp. 221–222.
    12. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 222.
    13. [V˥˩] through the rhyme, the Accent 2 is falling-rising [V˥˩˩˥]; the first half of the rhyme is falling, whereas the rest is rising. In non-final position, Accent 1's F0 stays high in the first 45% of the rhyme and then falls rapidly towards the end of the rhyme (in IPA, that can be transcribed [V˦˥]). When the focus of the sentence is on a word with Accent 2, it is realized as a very shallow fall-rise combination [V˥˩˩˥].[16]

      Vowels with Accent 1 are generally shorter than those with Accent 2.[16]

      The sample text is a reading of the first sentence of The North Wind and the Sun, read by a 75-year-old male middle-class speaker.[1]

      Phonetic transcription

      De

      De noorderwind en de zon, die warre ruzie aan 't make over wie 't sterkste was toen er ene vèènt verbij kwààm met ne werme jas aon.

      References