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HAMMERSMITH is a district of west London
London
, England, located 4.3 miles (6.9 km) west-southwest of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham
London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham
, and identified in the London
London
Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London
London
.

It is bordered by Shepherd\'s Bush to the north, Kensington
Kensington
to the east, Chiswick
Chiswick
to the west, and Fulham
Fulham
to the south, with which it forms part of the north bank of the River Thames
River Thames
. It is linked by Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge
to Barnes in the southwest. The area is one of west London's key commercial and employment centres, and has for some decades been a major centre of London's Polish community . It is a major transport hub for west London, with two London
London
Underground stations and a bus station at Hammersmith Broadway
Hammersmith Broadway
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Economy * 3 Architecture * 4 Culture and entertainment * 5 Transport * 6 In literature and music

* 7 Notable people

* 7.1 17th century * 7.2 18th century * 7.3 19th century * 7.4 20th century

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

In the early 1660s, Hammersmith's first parish church, which later became St Paul\'s , was built by Sir Nicholas Crispe who ran the brickworks in Hammersmith. It contained a monument to Crispe as well as a bronze bust of King Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur
Hubert Le Sueur
. In 1696 Sir Samuel Morland
Samuel Morland
was buried there. The church was completely rebuilt in 1883, but the monument and bust were transferred to the new church.

Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge
was first designed by William Tierney Clark
William Tierney Clark
, opening in 1827 as the first Suspension bridge
Suspension bridge
crossing the River Thames . Overloading in this original structure led to a redesign by Joseph Bazalgette
Joseph Bazalgette
, which was built over the original foundations, and reopened in 1887. In 1984–1985 the bridge received structural support, and between 1997 and 2000 the bridge underwent major strengthening work.

In 1745, two Scots, James Lee and Lewis Kennedy , established the Vineyard Nursery
Vineyard Nursery
, over six acres devoted to landscaping plants. During the next hundred and fifty years the nursery introduced many new plants to England, including fuchsia and the standard rose tree .

Major industrial sites included the Osram
Osram
lamp factory at Brook Green , the J. Lyons factory (which at one time employed 30,000 people). During both World Wars , Waring "> The river Thames at Hammersmith
Hammersmith

Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is located at the confluence of a key arterial route out of central London
London
(the A4 ) with several local feeder roads and a bridge over the Thames. The focal point of the district is the commercial centre (the Broadway Centre) located at this confluence, which houses a shopping centre, bus station, an Underground station and an office complex. King Street

Stretching about 750m westwards from this centre is King Street , Hammersmith's main shopping street. Named after John King, Bishop of London
London
, it contains a second shopping centre ( Kings Mall ), many small shops, the Town Hall, the Lyric Theatre , a cinema, the Polish community centre and two hotels. King Street is supplemented by other shops along Shepherds Bush Road to the north, Fulham
Fulham
Palace Road to the south and Hammersmith Road to the east. Hammersmith's office activity takes place mainly to the eastern side of its centre, along Hammersmith Road and in the Ark , an office complex to the south of the flyover which traverses the area.

There are two NHS hospitals in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
- Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Hospital to the south on Fulham
Fulham
Palace Road and Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Hospital in the north. Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Hospital is a large multi-disciplinary hospital with accident ">

ARCHITECTURE

Woodcut
Woodcut
of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
by Eric Gill
Eric Gill
, 1915

"The Ark" office building , designed by British architect Ralph Erskine and completed in 1992, has some resemblance to the hull of a sailing ship. Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge
Road Surgery was designed by Guy Greenfield. "22 St Peter\'s Square " the former Royal Chiswick Laundry and Island Records HQ converted to architects studios and offices by Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands . It has a Hammersmith Society Conservation award plaque (2009) and has been included in tours in Architecture Week. Several of Hammersmith's pubs are listed buildings , including the _Black Lion _, _The Dove _, _The George _, _ The Hop Poles
The Hop Poles
_, the _Hope and Anchor _, the _Salutation Inn _ and _The Swan _, as are Hammersmith's two parish churches , St Paul\'s (the town's original church, rebuilt in the 1890s) and St Peter\'s , built in the 1820s.

CULTURE AND ENTERTAINMENT

_ The famous Dove_ public house - entrance in the alley that is the only surviving trace of the old Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Village.

Riverside Studios (closed until 2018) is a cinema, performance space, bar and cafe. Riverside Studios was formerly BBC
BBC
studios used for TV productions. The Lyric Hammersmith
Lyric Hammersmith
Theatre is just off King Street. Hammersmith Apollo
Hammersmith Apollo
concert hall and theatre (formerly the Carling Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Apollo, the Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Odeon, and before that the Gaumont Cinema) is just south of the gyratory. The former Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Palais nightclub has been demolished and the site reused as student accommodation. The Polish Social and Cultural Association is on King Street. It contains a theatre, an art gallery and several restaurants. Its library has one of the largest collections of Polish-language books outside Poland.

_The Dove _ is a riverside pub with what the _Guinness Book of Records _ listed as the smallest bar room in the world, in 2016 surviving as a small space on the right of the bar. the pub was frequented by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
and Graham Greene
Graham Greene
; James Thomson lodged and likely wrote _ Rule Britannia _ here. The narrow alley in which it stands is the only remnant of the riverside village of Hammersmith, the bulk of which was demolished in the 1930s. Furnivall Gardens , which lies to the east, covers the site of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Creek and the High Bridge. Leisure activity also takes place along Hammersmith's pedestrianised riverside, home to pubs, rowing clubs and the riverside park of Furnival Gardens. Hammersmith
Hammersmith
has a municipal park, Ravenscourt Park , to the west of the centre. Its facilities include tennis courts, a basketball court, a bowling lawn, a paddling pool and playgrounds.

Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is the historical home of the West London
London
Penguin Swimming and Water Polo Club , formerly known as the _Hammersmith Penguin Swimming Club_. Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Chess Club has been active in the borough since it was formed in 1962. It was initially based in Westcott Lodge
Westcott Lodge
, later moving to St Paul's Church, then to Blythe House and now Lytton Hall, near West Kensington
Kensington
tube station.

TRANSPORT

Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge

The area is on the main A4 trunk road heading west from central London
London
towards the M4 motorway
M4 motorway
and Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
. The A4, a busy commuter route, passes over the area's main road junction, Hammersmith Gyratory System, on a long viaduct, the Hammersmith Flyover
Hammersmith Flyover
. Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge
, the first suspension bridge over the River Thames, carries traffic to and from Barnes and southwest London.

The centre of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is served by two London
London
Underground stations named Hammersmith: one is served by the Hammersmith
Hammersmith
">

IN LITERATURE AND MUSIC

Hammersmith
Hammersmith
features in Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
' _ Great Expectations
Great Expectations
_ as the home of the Pocket family. Pip resides with the Pockets in their house by the river and goes boating on the river. William Morris
William Morris
's utopian novel _ News from Nowhere _ (1890) describes a journey up the river from Hammersmith
Hammersmith
towards Oxford
Oxford
. In 1930, Gustav Holst composed _Hammersmith_, a work for military band (later rewritten for orchestra), reflecting his impressions of the area, having lived across the river in Barnes for nearly forty years. It begins with a haunting musical depiction of the River Thames
River Thames
flowing underneath Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Bridge. Holst taught music at St Paul\'s Girls\' School and composed many of his most famous works there, including his _The Planets _ suite. A music room in the school is named after him.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

17TH CENTURY

* John Milton
John Milton
(1608–1674), poet * William Sheridan (c. 1635 – 3 October 1711), Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh

18TH CENTURY

* William Belsham (1752–1827), political writer and historian * Charles Burney (1757–1817), schoolmaster * Caroline of Brunswick
Caroline of Brunswick
(1768–1821), princess and Queen Consort of George IV
George IV
* William Crathern (born 1793), composer * Lewis Kennedy (c. 1721–1782), nurseryman * James Lee (1715–1795), nurseryman

19TH CENTURY

* T. J. Cobden Sanderson
T. J. Cobden Sanderson
(1840–1922), artist and bookbinder * William Tierney Clark
William Tierney Clark
(1783–1852), civil engineer, designer of first Hammersmith
Hammersmith
bridge * Gustav Holst
Gustav Holst
(1874–1934), composer, taught music at St Paul\'s Girls\' School * Leigh Hunt
Leigh Hunt
(1784–1859), critic, essayist, poet, and writer * Edward Johnston
Edward Johnston
(1872–1944), scholar, credited with the revival of calligraphy * William Morris
William Morris
(1834–1896), artist, writer, socialist and activist * Francis Ronalds
Francis Ronalds
(1788–1873), inventor, built the first working telegraph at Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Mall * Frederic George Stephens
Frederic George Stephens
(1827–1907), art critic * Emery Walker
Emery Walker
(1851–1933), engraver and printer * George Wimpey (1855–1913), stonemason

20TH CENTURY

* Lily Allen
Lily Allen
(born 1985), pop singer * Bill Bailey
Bill Bailey
(born 1964), comedian * Sacha Baron Cohen (born 1971), comedian and actor * Marcus Bent (born 1978), footballer * Joe Calzaghe
Joe Calzaghe
(born 1972), boxer * Sebastian Coe
Sebastian Coe
(born 1956), athlete and politician * Marie Colvin
Marie Colvin
(1956–2012), journalist * Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
(born 1976), actor * James DeGale (born 1986), boxer * Cara Delevingne
Cara Delevingne
(born 1992), model and actor * George Devine (1910–1966), director * Mary Fedden (1915–2012), artist * Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
(born 1962), actor * Emilia Fox (born 1974), actor * Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
(1920–1958), X-ray crystallographer * George Groves (born 1988), boxer * Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(born 1960), actor * Tom Hardy (born 1977), actor * Miranda Hart
Miranda Hart
(born 1972), actor * A. P. Herbert (1890–1971), humorist * Jocelyn Herbert (1917–2003), stage designer * Sophie Hunter
Sophie Hunter
(born 1978), theatre and opera director * James May
James May
(born 1963), television presenter * Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(born 1945), actor * Maurice Murphy (1935–2010), trumpet player * Douglas Murray (born 1979), author, journalist * Gary Numan (born 1958), musician * Scott Overall
Scott Overall
(born 1983), marathon runner * Stuart Pearce
Stuart Pearce
(born 1962), footballer * Rosamund Pike
Rosamund Pike
(born 1979), actor * Stephen Poliakoff (born 1952), playwright * Eric Ravilious
Eric Ravilious
(1903–1942), artist * Tony Richardson (1928–1991), theatre and film director * Alan Rickman
Alan Rickman
(1946–2016), actor * Vidal Sassoon
Vidal Sassoon
(1928–2012), hairdresser * Labi Siffre (born 1945), musician * Estelle Swaray (born 1980), musician * Julian Trevelyan (1910–1988), artist * Evelyn Whitaker (died 1929), children's writer * Alan Wilder
Alan Wilder
(born 1959), rock musician

*

The poet John Milton
John Milton
lived in Hammersmith. *

The Arts and Crafts
Arts and Crafts
designer William Morris
William Morris
lived on Hammersmith Mall. *

The composer Gustav Holst
Gustav Holst
taught at St Paul\'s Girls School . *

The artist Eric Ravilious
Eric Ravilious
lived in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and made this woodcut in 1925. *

The actor Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
went to Latymer Upper School
Latymer Upper School
.

SEE ALSO

* London
London
portal

* List of districts in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham
Fulham

REFERENCES

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