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Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is a district of west London, England, located 4.3 miles (6.9 km) west-southwest of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the London
London
Borough of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham, and identified in the London
London
Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. It is bordered by Shepherd's Bush
Shepherd's Bush
to the north, Kensington
Kensington
to the east, Chiswick
Chiswick
to the west, and Fulham
Fulham
to the south, with which it forms part of the north bank of the River Thames. It is linked by Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge
to Barnes in the southwest. The area is one of west London's key commercial and employment centres, and has for some decades been a major centre of London's Polish community. It is a major transport hub for west London, with two London
London
Underground stations and a bus station at Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Broadway.

Contents

1 History 2 Economy 3 Architecture 4 Culture and entertainment 5 Transport 6 In literature and music 7 Notable people

7.1 17th century 7.2 18th century 7.3 19th century 7.4 20th century 7.5 21st century

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Hammersmith
Hammersmith
originally meant "smithy where a hammer is used", first recorded in 1294.[1] Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is in the historic county of Middlesex. It was the name of a parish, and of a suburban district, within the hundred of Osselstone.[2] In the early 1660s, Hammersmith's first parish church, which later became St Paul's, was built by Sir Nicholas Crispe who ran the brickworks in Hammersmith.[3] It contained a monument to Crispe as well as a bronze bust of King Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur.[4] In 1696 Sir Samuel Morland
Samuel Morland
was buried there. The church was completely rebuilt in 1883, but the monument and bust were transferred to the new church. Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge
was first designed by William Tierney Clark, opening in 1827 as the first Suspension bridge
Suspension bridge
crossing the River Thames. Overloading in this original structure led to a redesign by Joseph Bazalgette, which was built over the original foundations, and reopened in 1887.[3][5] In 1984–1985 the bridge received structural support, and between 1997 and 2000 the bridge underwent major strengthening work.[6] In 1745, two Scots, James Lee and Lewis Kennedy, established the Vineyard Nursery, over six acres devoted to landscaping plants. During the next hundred and fifty years the nursery introduced many new plants to England, including fuchsia and the standard rose tree.[7][8] Major industrial sites included the Osram
Osram
lamp factory at Brook Green, the J. Lyons factory (which at one time employed 30,000 people). During both World Wars, Waring & Gillow's furniture factory, in Cambridge Grove, became the site of aircraft manufacture.[9] Economy[edit]

The river Thames at Hammersmith

Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is located at the confluence of a key arterial route out of central London
London
(the A4) with several local feeder roads and a bridge over the Thames. The focal point of the district is the commercial centre (the Broadway Centre) located at this confluence, which houses a shopping centre, bus station, an Underground station and an office complex.[citation needed]

King Street

Stretching about 750m westwards from this centre is King Street, Hammersmith's main shopping street. Named after John King, Bishop of London,[10] it contains a second shopping centre (Kings Mall), many small shops, the Town Hall, the Lyric Theatre, a cinema, the Polish community centre and two hotels. King Street is supplemented by other shops along Shepherds Bush Road to the north, Fulham
Fulham
Palace Road to the south and Hammersmith Road
Hammersmith Road
to the east. Hammersmith's office activity takes place mainly to the eastern side of its centre, along Hammersmith Road
Hammersmith Road
and in the Ark, an office complex to the south of the flyover which traverses the area.[citation needed] There are two NHS hospitals in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
- Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Hospital to the south on Fulham
Fulham
Palace Road and Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Hospital in the north. Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Hospital is a large multi-disciplinary hospital with accident & emergency and teaching departments run by the Imperial College School of Medicine.[citation needed] Architecture[edit]

Woodcut
Woodcut
of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
by Eric Gill, 1915

"The Ark" office building, designed by British architect Ralph Erskine and completed in 1992, has some resemblance to the hull of a sailing ship.[11] Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge
Road Surgery was designed by Guy Greenfield.[12] "22 St Peter's Square" the former Royal Chiswick Laundry and Island Records
Island Records
HQ converted to architects studios and offices by Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands. It has a Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Society Conservation award plaque (2009)[13] and has been included in tours in Architecture Week.[14] Several of Hammersmith's pubs are listed buildings, including the Black Lion,[15] The Dove,[16] The George,[17] The Hop Poles,[18] the Hope and Anchor,[19] the Salutation Inn[20] and The Swan,[21] as are Hammersmith's two parish churches, St Paul's[22] (the town's original church, rebuilt in the 1890s) and St Peter's, built in the 1820s.[23] Culture and entertainment[edit]

The famous Dove public house - entrance in the alley that is the only surviving trace of the old Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Village.

Riverside Studios
Riverside Studios
(closed until 2018) is a cinema, performance space, bar and cafe. Riverside Studios
Riverside Studios
was formerly BBC
BBC
studios used for TV productions. The Lyric Hammersmith
Lyric Hammersmith
Theatre is just off King Street. Hammersmith Apollo
Hammersmith Apollo
concert hall and theatre (formerly the Carling Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Apollo, the Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Odeon, and before that the Gaumont Cinema) is just south of the gyratory. The former Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Palais nightclub has been demolished and the site reused as student accommodation.[citation needed] The Polish Social and Cultural Association is on King Street. It contains a theatre, an art gallery and several restaurants. Its library has one of the largest collections of Polish-language books outside Poland.[24][25][26][27][28] The Dove is a riverside pub with what the Guinness Book of Records listed as the smallest bar room in the world, in 2016 surviving as a small space on the right of the bar.[29] the pub was frequented by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
and Graham Greene; James Thomson lodged and likely wrote Rule Britannia
Rule Britannia
here.[30] The narrow alley in which it stands is the only remnant of the riverside village of Hammersmith, the bulk of which was demolished in the 1930s. Furnivall Gardens, which lies to the east, covers the site of Hammersmith Creek and the High Bridge.[31] Leisure activity also takes place along Hammersmith's pedestrianised riverside, home to pubs, rowing clubs and the riverside park of Furnival Gardens. Hammersmith
Hammersmith
has a municipal park, Ravenscourt Park, to the west of the centre. Its facilities include tennis courts, a basketball court, a bowling lawn, a paddling pool and playgrounds.[32] Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is the historical home of the West London
London
Penguin Swimming and Water Polo Club, formerly known as the Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Penguin Swimming Club.[33] Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Chess Club has been active in the borough since it was formed in 1962. It was initially based in Westcott Lodge, later moving to St Paul's Church, then to Blythe House and now Lytton Hall, near West Kensington
Kensington
tube station.[34] Transport[edit]

Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Bridge

The area is on the main A4 trunk road heading west from central London towards the M4 motorway
M4 motorway
and Heathrow Airport. The A4, a busy commuter route, passes over the area's main road junction, Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Gyratory System, on a long viaduct, the Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Flyover.[35] Hammersmith Bridge, the first suspension bridge over the River Thames, carries traffic to and from Barnes and southwest London.[36] The centre of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
is served by two London
London
Underground stations named Hammersmith: one is served by the Hammersmith
Hammersmith
& City and Circle lines and the other is served by the Piccadilly and District lines. The latter tube station is part of a larger office, retail and transport development, locally known as "The Broadway Centre". Hammersmith Broadway
Hammersmith Broadway
stretches from the junction of Queen Caroline Street and King Street in the west to the junction of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Road and Butterwick in the east. It forms the north side of the gyratory system also known as Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Roundabout. The Broadway Shopping Centre includes a major bus station. The length of King Street places the westernmost shops and offices closest to Ravenscourt Park
Ravenscourt Park
tube station on the District line, one stop west of Hammersmith itself.[citation needed] In literature and music[edit] Hammersmith
Hammersmith
features in Charles Dickens' Great Expectations
Great Expectations
as the home of the Pocket family. Pip resides with the Pockets in their house by the river and goes boating on the river.[37] William Morris's utopian novel News from Nowhere
News from Nowhere
(1890) describes a journey up the river from Hammersmith
Hammersmith
towards Oxford.[38] In 1930, Gustav Holst composed Hammersmith, a work for military band (later rewritten for orchestra), reflecting his impressions of the area, having lived across the river in Barnes for nearly forty years.[39] It begins with a haunting musical depiction of the River Thames
River Thames
flowing underneath Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Bridge. Holst taught music at St Paul's Girls' School
St Paul's Girls' School
and composed many of his most famous works there, including his The Planets suite. A music room in the school is named after him.[40] Notable people[edit] 17th century[edit]

John Milton
John Milton
(1608–1674), poet[41] William Sheridan (c. 1635 – 3 October 1711), Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh[42]

18th century[edit]

William Belsham (1752–1827), political writer and historian[42] Charles Burney (1757–1817), schoolmaster[42] Caroline of Brunswick
Caroline of Brunswick
(1768–1821), princess and Queen Consort of George IV[43] William Crathern (born 1793), composer[44] Lewis Kennedy (c. 1721–1782), nurseryman[45] James Lee (1715–1795), nurseryman[45][46]

19th century[edit]

T. J. Cobden Sanderson
T. J. Cobden Sanderson
(1840–1922), artist and bookbinder[47] William Tierney Clark
William Tierney Clark
(1783–1852), civil engineer, designer of first Hammersmith
Hammersmith
bridge[48] Gustav Holst
Gustav Holst
(1874–1934), composer, taught music at St Paul's Girls' School[40] Leigh Hunt
Leigh Hunt
(1784–1859), critic, essayist, poet, and writer[42] Edward Johnston
Edward Johnston
(1872–1944), scholar, credited with the revival of calligraphy[49] William Morris
William Morris
(1834–1896), artist, writer, socialist and activist[49] Francis Ronalds
Francis Ronalds
(1788–1873), inventor, built the first working telegraph at Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Mall[50] Frederic George Stephens
Frederic George Stephens
(1827–1907), art critic[49] Emery Walker
Emery Walker
(1851–1933), engraver and printer[49] George Wimpey (1855–1913), stonemason[51]

20th century[edit]

Bill Bailey
Bill Bailey
(born 1964), comedian[52] Sacha Baron Cohen
Sacha Baron Cohen
(born 1971), comedian and actor[53] Marcus Bent (born 1978), footballer[54] Joe Calzaghe
Joe Calzaghe
(born 1972), boxer[55] Sebastian Coe
Sebastian Coe
(born 1956), athlete and politician[56] Marie Colvin
Marie Colvin
(1956–2012), journalist[57] Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
(born 1976), actor[58] George Devine (1910–1966), director[59] Mary Fedden (1915–2012), artist[60] Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
(born 1962), actor[52] Emilia Fox (born 1974), actor[61] Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
(1920–1958), X-ray crystallographer[62][63] Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(born 1960), actor[64] Tom Hardy
Tom Hardy
(born 1977), actor[65] Miranda Hart
Miranda Hart
(born 1972), actor[66] A. P. Herbert
A. P. Herbert
(1890–1971), humorist[67] Jocelyn Herbert (1917–2003), stage designer[68] Sophie Hunter
Sophie Hunter
(born 1978), theatre and opera director[69] James May
James May
(born 1963), television presenter[70] Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(born 1945), actor[71] Maurice Murphy (1935–2010), trumpet player[72] Douglas Murray (born 1979), author, journalist[73] Eric Newby (1919–2006), travel writer[74] Gary Numan
Gary Numan
(born 1958), musician [75] Scott Overall
Scott Overall
(born 1983), marathon runner[76] Stuart Pearce
Stuart Pearce
(born 1962), footballer[77] Rosamund Pike
Rosamund Pike
(born 1979), actor[78] Stephen Poliakoff
Stephen Poliakoff
(born 1952), playwright[79] Eric Ravilious
Eric Ravilious
(1903–1942), artist[80][81] Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1928–1991), theatre and film director[82] Alan Rickman
Alan Rickman
(1946–2016), actor[83] Vidal Sassoon
Vidal Sassoon
(1928–2012), hairdresser[84] Labi Siffre (born 1945), musician[85] Estelle Swaray (born 1980), musician[86] Julian Trevelyan (1910–1988), artist[87] Evelyn Whitaker (died 1929), children's writer[88] Alan Wilder
Alan Wilder
(born 1959), rock musician[89]

21st century[edit]

Lily Allen
Lily Allen
(born 1985), pop singer[90] James DeGale
James DeGale
(born 1986), boxer[91] Cara Delevingne
Cara Delevingne
(born 1992), model and actor[92]* George Groves (born 1988), boxer[93]

The poet John Milton
John Milton
lived in Hammersmith.

The Arts and Crafts
Arts and Crafts
designer William Morris
William Morris
lived on Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Mall.

The composer Gustav Holst
Gustav Holst
taught at St Paul's Girls School.

The artist Eric Ravilious
Eric Ravilious
lived in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and made this woodcut in 1925.

The actor Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
went to Latymer Upper School.

See also[edit]

London
London
portal

List of districts in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham

References[edit]

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News. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ "William Tierney Clark". London
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Remembers.  ^ a b c d "The House & Interiors Emery Walker
Emery Walker
and 7 Hammersmith Terrace". Emerywalker.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-78326-917-4. [page needed] ^ Adrian Room (1992). Corporate eponymy: a biographical dictionary of the persons behind the names of major American, British, European, and Asian businesses. McFarland. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-89950-679-1. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ a b "Living with the stars". Telegraph. 8 September 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Irvine, Chris (9 December 2010). "The career of Sacha Baron Cohen". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Swales, Andy. " Marcus Bent handed 12–month suspended prison sentence Football News". Sky Sports. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Levy, Glen (6 February 2009). " Joe Calzaghe
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Benedict Cumberbatch
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Evening Standard. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ John Osborne (30 October 2014). Damn You England: Collected Prose. Faber & Faber. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-571-31836-0. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Phillippa Bennett (2010). William Morris
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External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Hammersmith.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hammersmith.

London
London
Borough of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
& Fulham Hammersmith's local community web site Description of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
in 1868 Hammersmith, Fulham
Fulham
and Putney, by Geraldine Edith Mitton and John Cunningham Geikie, 1903, from Project Gutenberg NHS Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Hammersmith London
London
Business Improvement District (BID)

Adjoining districts

Acton Shepherd's Bush, Hammersmith Notting Hill, North Kensington

Chiswick

Hammersmith

Kensington

Chiswick
Chiswick
(part of) Barnes Fulham

v t e

London
London
Borough of Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham

Districts

Brook Green Chelsea Harbour
Chelsea Harbour
(including Imperial Wharf) College Park East Acton Fulham Hammersmith Old Oak Common Parsons Green Sands End Shepherd's Bush Walham Green West Kensington White City

Attractions

BBC
BBC
Television Centre Bush Theatre Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
football stadium Fulham
Fulham
Palace Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Apollo Linford Christie Stadium Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(football stadium) Lyric Theatre Olympia Leighton House Museum O2 Shepherds Bush Empire Queen's Club Stamford Bridge (stadium)

Parks and open spaces

Bishops Park Eel Brook Common Hurlingham Park Normand Park Parsons Green Ravenscourt Park Shepherd's Bush
Shepherd's Bush
Green South Park Wormholt Park Wormwood Scrubs

Constituencies

Chelsea and Fulham Hammersmith

Bridges

Battersea
Battersea
Railway Bridge Fulham
Fulham
Railway Bridge Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Bridge Putney
Putney
Bridge Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Bridge

Tube and rail stations

Barons Court East Acton Fulham
Fulham
Broadway Goldhawk Road Hammersmith
Hammersmith
( Hammersmith
Hammersmith
& City and Circle lines) Hammersmith
Hammersmith
(Piccadilly and District lines) Imperial Wharf railway station Parsons Green Putney
Putney
Bridge Ravenscourt Park Shepherd's Bush Shepherd's Bush
Shepherd's Bush
railway station Shepherd's Bush
Shepherd's Bush
Market West Kensington White City Wood Lane

Pubs

Aragon House The Black Lion The Blue Anchor The Cock The Cross Keys The Dove Duke of Cumberland Eight Bells, Fulham The George, Hammersmith Golden Lion Hampshire Hog The Hop Poles Hope and Anchor The King's Head Laurie Arms Queen's Head, Brook Green Rutland Arms Salutation The Swan Temperance Billiard Hall, Fulham The White Horse former Coachmakers Arms, Hammersmith former The Favourite former Seven Stars, West Kensington

Other topics

Coat of arms Council Grade I and II* listed buildings People Public art Schools

v t e

Areas of London

Central activities zone

Bloomsbury City of London
London
wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster

Town centre network

International

Belgravia Knightsbridge West End

Metropolitan

Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green

Major

Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham
Clapham
Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington
Kensington
High Street Kilburn King's Road
King's Road
East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich

Districts (principal)

Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden
Willesden
Green Woodford

Neighbourhoods (principal)

Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley

Lists of areas by borough

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington
Kensington
and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Fictional

Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London
London
Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford
Walford
(borough) (EastEnders: TV soap)

The London
London
Plan 2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greater London
Greater London
Authority

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159502

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