HAMID KARZAI /ˈhæmᵻd ˈkɑːrˌzaɪ/ (
In the 1980s Karzai was active as a fundraiser for the mujahideen who
were fighting to expel
He was then chosen for a two-year term as Interim President during the 2002 loya jirga (grand assembly) that was held in Kabul , Afghanistan . After the 2004 presidential election , Karzai was declared winner and became President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. He won a second five-year term in the 2009 presidential election ; this term ended in September 2014.
* 1 Early life and beginning of political career * 2 President and Chairman of a transitional administration * 3 2004 Afghan presidential election
* 4 Presidency
* 4.1 First term (2004–2009) * 4.2 2009 re-election and second term
* 5 Foreign relations * 6 Assassination attempts * 7 Personal life and tribal lineage * 8 Honorary degrees and awards
* 9 Controversies
* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Books/Articles * 13 External links
EARLY LIFE AND BEGINNING OF POLITICAL CAREER
Karzai was born on 24 December 1957 in the Karz area of Kandahar City in southern Afghanistan. He is an ethnic Pashtun of the Popalzai tribe. His father, Abdul Ahad Karzai , served as the Deputy Speaker of the Parliament during the 1960s. His grandfather, Khair Mohammad Khan, had fought in the 1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War and was the Deputy Speaker of the Senate . Karzai 's family were strong supporters of Zahir Shah , the last king of Afghanistan . His uncle, Habibullah Karzai , served as the Afghan representative at the UN and is said to have accompanied King Zahir Shah in the early 1960s to the United States for a special meeting with U.S. President John F. Kennedy .
Hamid Karzai attended Mahmood Hotaki Primary School in Kandahar and Sayed Jamaluddin Afghani School in Kabul. He graduated from Habibia High School in 1976. After graduating from high school, he traveled to India as an exchange student in 1976, and was accepted to study for his master's degree in international relations and political science from Himachal Pradesh University . He obtained his master's degree in 1983, after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Karzai moved to neighboring Pakistan to work as a fundraiser for the
anti-communist mujahideen during the 1980s
Soviet war in Afghanistan
Following the withdrawal of Soviet forces,
Hamid Karzai returned to
Afghanistan in early October 1988 to assist in the mujahideen victory
Tarinkot . He assisted in rallying
In 2000 and 2001, he traveled to Europe and the United States to help
gather support for the anti-
PRESIDENT AND CHAIRMAN OF A TRANSITIONAL ADMINISTRATION
Further information: List of Afghan Transitional Administration personnel Karzai appointed as President of the Afghan Transitional Administration at the June 2002 loya jirga (grand assembly) in Kabul , Afghanistan.
After 7 October 2001 launch of Operation Enduring Freedom , the
United Front (Northern Alliance) worked with teams of U.S. special
forces . Together, they overthrew the
We might be captured the moment we enter Afghanistan and be killed. We have 60 percent chance of death and 40 percent chance to live and survive. Winning was no consideration. We could not even think of that. We got on two motorbikes. We drove into Afghanistan. — Hamid Karzai, October 2001
On 5 December 2001, Hamid Karzai and his group of fighters survived a friendly fire missile attack by U.S. Air Force pilots in southern Afghanistan. The group suffered injuries and was treated in the United States; Karzai received injuries to his facial nerves, as can sometimes be noticed during his speeches. On 4 November 2001, American special operation forces flew Karzai out of Afghanistan for protection. Karzai speaking before the U.S. Congress in June 2004
In December 2001, political leaders gathered in Germany to agree on
new leadership structures. Under 5 December Bonn Agreement , they
Interim Administration and named Karzai Chairman of a
29-member governing committee. He was sworn in as leader on 22
December. The loya jirga of 13 June 2002 appointed Karzai as Interim
President of the new position as President of the Afghan Transitional
Administration . Former members of the
Northern Alliance remained
extremely influential, most notably Vice President
Karzai re-enacted the original coronation of Ahmad Shah
After Karzai was installed into power, his actual authority outside the capital city of Kabul was said to be so limited that he was often derided as the "Mayor of Kabul". The situation was particularly delicate since Karzai and his administration have not been equipped either financially or politically to influence reforms outside of the region around Kabul. Other areas, particularly the more remote ones, have historically been under the influence of various local leaders. Karzai has been, to varying degrees of success, attempting to negotiate and form amicable alliances with them for the benefit of Afghanistan as a whole, instead of aggressively fighting them and risking an uprising.
In 2004, he rejected an international proposal to end poppy production in Afghanistan through aerial spraying of chemical herbicides , fearing that it would harm the economic situation of his countrymen. Moreover, Karzai's younger brother, Ahmed Wali Karzai – who partially helped finance Karzai's presidential campaign – was rumored to be involved in narcotic deals, which has been rejected. Karzai said that he has sought in writing a number of times, but failed to obtain, proof of allegations that Ahmed Wali was involved in illegal drugs.
2004 AFGHAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
Main article: Afghan presidential election, 2004 Karzai's inauguration on 7 December 2004, after winning the presidential election .
When Karzai was a candidate in the October 2004 presidential election , he won 21 of the 34 provinces , defeating his 22 opponents and becoming the first democratically elected leader of Afghanistan.
Although his campaigning was limited due to fears of violence, elections passed without significant incident. Following investigation by the United Nations of alleged voting irregularities, the national election commission in early November declared Karzai winner, without runoff, with 55.4% of the vote. This represented 4.3 million of the total 8.1 million votes cast. The election took place safely in spite of a surge of insurgent activity.
Karzai was sworn in as President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on 7 December 2004, at a formal ceremony in Kabul. Many interpreted the ceremony as a symbolically important "new start" for the war-torn nation. Notable guests at the inauguration included the country's former King, Zahir Shah , three former U.S. presidents, and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney .
Main article: Presidency of Hamid Karzai
FIRST TERM (2004–2009)
After winning a democratic mandate in the 2004 election, it was thought that Karzai would pursue a more aggressively reformist path in 2005. However, Karzai has proved to be more cautious than was expected. After his new administration took over in 2004, the economy of Afghanistan began growing rapidly for the first time in many years. Government revenue began increasing every year, although it is still heavily dependent on foreign aid. Karzai with former US President George W. Bush and wife Laura Bush at Camp David in 2007.
During the first term in Karzai\'s Presidency , public discontent grew about corruption and the civilian casualties in the 2001–14 . In May 2006, an anti-American and anti-Karzai riot took place in Kabul which left at least seven people dead and 40 injured. In May 2007, after as many as 51 Afghan civilians were killed in a bombing, Karzai asserted that his government "can no longer accept" casualties caused by U.S. and NATO operations. Karzai in February 2009
In September 2006, Karzai told the United Nations General Assembly
Afghanistan has become the "worst victim" of terrorism. Karzai
said terrorism is rebounding in his country, with militants
infiltrating the borders to wage attacks on civilians. He stated,
"This does not have its seeds alone in Afghanistan. Military action in
the country will, therefore, not deliver the shared goal of
eliminating terrorism." He demanded assistance from the international
community to destroy terrorist sanctuaries inside and outside
Afghanistan. "You have to look beyond
Afghanistan to the sources of
terrorism," he told the UN General Assembly, and "destroy terrorist
sanctuaries beyond" the country, dismantle the elaborate networks in
the region that recruit, indoctrinate, train, finance, arm, and deploy
terrorists. These activities are also robbing thousands of Afghan
children of their right to education, and prevent health workers from
doing their jobs in Afghanistan. In addition, he promised to eliminate
opium-poppy cultivation in his country, which is possibly helping fuel
2009 RE-ELECTION AND SECOND TERM
Further information: Afghan presidential election, 2009 The 2009 presidential election billboard for Karzai in Kandahar Province . Karzai won another 5-year term. Karzai discussing security and development issues in Helmand Province on 2 January 2010.
On the eve of 20 August presidential election, Karzai seemed at once
deeply unpopular but also likely to win the majority of the votes. He
was blamed by many for the failures that plagued the reconstruction of
Afghanistan after the toppling of the
In this second presidential election, Karzai was announced to have received over 50% of the votes. The election was tainted by lack of security, low voter turnout and widespread ballot stuffing , intimidation, and other electoral fraud .
Two months later Karzai accepted calls for a second round run-off vote , which was scheduled for 7 November 2009. On 2 November 2009, Karzai's run-off opponent, Abdullah Abdullah , withdrew from the race and election officials announced the cancellation of the run-off race . Karzai, the only remaining contender, was declared the winner a short time later.
Karzai presented his first list of 24 cabinet nominees to the Afghan parliament on 19 December 2009; however, on 2 January 2010, the parliament rejected 17 of these. According to the parliament, most of the nominees were rejected due to having been picked for reasons other than their competency. A member of parliament said that they had been picked largely based on "ethnicity or bribery or money." Karzai at the 2011 Afghan Independence Day in Kabul, which is held every year on 19 August to commemorate Afghanistan's independence from British control over its foreign affairs.
On 16 January 2010, the Afghan parliament rejected 10 of the Karzai's 17 replacement picks for cabinet. MPs complained that Karzai's new choices were either not qualified for their posts or had close connections to Afghan warlords. Despite the second setback, by mid-January Karzai had 14 out of the 24 ministers confirmed, including the most powerful posts at foreign, defense and interior ministries. Shortly afterwards, the parliament began its winter recess, lasting until 20 February, without waiting for Karzai to select additional names for his cabinet. The move not only extended the political uncertainty in the government, but also dealt Karzai the embarrassment of appearing at the London Conference on Afghanistan with nearly half of his cabinet devoid of leaders.
Since late 2001 Karzai has been trying for peace in his country,
going as far as pardoning militants that lay down weapons and join the
rebuilding process. However, his offers were not accepted by the
militant groups. In April 2007, Karzai acknowledged that he spoke to
some militants about trying to bring peace in Afghanistan. He noted
that the Afghan militants are always welcome in the country, although
foreign insurgents are not. In September 2007, Karzai again offered
talks with militant fighters after a security scare forced him to end
a commemoration speech. Karzai left the event and was taken back to
his palace, where he was due to meet visiting Latvian President Valdis
Zatlers . After the meeting the pair held a joint news conference, at
which Karzai called for talks with his
In December 2009 Karzai announced to move ahead with a Loya Jirga
(large assembly) to discuss the
Main article: Presidency of Hamid Karzai § Foreign relations See also: Foreign relations of Afghanistan and Politics of Afghanistan Karzai with former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in June 2006. Anders Fogh Rasmussen with Karzai in 2009 Karzai with Russia\'s President Dmitry Medvedev in 2010. Karzai speaking at the 47th Munich Security Conference in 2011.
Karzai's relations with NATO countries is strong, especially with the United States , due to the fact that it is the leading nation helping to rebuild war-torn Afghanistan. Karzai enjoys a very friendly and strongly strategic partnership with the United States, despite various disagreements. The U.S. has supported him since late 2001 to lead his nation. He has made many important diplomatic trips to the United States and other NATO countries. In August 2007, Karzai was invited to Camp David in Maryland , USA, for a special meeting with U.S. President George W. Bush. The United States has set up a special envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan, which is headed by Marc Grossman . His task is to serve as a mediator and solve issues between the three nations.
However, in recent years the relations between U.S. and Karzai has become strained, particularly Karzai has been very critical of U.S. military because of their high-level of civilian casualties. Further strain in relations with the United States resulted in 2014, when Afghanistan, joined Cuba, Nicaragua, North Korea, Syria, and Venezuela as the only countries to recognize the Russian annexation of the Crimea. The United States, European countries, and most other nations wholeheartedly condemned the Russian takeover, as well as the validity of the subsequent Crimean Referendum on its annexation to Russia. Citing “the free will of the Crimean people,” the office of President Hamid Karzai said, “we respect the decision the people of Crimea took through a recent referendum that considers Crimea as part of the Russian Federation.”
Karzai's relations with neighboring Pakistan are good, especially with the Awami National Party (ANP) and Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP). He often describes his nation and Pakistan as "inseparable twin brothers", a reference to the disputed Durand Line border between the two states. In December 2007, Karzai and his delegates travelled to Islamabad , Pakistan, for a usual meeting with Pervez Musharraf on trade ties and intelligence sharing between the two Islamic states. Karzai also met and had a 45-minute talk with Benazir Bhutto on the morning of 27 December, hours before her trip to Liaquat National Bagh , where she was assassinated after her speech. After Bhutto's death, Karzai called her his sister and a brave woman who had a clear vision "for her own country, for Afghanistan, and for the region – a vision of democracy, prosperity, and peace." In September 2008, Karzai was invited on a special visit to witness the sworn in ceremony of Asif Ali Zardari , who became the President of Pakistan . Relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan have improved after the PPP party took over in 2008. The two nations often make contacts with one another concerning the war on terrorism and trade. Pakistan even allowed NATO forces stationed in Afghanistan to launch attacks on militant groups in Pakistan. This was something strongly opposed by the previous government of Pakistan. The two states finally signed into law the long-awaited Afghanistan–Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement in 2011, intended to improve trade.
Karzai believes that Iran is a friend although the U.S. often claims that neighboring Iran is meddling in Afghanistan's affairs.
In 2007, Karzai said that Iran, so far, had been a helper in the reconstruction process. He acknowledged in 2010 that the Government of Iran had been providing millions of dollars directly to his office. In October 2007, Karzai again rejected Western accusations against Iran, stating, "We have resisted the negative propaganda launched by foreign states against the Islamic Republic, and we stress that aliens' propaganda should not leave a negative impact on the consolidated ties between the two great nations of Iran and Afghanistan." Karzai added, "The two Iranian and Afghan nations are close to each other due to their bonds and commonalities, they belong to the same house, and they will live alongside each other for good." Barack Obama meets with Karzai at the Presidential Palace in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Some international criticism has centered around the government of Karzai in early 2009 for failing to secure the country from Taliban attacks, systemic governmental corruption, and widespread claims of electoral fraud in the 2009 Afghan presidential election . Karzai staunchly defended the election balloting, stating that some statements criticizing the balloting and vote count were "totally fabricated." He told the media that, "There were instances of fraud, no doubt... There were irregularities... But the election as a whole was good and free and democratic." He further went on to say that, " Afghanistan has its separate problems and we have to handle them as Afghanistan finds it feasible... This country was completely destroyed... Today, we are talking about fighting corruption in Afghanistan, improved legal standards... You see the glass half empty or half full. I see it as half full. Others see it as half empty."
In June 2010, Karzai travelled to Japan for a five-day visit where the two nations discussed a new aid provided by the hosting nation and the untapped mineral resources recently announced. Karzai invited Japanese companies such as Mitsubishi and others to invest in Afghan mining projects. He told Japanese officials that Japan would be given priority in the bid to explore its resources. He stated, "morally, Afghanistan should give access as a priority to those countries that have helped Afghanistan massively in the past few years." While in Japan, Karzai also made his first visit to Hiroshima to pray for the atomic bomb victims. Japan has provided billions of dollars in aid to Afghanistan since the beginning of 2002.
Relations between Karzai and India have always been friendly; he attended university there. Afghanistan– India relations began getting stronger in 2011, especially after the death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan. In October 2011, Karzai signed a strategic partnership agreement with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh . During his speech at the _RK Mishra Memorial_ in New Delhi, Karzai told the audience that "The signing of the strategic partnership with India is not directed against any country. It is not directed against any other entity. This is for Afghanistan to benefit from the strength of India."
Many people have plotted to assassinate Karzai in the last decade, especially the Taliban's Quetta Shura and the Haqqani network which allegedly receives support and guidance from Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) spy network. As recent as October 2011, while Karzai was visiting India to sign an important strategic partnership agreement with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Afghan agents of the National Directorate of Security (NDS) arrested 6 people in Kabul for planning to assassinate Karzai. Among those involved in the assassination plot were four Kabul University students and one of its professors, Dr. Aimal Habib, as well as Mohibullah Ahmadi who was one of the guards outside the Presidential Palace in Kabul. The alleged group of assassins were associates of al Qaida and the Haqqani network, and were paid $150,000 by Pakistani-based Islamic terrorists. A U.S. official said that "Our understanding is that the threat against President Karzai was real, was credible, but it was only in the early stages of planning." The following is a list of other failed assassination attempts:
* 5 September 2002: An assassination attempt was made on Karzai in
the city of Kandahar. A gunman wearing the uniform of the new Afghan
National Army opened fire, wounding
Gul Agha Sherzai (former governor
of Kandahar) and an American
Special Operations officer. The gunman,
one of the President's bodyguards, and a bystander who knocked down
the gunman were killed when Karzai's American bodyguards returned
fire. Some pictures of the United States Naval
Development Group (DEVGRU) responding to the attempt have surfaced.
* 16 September 2004: An attempted assassination on Karzai took place
when a rocket missed the helicopter he was flying in while en route to
the city of
Gardez in eastern Afghanistan.
* 10 June 2007:
PERSONAL LIFE AND TRIBAL LINEAGE
In 1999, Hamid Karzai married Zeenat Quraishi , a gynaecologist by profession who was working as a doctor with Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. They have a son, Mirwais, who was born in January 2007, a daughter, Malalai, born in 2012 and another daughter, Howsi, born in March 2014 in Gurgaon , India . He became father once again at the age of 58 when another daughter was born in September 2016 in Apollo Hospital, New Delhi. According to a declaration of his assets by an anti-graft body, Karzai earns $525 monthly and has less than $20,000 in bank accounts. Karzai does not own any land or property.
Karzai has six brothers, including Mahmood Karzai and Qayum Karzai , as well as Ahmed Wali Karzai , deceased, who was the representative for the southern Afghanistan region. Qayum is also the founder of the _Afghans for a Civil Society_. Karzai has one sister, Fauzia Karzai . The family owns and operates several successful Afghan restaurants in the East Coast of the United States and in Chicago.
In initial biographical news reporting, there was confusion regarding
his clan lineage; it was written that his paternal lineage derived
from the Sadozai clan. This confusion might have arisen from sources
stating he was chosen as the tribal chief , or Khan , of the Popalzai.
Karzai is believed to be from the Shamizai subtribe of the Popalzais.
His grandfather, Khair Muhammad Karzai, was a head of the Popalzai
Kandahar who relocated to
Kabul and ran the business of a
guest house. This allowed Karzai's father Abdul Ahad, to gain a
foothold in the royal family, and subsequently, the parliament. These
actions and upwards movement within the
HONORARY DEGREES AND AWARDS
Over the years Hamid Karzai has become a well recognized figure. He has received a number of awards and honorary degrees from famous government and educational institutions around the world. The following are some of his awards and honoraria.
* A commemorative medallion of 11 September 2001 attacks from the United States House of Representatives , presented to him by member of the House Jack Kingston on 29 January 2002. * An honorary doctorate in literature from Himachal Pradesh University in India, his alma mater, on 7 March 2003. * In June 2003, Karzai was created an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George by Queen Elizabeth II . * On 4 July 2004, Karzai was awarded the Philadelphia Liberty Medal in Philadelphia , Pennsylvania. In his acceptance speech, Karzai stated: _"Where Liberty dies, evil grows. We Afghans have learned from our historical experiences that liberty does not come easily. We profoundly appreciate the value of liberty...for we have paid for it with our lives. And we will defend liberty with our lives."_ * On 22 May 2005, received an honorary Doctor of Laws Degree from Boston University . * On 25 May 2005, received an honorary degree from the Center for Afghan Studies at the University of Nebraska — Omaha . * On 25 September 2006, received an honorary Doctor of Laws Degree from Georgetown University . * In June 2012, received an honorary Doctorate from Nippon Sports Science University. * Lovely Professional University conferred honorary Doctorate on Karzai on 20 May 2013
In August 2011, Karzai pardoned dozens of child would-be suicide bombers, and in February 2012 some of the pardoned children were re-arrested attempting to commit suicide bombings in Kandahar Province .
The other main areas of criticism surrounding President Karzai involve nepotism, corruption, electoral fraud, and the involvement of his late half brother Ahmed Wali Karzai in the drug trade.
Under Karzai's administration, electoral fraud was so apparent that Afghanistan's status as a democratic state came into question. Furthermore, a special court set up personally by Karzai in defiance of constitutional norms sought to reinstate dozens of candidates who were removed for fraud in the 2010 parliamentary elections by the Independent Electoral Commission.
FINANCIAL TIES WITH CIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF IRAN
On 28 April 2013, _ The New York Times _ revealed that from December 2002 up to the publication date, Karzai's presidential office qa funded with "tens of millions of dollars" of black cash from the CIA in order to buy influence within the Afghan government . The article stated that "the cash that does not appear to be subject to the oversight and restrictions." An unnamed American official was quoted by _The New York Times_ as stating that "The biggest source of corruption in Afghanistan was the United States."
On 17 June 2013, Senator Bob Corker put a hold on $75 million intended for electoral programs in Afghanistan after his inquiries of 2 May, 14 May and 13 June to the Obama Administration regarding the CIA "ghost money" remained unanswered.
Karzai also admitted that his office received millions of dollars in cash from the Iranian government. Karzai stated that the money was given as gifts and intended for renovating his Presidential Palace in Kabul."This is transparent. This is something that I've even discussed while I was at Camp David with President Bush."
Main article: Corruption in Afghanistan
According to _ The New York Times _, many members of the Karzai family have mixed their personal interests with that of the state, and become hugely influential and wealthy by murky means. In 2012 Afghanistan was tied with Somalia and North Korea at the bottom of Transparency International 's Corruption Perception Index , and it ranked 172/175 in 2014.
Mahmoud Karzai , the brother of President Karzai, was implicated in the 2010 Kabul Bank crisis. Mahmud Karzai was the 3rd largest shareholder in the bank with a 7% stake. Kabul Bank incurred huge losses on its investments in villas in Palm Jumeirah in Dubai . The real estate investments were registered in the name of Kabul Bank chairman, Sherkhan Farnood. Mahmud Karzai bought one such villa from Farnood for 7 million dirhams using money borrowed from Kabul Bank and in a matter of months sold it for 10.4 million dirhams. Mahmud Karzai's purchase of the 7% stake in Kabul Bank was also financed entirely through money lent by Kabul Bank with the shares as collateral.
Karzai has admitted that there is widespread corruption in Afghanistan, but has blamed the problem largely on the way contracts are awarded by the international community, and said that the "perception of corruption" is a deliberate attempt to weaken the Afghan government.
There has been much debate over Karzai's alleged consultant work with Unocal (Union Oil Company of California since acquired by Chevron in 2005). In 2002, when Karzai became the subject of heavy media coverage as one of the front runners to lead Afghanistan, it was reported that he was a former consultant for them. Spokesmen for both Unocal and Karzai have denied any such relationship, although Unocal could not speak for all companies involved in the consortium. The original claim that Karzai worked for Unocal originates from a 6 December 2001 issue of the French newspaper Le Monde , Barry Lane UNOCAL's manager for public relations states in an interview on the website Emperor's Clothes that, "He was never a consultant, never an employee. We've exhaustively searched through all our records." Lane however did say that Zalmay Khalilzad , the former United States Ambassador to the United Nations , was a Unocal consultant in the mid-1990s.
In October 2013, Karzai's administration and the Afghanistan
Intelligence agency were found to be communicating with the Pakistani
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