HAMAS (Arabic : حماس _Ḥamās_, an acronym of حركة
المقاومة الاسلامية _Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah
al-ʾIslāmiyyah_ Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni
-Islamic fundamentalist organization. It has a social service wing,
Dawah , and a military wing, the
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades . It
has been the _de facto_ governing authority of the
Gaza Strip since
its takeover of that area in 2007. During this period it fought
several wars with
Israel . It is regarded, either in whole or in
part, as a terrorist organization by several countries and
international organizations , most notably by
Israel , the United
States and the
European Union .
Hamas was founded in 1987, soon after the
First Intifada broke out,
as an offshoot of the Egyptian
Muslim Brotherhood , which in its
Gaza branch had been non-confrontational towards Israel, refrained
from resistance, and was hostile to the PLO. Co-founder Sheik Ahmed
Yassin stated in 1987, and the
Hamas Charter affirmed in 1988, that
Hamas was founded to liberate Palestine , including modern-day Israel,
Israeli occupation and to establish an
Islamic state in the area
that is now Israel, the
West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The group has
stated that it may accept a 10-year truce if
Israel withdraws to the
1967 borders and allows
Palestinian refugees from 1948 , including
their descendants, to return to what is now Israel, although
clarifying that this does not mean recognition of
Israel or the end of
the conflict. Hamas's military wing objected to the truce offer.
Analysts have said that it seems clear that
Hamas knows that many of
its conditions for the truce could never be met.
The military wing of
Hamas has launched attacks against Israeli
civilians and soldiers, often describing them as retaliatory, in
particular for assassinations of the upper echelon of their
leadership. Tactics have included suicide bombings and, since 2001,
rocket attacks . Hamas's rocket arsenal, though mainly consisting
of short-range homemade Qassam rockets , also includes long-range
weapons that have reached major Israeli cities including
Tel Aviv and
Haifa . The attacks on civilians have been condemned as war crimes
and crimes against humanity by human rights groups such as Human
Rights Watch . A 2017 Palestinian Center for Public Opinion poll in
Palestinian territories revealed that
Hamas violence and rhetoric
Israelis are unpopular and that a majority of Palestinians
Hamas "accept a permanent two-state solution based on the
In the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections,
Hamas won a
plurality in the Palestinian Parliament, defeating the PLO
Fatah party. Following the elections, the Quartet (the
United States, Russia, United Nations, and European Union) made future
foreign assistance to the PA conditional upon the future government's
commitment to non-violence, recognition of the state of Israel, and
acceptance of previous agreements.
Hamas rejected those changes, which
led to the Quartet suspending its foreign assistance program and
Israel imposing economic sanctions on the Hamas-led administration.
In March 2007, a national unity government headed by Prime Minister
Ismail Haniyeh of
Hamas was briefly formed, but this failed to restart
international financial assistance. Tensions over control of
Palestinian security forces soon erupted in the
2007 Battle of Gaza ,
Hamas took control of Gaza, while its officials were
ousted from government positions in the West Bank.
Israel and Egypt
then imposed an economic blockade of the
Gaza Strip , on the grounds
Fatah forces were no longer providing security there. In 2011,
Fatah announced a reconciliation agreement that provides for
creation of a joint caretaker Palestinian government. Progress
stalled, until an April 2014 agreement to form a compromise unity
government, with elections to be held in late 2014.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Aims
* 3 Leadership and structure
* 3.1 Consultative councils
* 3.2 Social Services Wing
* 3.3 Military wing
* 4 Finances and funding
* 5 History
* 5.1 Gaza Islamic roots and establishment of
Hamas Charter (1988)
* 5.3 1990s
* 5.5 2006 presidential and legislative elections
* 5.6 Legislative policy and reforming the judiciary
* 5.7 Public freedoms and citizen rights
* 5.8 Hamas–
* 5.9 2008–2009 Gaza War
* 5.10 After the Gaza War
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
* 6 Media
* 6.1 Children\'s magazine
* 7.1 In the
* 7.2 In the
* 7.3 Tayyip Erdoğan\'s
Turkey as a role model
Antisemitism and anti-Zionism
Hamas Charter (1988)
* 8.2 Statements by
Hamas members and clerics to an Arab audience
* 8.3 Statements by
Hamas members and clerics to an international
* 8.4 Statements on the
* 9 Violence and terrorism
* 9.1 Attacks on civilians
* 9.2 Rocket attacks on
* 9.3 Attempts to derail 2010 peace talks
* 9.4 Themes of martyrdom
* 9.6 Extrajudicial killings of rivals
* 9.7 2011–2013
* 9.8 International designations as a terrorist organization
* 10 Criticism
* 10.1 Human shields
* 10.2 Children as combatants
* 10.3 Political freedoms
Human rights abuses
* 11 International support
* 11.2 U.S.-based support
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 13.1 Bibliography
* 14 External links
_Hamas_ is an acronym of the Arabic phrase حركة المقاومة
الاسلامية or _Harakat al-Muqāwama al-Islāmiyya_, meaning
"Islamic Resistance Movement". The Arabic word 'hamas' (حماس)
means "courage" or "zeal". The
Hamas covenant interprets its name to
mean "strength and bravery".
Hamas, as its name (Islamic Resistance Movement) implies, aims to
liberate Palestine from the
Israeli occupation by resisting it. And
Hamas armed branch
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades :
To contribute in the effort of liberating Palestine and restoring
the rights of the
Palestinian people under the sacred Islamic
teachings of the
Holy Quran , the
Sunnah (traditions) of Prophet
Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) and the
traditions of Muslims rulers and scholars noted for their piety and
Al-Qassam Brigades aims to liberate all of Palestine from what they
Zionist occupation, and to achieve the rights of the
Palestinian people that were robbed by the occupation, and it consider
itself part of the movement of a project of national liberation.
LEADERSHIP AND STRUCTURE
Map of key
Hamas leadership nodes. 2010 Longtime leader,
Hamas inherited from its predecessor a tripartite structure that
consisted in the provision of social services, of religious training
and military operations under a
Shura Council. Traditionally it had
four distinct functions: (a) a charitable social welfare division
(_dawah_); (b) a military division for procuring weapons and
undertaking operations (_al-
Mujahideen al Filastinun_); (c) a security
service (_Jehaz Aman_); and (d) a media branch (_A’alam_). Hamas
has both an internal leadership within the
West Bank and the Gaza
Strip, and an external leadership, split between a Gaza group directed
Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook from his exile first in
then in Egypt, and a Kuwaiti group (_Kuwaidia_) under
Khaled Mashal .
The Kuwaiti group of Palestinian exiles began to receive extensive
funding from the Gulf States after its leader Mashal broke with Yasser
Arafat 's decision to side with
Saddam Hussein in the Invasion of
Kuwait , with Mashal insisting that Iraq withdraw. On 6 May 2017,
Shura Council chose
Ismail Haniya to become the new leader, to
The exact nature of the organization is unclear, secrecy being
maintained for fear of Israeli assassinations and to conceal
operational activities. Formally,
Hamas maintains the wings are
separate and independent.
Matthew Levitt maintains this is a public
myth. Davis argues that they are both separate and combined for
reasons of internal and external political necessity. Communication
between the political and military wings of
Hamas is difficult, owing
to the thoroughness of Israeli intelligence surveillance and the
existence of an extensive base of informants. After the assassination
Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi the occasional political direction of the
militant wing diminished, with field commanders given discretional
autonomy on operations.
The governing body is the
Majlis al-Shura . The principle behind the
Council is based on the Qur\'anic concept of consultation and popular
assembly (_shura _), which
Hamas leaders argue provides for democracy
within an Islamic framework. As the organization grew more complex
and Israeli pressure increased it needed a broader base for decisions,
Shura Council was renamed the 'General Consultative Council',
elected from members of local council groups and this in turn elected
Politburo (_al-Maktab al-Siyasi_) that made decisions at
the highest level. Representatives come from Gaza, the West Bank,
leaders in exile and Israeli prisons . This organ was located in
Damascus until the
Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War led it to transfer to
January 2012, when
Hamas sided with the civil opposition against the
Bashar al-Assad .
SOCIAL SERVICES WING
Hamas developed its social welfare programme by replicating the model
established by Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood.For them, charity and the
development of one's community are prescribed by religion, and, at the
same time, are to be understood as forms of resistance. In Islamic
tradition _dawah_ (lit.'the call to God') obliges the faithful to
reach out to others by both proselytising and by charitable works, and
typically the latter centre on the mosques which make use of both waqf
endowment resources and charitable donations (zakat ) to fund
grassroots services like nurseries, schools, orphanages, soup
kitchens, women's activities, library services and even sporting clubs
within a larger context of preaching and political discussions. In
the 1990s, some 85% of its budget was allocated to the provision of
social services. It has been called perhaps the most significant
social services actor in Palestine. By 2000 it or its affiliated
charities ran roughly 40% of the social institutions in the West Bank
and Gaza and, with other Islamic charities, by 2005 was supporting
120,000 individuals with monthly financial support in Gaza. Part of
the appeal of these institutions is that they fill a vacuum in the
administration by the PLO of the Palestinian territories, which had
failed to cater to the demand for jobs and broad social services, and
is widely viewed as corrupt. As late as 2005, the budget of Hamas,
drawing on global charity contributions, was mostly tied up in
covering running expenses for its social programmes, which extended
from the supply of housing, food and water for the needy to more
general functions like financial aid, medical assistance, educational
development and religious instruction. A certain accounting
flexibility allowed these funds to cover both charitable causes and
military operations, permitting transfer from one to the other.
The _dawah_ infrastructure itself was understood, within the
Palestinian context, as providing the soil from which a militant
opposition to the occupation would flower. In this regard it differs
from the rival Palestinian Islamic
Jihad which lacks any social
welfare network, and relies on spectacular terrorist attacks to
recruit adherents. In 2007, through funding from Iran,
to allocate at a cost of $60 million, monthly stipends of $100 for
100,000 workers, and a similar sum for 3,000 fishermen laid idle by
Israel\'s imposition of restrictions on fishing offshore, plus grants
totalling $45 million to detainees and their families. Matthew Levitt
Hamas grants to people are subject to a rigorous
cost-benefit analysis of how beneficiaries will support Hamas, with
those linked to terrorist activities receiving more than others.
Israel holds the families of suicide bombers accountable and bulldozes
their homes, whereas the families of
Hamas activists who have been
killed or wounded during militant operations are given an initial,
one-time grant varying between $500–$5,000, together with a $100
monthly allowance. Rent assistance is also given to families whose
homes have been destroyed by Israeli bombing though families
Hamas are said to receive less.
Until 2007, these activities extended to the West Bank, but, after a
PLO crackdown, now continue exclusively in the Gaza Strip. After the
2013 Egyptian coup d\'état deposed the elected Muslim Brotherhood
Mohamed Morsi in 2013,
Hamas found itself in a financial
straightjacket and has since endeavoured to throw the burden of
responsibility for public works infrastructure in the
Gaza Strip back
onto the Palestinian National Authority, but without success.
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, Hamas's military wing was formed
in either mid-1991 or 1992, under the direction of
Yahya Ayyash , a
Hamas field-commander and bomb-maker assassinated by
Israel in 1996.
It was constituted from units associated with the earlier _al-
Da’wa_, an umbrella group that had gathered in militants from
various Islamic resistance cells like the _Al-Mujahidun
al-Filastiniun_ (Palestinian fighters). established by Salah Shehade
The wing takes its name from the prewar militant Palestinian
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam , though
Hamas cells sometimes
refer to themselves as "Students of Ayyash", "Students of the
Engineer", or "
Yahya Ayyash Units". At the outset, weapons were hard
to come by, and the organization began to resort to intermittent
kidnappings of soldiers to secure arms and munitions. This approach
had been justified two years earlier when, in the wake of the killing
of some 20 Palestinians were killed by Israeli forces dispersing
protestors at the
Al-Aqsa Mosque in 1990,
Hamas had declared every
Israeli soldier a legitimate target. Weapons found in a mosque
during Operation Cast Lead, according to the IDF
Ayyash, with a degree in electrical engineering, quickly improved
Hamas's strike capacity by developing IEDs and promoting the tactic of
suicide bombings. By the time of the Al-Aqsa Intifada, Hamas's
laboratories had devised a primitive form of rocketry, the Qassam 1,
which they first launched in October 2000, carrying a 500 gram warhead
with a throw range of 4 kilometres. Both propellant and the explosive
were manufactured from chemical fertilizers, though TNT was also
tried. Over the next five years of the conflict, a
3-kilogram-warhead-armed version with a strike range of 6–8
kilometres, the Qassam 2, was also produced and in an incremental
rise, these rocket types were fired towards Israeli settlements along
the Gaza Strip: 4 in 2001, 35 in 2002, 155 in 2003, 281 in 2004, and
179 in 2005. By 2005, the Qassam 3 had been engineered with a 12–14
kilometre range and a 15 kilo warhead. By 2006, 942 such rockets were
launched into southern Israel. During the War with
Hamas deployed 122-mm Grad rocketry with a 20–40
kilometre range and a 30 kilogram warhead and a variety of guided
Kornet antitank missiles. By 2012
Hamas had engineered a version of
Fajr-5 rocket, which was capable of reaching as far as
Tel Aviv ,
as was shown after the assassination of
Ahmed Jabari in that year. In
the 2014 war its advanced rocketry reached Jerusalem,
Tel Aviv and
Hamas deployed its increasingly sophisticated rocketry to
replace its martyrdom operations.
While the number of members is known only to the Brigades leadership,
Israel estimates the Brigades have a core of several hundred members
who receive military style training , including training in Iran and
Syria (before the Syrian Civil War). Additionally, the brigades
have an estimated 10,000-17,000 operatives, forming a backup force
whenever circumstances call for reinforcements for the Brigade.
Recruitment training lasts for two years.
The group's ideology outlines its aim as the liberation of Palestine
and the restoration of Palestinian rights under the dispensations set
forth in the Qur'an, and this translates into three policy priorities:
To evoke the spirit of
Jihad (Resistance) among Palestinians, Arabs,
and Muslims; to defend Palestinians and their land against the Zionist
occupation and its manifestations; to liberate Palestinians and their
land that was usurped by the
Zionist occupation forces and settlers.
According to its official stipulations, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
Brigades' military operations are to be restricted to operating only
inside Palestine, engaging with Israeli soldiers, and in exercising
the right of self-defense against armed settlers. They are to avoid
civilian targets, to respect the enemy's humanity by refraining from
mutilation, defacement or excessive killing, and to avoid targeting
Westerners either in the occupied zones or beyond.
Hamas altered its approach restricting actions to
'legitimate military targets' by extended them to Israeli civilians
after 7 years. Though between 1996 and 2001 it generally refrained
from targeting Israeli civilians, it adopted sporadic suicide
bombings in the wake of the
Cave of the Patriarchs massacre , when an
Israeli settler in military fatigues,
Baruch Goldstein , shot dead 29
Muslims at prayer in 1993. After the Al Aqsa revolt, the Brigades
were behind most of the suicide bombings in Israel, a measure it
defended as a form of "reciprocity".
Down to 2007, the Brigades are estimated to have lost some 800
operatives in conflicts with Israeli forces. The leadership has been
consistently undermined by targeted assassinations. Aside from Yahya
Ayyash (5 January 1996), it has lost
Emad Akel (24 November 1993)
Salah Shehade , (23 July 2002),
Ibrahim al-Makadmeh , (8 March 2003)
Ismail Abu Shanab , (21 August 2003)
Ahmed Yassin (March 22, 2004) and
Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi ,( April 17, 2004).,
Israel arrested hundreds of its members in May 1989, Hamas
regionalized its command system to make its operative structure more
diffuse, and minimalize the chances of being detected. The Izz
ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades groups its fighters in 4-5 man cells, which
in turn are integrated into companies and battalions. Unlike the
political section, which is split between an internal and external
structure, the Brigades are under a local Palestinian leadership, and
disobedience with the decisions taken by the political leadership have
been relatively rare.
Although the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades are an integral part of
Hamas, the exact nature of the relationship is hotly debated. They
appear to operate at times independently of Hamas, exercising a
certain autonomy. Some cells have independent links with the
external leadership, enabling them to bypass the hierarchical command
chain and political leadership in Gaza. Ilana Kass and Bard O'Neill,
likening Hamas's relationship with the Brigades to the political party
Sinn Féin 's relationship to the military arm of the Irish Republican
Army . quote a senior
Hamas official as stating: "The Izz al-Din
al-Qassam Brigade is a separate armed military wing, which has its own
leaders who do not take their orders from
Hamas and do not tell us of
their plans in advance."
Matthew Levitt on the other hand argues
vocally for the idea that Hamas's welfare institutions act as a mere
façade or front for the financing of terrorism, and dismisses the
idea of two wings as a 'myth'. He cites Sheikh
Ahmad Yassin stating
in 1998: "We can not separate the wing from the body. If we do so, the
body will not be able to fly.
Hamas is one body."
FINANCES AND FUNDING
At the 1993 Philadelphia conference,
Hamas leaders' statements
indicated that they read
George H. W. Bush 's outline of a New World
Order as embodying a tacit aim to destroy Islam, and that therefore
funding should focus on enhancing the Islamic roots of Palestinian
society and promoting jihad in the occupying territories.
Hamas's budget, calculated to be roughly US$70 million (2011), is
derived in large part (85%) from foreign, rather than internal
Palestinian, sources. Only two Israeli-Palestinian sources figure in a
list seized in 2004, while the other contributors were donor bodies
located in Jordan, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Britain, Germany, the
United States, United Arab Emirates, Italy and France. Much of the
money raised comes from sources that direct their assistance to what
Hamas describes as its charitable work for Palestinians, but
investments in support of its ideological position are also relevant,
with Persian Gulf States and
Saudi Arabia prominent in the latter.
Matthew Levitt states that
Hamas also taps money from corporations,
criminal organizations and financial networks that support terror,
and is believed to engage in cigarette and drug smuggling, multimedia
copyright infringement and credit card fraud. Vittori states that,
more than other similar organizations, it is particularly careful
about keeping resources for its militant, political and public works
activities separate. The United States,
Israel and the EU have shut
down many charities and organs that channel money to Hamas, such as
Holy Land Foundation for Relief. Between 1992 and 2001 this group
is said to have provided $6.8 million to Palestinian charities of the
$57 million collected. By 2001 it was alleged to have given
million, and was shut down shortly afterwards.
About half of Hamas's funding came from states in the Persian Gulf
down to the mid 2000s.
Saudi Arabia supplied half of the
of $50 million in the early 2000s, but, under U.S. pressure, began
cut its funding by cracking down on Islamic charities and private
donor transfers to
Hamas in 2004, which by 2006 drastically reduced
the flow of money from that area. Iran and Syria, in the aftermath of
Hamas's 2006 electoral victory, stepped in to fill the shortfall.
Saudi funding, negotiated with third parties like Egypt, remained
Hamas as a
Sunni group but chose to provide more
assistance to the PNA, the electoral loser, when the EU responded to
the outcome by suspending its monetary aid. Iran in the 1980s began
by providing 10% of Hamas's funding, which it increased annually until
by the 1990s it supplied $30 million. It accounted for $22 million,
over a quarter of Hamas's budget, by the late 2000s. According to
Matthew Levitt, Iran preferred direct financing to operative groups
rather than charities, requiring video proof of attacks. Much of the
Iran funding is said to be channeled through
Hezbollah . After 2006
Iran's willingness to take over the burden of the shortfall created by
the drying up of Saudi funding also reflected the geopolitical
tensions between the two, since, though Shiite, Iran was supporting a
Sunni group traditionally closely linked with the Saudi kingdom. The
US imposed sanctions on Iran's Bank Saderat, alleging it had funneled
hundreds of millions to Hamas. The US has expressed concerns that for
Hamas obtains funds through Palestinian and Lebanese sympathizers of
Arab descent in the
Foz do Iguaçu area of the tri-border region of
Latin America , an area long associated with arms trading, drug
trafficking, contraband, the manufacture of counterfeit goods,
money-laundering and currency fraud. The State Department add that
confirmatory information of a
Hamas operational presence there is
After 2009, sanctions on Iran made funding difficult, forcing Hamas
to rely on religious donations by individuals in the West Bank, Qatar,
and Saudi Arabia. Funds amounting to tens of millions of dollars
raised in the Gulf states were transferred through the
Crossing . These were not sufficient to cover the costs of governing
the Strip and running the al Qassam Brigades, and when tensions arose
with Iran over support of President Assad in Syria, Iran dropped its
financial assistance to the government, restricting its funding to the
military wing, which meant a drop from $150 million in 2012 to $60
million the following year. A further drop occurred in 2015 when Hamas
expressed its criticisms of Iran's role in the Yemeni Civil War .
History of Hamas See also:
GAZA ISLAMIC ROOTS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF HAMAS
Hamas rose as an offshoot of the Gaza
Mujama al-Islamiya branch of
Muslim Brotherhood , which had been actively encouraged
Israel to expand as a counterweight to the influence of the secular
Palestine Liberation Organization . and had since 1973 been
quiescent and non-confrontational towards Israel. Aside from
developing Islamic charities to provide humanitarian assistance to
Palestinians, it emphasized social justice (_adala_) and the
subordination of the world to the sovereignty of God (_hakmiyya_).
Hamas was founded in 1987, soon after the outbreak of the First
Intifada , the first popular uprising against the Israeli occupation.
Hamas to participate in the revolt was regarded as a survival
measure to enable the Brotherhood itself, which refused to fight
against Israel, to hold its own against other competing Palestinian
nationalist groups. By forming a military wing distinct from its
social charity organizations, it was hoped that the latter would be
insulated from being targeted by Israel. Co-founder Sheik Ahmed
Yassin was convinced that
Israel was endeavouring to destroy Islam,
and concluded that loyal Muslims had a religious obligation into
destroy Israel. The short term goal of
Hamas was to liberate
Palestine , including modern-day Israel, from
Israeli occupation . The
long-term aim sought to establish an
Islamic state from the Jordan
River to the Mediterranean Sea.
HAMAS CHARTER (1988)
The foundational document, the
Hamas Charter (_mīthāq ḥarakat_),
is dated 18 August 1988, and contains bothantisemitic passages,
characterizations of Israeli society as Nazi-like in its cruelty, and
irredentist claims that have never been revoked despite what some
observers say are later policy changes in the organization regarding
Israel, and the Jews, It declares all of Palestine waqf property
endowed by God to Muslims, with religious coexistence under Islam's
wing. The charter rejects a two-state solution , envisaging no
peaceful settlement of the conflict apart from jihad . It states
that the movement's aim is to
raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine, for under the
Islam followers of all religions can coexist in security and
safety where their lives, possessions and rights are concerned'
and adds that, 'when our enemies usurp some Islamic lands, jihad
becomes a duty binding on all Muslims, for which the whole of the
land is non-negotiable, a position likened, without the racist
sentiments present in the
Hamas charter, to that in the
platform and in movements like
Gush Emunim . For Hamas, to concede
territory is seen as equivalent to renouncing
Decades down the line, Hamas's official position changed with regard
to a two-state solution.
Khaled Mashaal , its leader, has publicly
affirmed the movement's readiness to accept such a division. When
Hamas won a majority in the 2006 Palestinian legislative election ,
Haniyeh, then president-elect, sent messages to both George Bush and
Israel's leaders asking to be recognized and offering a long-term
truce (hudna ), along the 1967 border lines. No response was
Mousa Marzook said in 2007 that the charter could not be altered
because it would look like a compromise not acceptable to the 'street'
and risk fracturing the party's unity.
Khaled Meshaal has
stated that the Charter is "a piece of history and no longer relevant,
but cannot be changed for internal reasons".
Ahmed Yousef , senior
Ismail Haniyeh , added in 2011 that it reflected the views
of the Elders in the face of a 'relentless occupation.' The details of
its religious and political language had not been examined within the
framework of international law, and an internal committee review to
amend it was shelved out of concern not to offer concessions to
Israel, as had Fatah, on a silver platter. While Hamas
representatives recognize the problem, one official notes that Arafat
got very little in return for changing the PLO Charter under the Oslo
Accords, and that there is agreement that little is gained from a
non-violent approach. Richard Davis says the dismissal by
contemporary leaders of its relevance and yet the suspension of a
desire to rewrite it reflects the differing constituencies
address, the domestic audience and international relations. The
charter itself is considered an 'historical relic.'
In March 2006,
Hamas released its official legislative program. The
document clearly signaled that
Hamas could refer the issue of
Israel to a national referendum. Under the heading
"Recognition of Israel," it stated simply (AFP, 3/11/06): "The
question of recognizing
Israel is not the jurisdiction of one faction,
nor the government, but a decision for the Palestinian people." This
was a major shift away from their 1988 charter. A few months later,
University of Maryland 's Jerome Segal, the group sent a letter to
George W. Bush stating they "don't mind having a
Palestinian state in the 1967 borders", and asked for direct
negotiations: "Segal emphasized that a state within the 1967 borders
and a truce for many years could be considered Hamas's _de facto_
recognition of Israel."
In an April 2008 meeting between
Khaled Mashal and
former U.S. President
Jimmy Carter , an understanding was reached in
Hamas agreed it would respect the creation of a Palestinian
state in the territory seized by
Israel in the 1967
Six-Day War ,
provided this were ratified by the
Palestinian people in a referendum.
Hamas later publicly offered a long-term truce with
Israel if Israel
agreed to return to its
1967 borders and grant the "right of return"
Palestinian refugees . In November 2008,
Hamas leader Ismail
Haniyeh re-stated that
Hamas was willing to accept a Palestinian state
within the 1967 borders, and offered
Israel a long-term truce "if
Israel recognized the Palestinians' national rights". In 2009, in a
letter to UN Secretary General
Ban Ki-moon , Haniyeh repeated his
group's support for a two-state settlement based on 1967 borders: "We
would never thwart efforts to create an independent Palestinian state
with borders June 4, 1967, with
Jerusalem as its capital." On
December 1, 2010,
Ismail Haniyeh again repeated, "We accept a
Palestinian state on the borders of 1967, with
Jerusalem as its
capital, the release of Palestinian prisoners, and the resolution of
the issue of refugees," and "
Hamas will respect the results
regardless of whether it differs with its ideology and principles."
In February 2012, according to the Palestinian authority, Hamas
forswore the use of violence. Evidence for this was provided by an
eruption of violence from Islamic
Jihad in March 2012 after an Israeli
assassination of a
Jihad leader, during which
Hamas refrained from
attacking Israel. "Israel—despite its mantra that because
sovereign in Gaza it is responsible for what goes on there—almost
seems to understand," wrote Israeli journalists Avi Issacharoff and
Amos Harel, "and has not bombed
Hamas offices or installations".
Israel has rejected some truce offers by
Hamas because it contends
the group uses them to prepare for more fighting rather than peace.
The Atlantic _ magazine columnist
Jeffrey Goldberg , along with other
Hamas may be incapable of permanent reconciliation
with Israel. Mkhaimer Abusada , a political scientist at Al Azhar
University , writes that
Hamas talks "of hudna , not of peace or
reconciliation with Israel. They believe over time they will be strong
enough to liberate all historic Palestine."
Hamas carried out its first attack against
Israel in 1989, abducting
and killing two soldiers. The
Israel Defense Forces immediately
arrested Yassin and sentenced him to life in prison, and deported 400
Hamas activists, including Zahar, to
South Lebanon , which at the time
was occupied by Israel. During this time
Hamas built a relationship
Hezbollah . Hamas's military branch, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
Brigades, was created in 1991. During the 1990s the al-Qassam
Brigades conducted numerous attacks on Israel, with both civilian and
military victims. In April 1993, suicide bombings in the West Bank
began. After the February 1994 massacre by
Baruch Goldstein of 30
Muslim civilians in a Hebron mosque, the al-Qassam Brigades began
suicide attacks inside Israel.
In December 1992
Israel responded to the killing of a border police
officer by deporting 415 leading figures of
Hamas and Islamic
Lebanon, which provoked international condemnation and a unanimous UN
Security Council resolution condemning the action. Although the
suicide attacks by the al-Qassam Brigades and other groups violated
Oslo accords (which
Hamas opposed ), Palestinian Authority
Yasser Arafat was reluctant to pursue the attackers and may
have had inadequate means to do so. Some analysts state that the
Palestinian Authority could have stopped the suicide and other attacks
on civilians but refused to do so. According to the Congressional
Research Service ,
Hamas admitted to having executed Palestinians
accused of collaborating with Israeli authorities in the 1990s. A
transcript of a training film by the al-Qassam Brigades tells how
Hamas operatives kidnapped Palestinians accused of collaboration and
then forced confessions before executing them. In 1996,
Yahya Ayash ,
the chief bombmaker of
Hamas and the leader of the
West Bank battalion
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, was assassinated by the Israeli
secret service .
In September 1997, Israeli agents in
Jordan attempted but failed to
Khaled Mashal , leading to chilled relations
between the two countries and release of Sheikh Yassin, Hamas's
spiritual leader, from Israeli prison. Two years later
Jordan , reportedly in part at the request of the United
States, Israel, and the
Palestinian Authority . Jordan's King
Abdullah feared the activities of
Hamas and its Jordanian allies would
jeopardize peace negotiations with Israel, and accused
engaging in illegitimate activities within Jordan. In mid-September
1999, authorities arrested
Khaled Mashal and Ibrahim
Ghosheh on their return from a visit to Iran, and charged them with
being members of an illegal organization, storing weapons, conducting
military exercises, and using
Jordan as a training base. Hamas
leaders denied the charges. Mashal was exiled and eventually settled
in Syria. He fled to
Qatar in 2012 as a result of the Syrian civil war
The aftermath of a bus bombing in
Haifa in 2003.
Al-Qassam Brigades militants were among the armed groups that
launched both military-style attacks and suicide bombings against
Israeli civilian and military targets during the
Second Intifada (also
known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (Arabic : انتفاضة
الأقصى, _Intifāḍat El Aqṣa_; Hebrew :
אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה, _Intifādat El-Aqtzah_), which
began in late September 2000. This Palestinian uprising against
Israeli rule in the occupied territories was much more violent than
First Intifada . The military and civilian death toll is estimated
at 5500 Palestinians and more than 1100 Israelis, as well as 64
foreigners. A 2007 study of Palestinian suicide bombings during the
second intifada (September 2000 through August 2005) found that about
40 percent were carried out by the al-Qassam Brigades.
The immediate trigger for the uprising is disputed, but a more
general cause, writes U.S. political science professor Jeremy
Pressman, was "popular Palestinian discontent grew during the Oslo
peace process because the reality on the ground did not match the
expectations created by the peace agreements".
Hamas would be the
beneficiary of this growing discontent in the 2006 Palestinian
Authority legislative elections.
In January 2004,
Hamas leader Sheikh
Ahmed Yassin said that the group
would end armed resistance against
Israel in exchange for a
Palestinian state in the
West Bank ,
Gaza Strip , and east
and that restoring Palestinians' "historical rights" (relating to the
1948 Palestinian exodus ) "would be left for future generations". On
January 25, 2004, senior
Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi offered
a 10-year truce, or _hudna _, in return for the establishment of a
Palestinian state and the complete withdrawal by
Israel from the
territories captured in the 1967
Six Day War
Six Day War . Al-Rantissi stated
Hamas had come to the conclusion that it was "difficult to
liberate all our land at this stage, so we accept a phased
Israel immediately dismissed al-Rantissi's statements
as insincere and a smokescreen for military preparations. Yassin was
assassinated on March 22, 2004, by a targeted Israeli air strike ,
and al-Rantisi was assassinated by a similar air strike on April 18,
2006 PRESIDENTIAL AND LEGISLATIVE ELECTIONS
Hamas boycotted the 2005 Palestinian presidential election , it
did participate in the 2005 municipal elections organized by Yasser
Arafat in the occupied territories. In those elections it won control
of over one third of Palestinian municipal councils, besting
which had for long been the biggest force in Palestinian politics. In
its election manifesto for the 2006 Palestinian legislative election ,
Hamas omitted a call for an end to Israel, though it did still call
for armed struggle against the occupation.
Hamas won the 2006
elections, winning 76 of the 132 seats to Fatah's 43. Seen by many as
primarily a rejection of the
Fatah government's corruption and
Hamas victory seemingly had brought to an end 40
years of PLO domination of Palestinian politics.
In early February 2006,
Israel a 10-year truce "in
return for a complete Israeli withdrawal from the occupied Palestinian
territories: the West Bank,
Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem," and
recognition of Palestinian rights including the "right of return".
Mashal added that
Hamas was not calling for a final end to armed
operations against Israel, and it would not impede other Palestinian
groups from carrying out such operations. After the election, the
Quartet on the Middle East (the United States, Russia, the European
Union (EU), and the United Nations) stated that assistance to the
Palestinian Authority would only continue if
Hamas renounced violence,
recognized Israel, and accepted previous Israeli-Palestinian
Hamas refused to do. The Quartet then imposed a
freeze on all international aid to the Palestinian territories. In
2006 after the Gaza election,
Hamas leader sent a letter addressed to
George W. Bush where he among other things declared that
accept a state on the
1967 borders including a truce. However, the
Bush administration did not reply.
LEGISLATIVE POLICY AND REFORMING THE JUDICIARY
"Stress the separation between the three powers, the legislative,
executive and judicial; activate the role of the Constitutional Court;
re-form the Judicial Supreme Council and choose its members by
elections and on the basis of qualifications rather than partisan,
personal, and social considerations ... ; enact the necessary laws
that guarantee the neutrality of general prosecutor ... laws that
will stop any transgression by the executive power on the
PUBLIC FREEDOMS AND CITIZEN RIGHTS
"Achieve equality before the law among citizens in rights and duties;
bring security to all citizens and protect their properties and assure
their safety against arbitrary arrest, torture, or revenge; stress the
culture of dialogue ... ; support the press and media institutions and
maintain the right of journalists to access and to publish
information; maintain freedom and independence of professional
syndicates and preserve the rights of their membership".
Fatah–Hamas conflict and
Battle of Gaza (2007)
Hamas rally in
After the formation of the Hamas-led cabinet on March 20, 2006,
Hamas militants progressively rose in the
Gaza strip as
Fatah commanders refused to take orders from the
government while the
Palestinian Authority initiated a campaign of
demonstrations, assassinations and abductions against Hamas, which led
Hamas responding. Israeli intelligence warned
Mahmoud Abbas that
Hamas had planned to kill him at his office in Gaza. According to a
Palestinian source close to Abbas,
Hamas considers president Abbas to
be a barrier to its complete control over the Palestinian Authority
and decided to kill him. In a statement to Al Jazeera,
Mohammed Nazzal, accused Abbas of being party to besieging and
isolating the Hamas-led government.
On June 9, 2006, during an Israeli artillery operation, an explosion
occurred on a busy Gaza beach, killing eight Palestinian civilians.
It was assumed that Israeli shellings were responsible for the
killings, but Israeli government officials denied this. Hamas
formally withdrew from its 16-month ceasefire on June 10, taking
responsibility for the subsequent
Qassam rocket attacks launched from
Gaza into Israel.
On June 25, two Israeli soldiers were killed and another, Gilad
Shalit , captured following an incursion by the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
Popular Resistance Committees and Army of
Islam . In
response, the Israeli military launched
Operation Summer Rains three
days later, to secure the release of the kidnapped soldier,
Hamas officials. Among them were 8 Palestinian Authority
cabinet ministers and up to 20 members of the Palestinian Legislative
Council , The arrests, along with other events, effectively prevented
the Hamas-dominated legislature from functioning during most of its
term. Shalit was held captive until 2011, when he was released in
exchange for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners. Since then,
continued building a network of internal and cross-border tunnels,
which are used to store and deploy weapons, shield militants, and
facilitate cross-border attacks. Destroying the tunnels was a primary
objective of Israeli forces in the
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict .
On February 2007 Saudi-sponsored negotiations in Mecca produced
agreement on a signed by
Mahmoud Abbas on behalf of
Fatah and Khaled
Mashal on behalf of Hamas. The new government was called on to achieve
Palestinian national goals as approved by the Palestine National
Council, the clauses of the Basic Law and the National Reconciliation
Document (the "Prisoners' Document") as well as the decisions of the
In March 2007, the
Palestinian Legislative Council established a
national unity government , with 83 representatives voting in favor
and three against. Government ministers were sworn in by Mahmoud Abbas
, the chairman of the Palestinian Authority, at a ceremony held
simultaneously in Gaza and Ramallah. In June that year, renewed
fighting broke out between
Hamas and Fatah. In the course of the June
2007 Battle of Gaza ,
Hamas exploited the near total collapse of
Palestinian Authority forces in Gaza, to seize control of Gaza,
Fatah officials. President
Mahmoud Abbas then dismissed the
Palestinian Authority government. and outlawed the Hamas
militia. At least 600 Palestinians died in fighting between
Fatah. Human Rights Watch, a U.S.-based group, accused both sides in
the conflict of torture and war crimes .
Human Rights Watch estimates several hundred Gazans were "maimed" and
tortured in the aftermath of the Gaza War. 73 Gazan men accused of
"collaborating" had their arms and legs broken by "unidentified
perpetrators" and 18 Palestinians accused of collaborating with
Israel, who had escaped from Gaza's main prison compound after Israel
bombed the facility, were executed by
Hamas security officials in the
first days of the conflict.
Hamas security forces attacked hundreds
Fatah officials who supported Israel.
Human Rights Watch interviewed
one such person:
There were eight of us sitting there. We were all from Fatah. Then
three masked militants broke in. They were dressed in brown camouflage
military uniforms; they all had guns. They pointed their guns at us
and cursed us, then they began beating us with iron rods, including a
10-year-old boy whom they hit in the face. They said we were
"collaborators" and "unfaithful".
They beat me with iron sticks and gun butts for 15 minutes. They were
yelling: "You are happy that
Israel is bombing us!" until people came
out of their houses, and they withdrew.
In March 2012
Mahmoud Abbas stated that there were no political
Fatah as they had reached agreement on a
joint political platform and on a truce with Israel. Commenting on
relations with Hamas, Abbas revealed in an interview with Al Jazeera
that "We agreed that the period of calm would be not only in the Gaza
Strip, but also in the West Bank," adding that "We also agreed on a
peaceful popular resistance , the establishment of a Palestinian state
1967 borders and that the peace talks would continue if
Israel halted settlement construction and accepted our conditions."
Progress has stalled, until an April 2014 agreement to form a
compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014.
2008–2009 GAZA WAR
Gaza War (2008–09) and
United Nations Fact Finding
Mission on the Gaza Conflict
On June 17, 2008, Egyptian mediators announced that an informal truce
had been agreed to between
Hamas and Israel.
Hamas agreed to cease
rocket attacks on Israel, while
Israel agreed to allow limited
commercial shipping across its border with Gaza , barring any
breakdown of the tentative peace deal;
Hamas also hinted that it would
discuss the release of
Gilad Shalit . Israeli sources state that
Hamas also committed itself to enforce the ceasefire on the other
Palestinian organizations. Even before the truce was agreed to, some
on the Israeli side were not optimistic about it,
Shin Bet chief Yuval
Diskin stating in May 2008 that a ground incursion into Gaza was
unavoidable and would more effectively quell arms smuggling and
Hamas into relinquishing power.
Hamas was careful to maintain the ceasefire, the lull was
sporadically violated by other groups, sometimes in defiance of Hamas.
For example, on June 24 Islamic
Jihad launched rockets at the
Israeli town of Sderot;
Israel called the attack a grave violation of
the informal truce, and closed its border crossings with Gaza. On
November 4, 2008, Israeli forces, in an attempt to stop construction
of a tunnel, killed six
Hamas gunmen in a raid inside the
Gaza Strip .
Hamas responded by resuming rocket attacks, a total of 190 rockets
in November according to Israel's military. Destroyed building
Rafah , 12 January 2009
With the six-month truce officially expired on December 19, Hamas
launched 50 to more than 70 rockets and mortars into
Israel over the
next three days, though no
Israelis were injured. On December 21,
Hamas said it was ready to stop the attacks and renew the truce if
Israel stopped its "aggression" in Gaza and opened up its border
On December 27 and 28,
Operation Cast Lead against
Hamas. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said "We warned Hamas
repeatedly that rejecting the truce would push
Israel to aggression
against Gaza." According to Palestinian officials, over 280 people
were killed and 600 were injured in the first two days of airstrikes.
Hamas police and security officers, though many civilians
also died. According to Israel, militant training camps,
rocket-manufacturing facilities and weapons warehouses that had been
pre-identified were hit, and later they attacked rocket and mortar
squads who fired around 180 rockets and mortars at Israeli
communities. Chief of Gaza police force
Tawfiq Jabber , head of the
General Security Service Salah Abu Shrakh , senior religious
authority and security officer
Nizar Rayyan , and Interior Minister
Said Seyam were among those killed during the fighting. Although
Israel sent out thousands of cell-phone messages urging residents of
Gaza to leave houses where weapons may be stored, in an attempt to
minimise civilian casualties, some residents complained there was
nowhere to go because many neighborhoods had received the same
message. Israeli bombs landed close to civilian structures such as
schools, and some alleged that
Israel was deliberately targeting
Israel declared a unilateral ceasefire on January 17, 2009. Hamas
responded the following day by announcing a one-week ceasefire to give
Israel time to withdraw its forces from the Gaza Strip. Israeli,
Palestinian, and third-party sources disagreed on the total casualty
figures from the Gaza war, and the number of Palestinian casualties
who were civilians. In November 2010, a senior
acknowledged that up to 300 fighters were killed and "In addition to
them, between 200 and 300 fighters from the
Al-Qassam Brigades and
another 150 security forces were martyred." These new numbers
reconcile the total with those of the Israeli military, which
originally said were 709 "terror operatives" killed.
AFTER THE GAZA WAR
On August 16, 2009,
Khaled Mashal stated that the
organization is ready to open dialogue with the Obama administration
because its policies are much better than those of former U.S.
George W. Bush : "As long as there's a new language, we
welcome it, but we want to see not only a change of language, but also
a change of policies on the ground. We have said that we are prepared
to cooperate with the US or any other international party that would
enable the Palestinians to get rid of occupation." Despite this, an
August 30, 2009 speech during a visit to
Jordan in which Mashal
expressed support for the
Palestinian right of return was interpreted
by David Pollock of the
Washington Institute for Near East Policy as a
sign that "
Hamas has now clearly opted out of diplomacy." In an
interview on May 2010, Mashal said that if a Palestinian state with
real sovereignty was established under the conditions he set out, on
the borders of 1967 with its capital
Jerusalem and with the right of
return, that will be the end of the Palestinian resistance, and then
the nature of any subsequent ties with
Israel would be decided
democratically by the Palestinians. In July 2009, Khaled Mashal,
Hamas's political bureau chief, stated Hamas's willingness to
cooperate with a resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict, which
included a Palestinian state based on
1967 borders , provided that
Palestinian refugees be given the right to return to
Israel and that
East Jerusalem be recognized as the new state's capital.
In 2011, after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War,
itself from the Syrian regime and its members began leaving Syria.
Where once there were "hundreds of exiled Palestinian officials and
their relatives", that number shrunk to "a few dozen". In 2012, Hamas
publicly announced its support for the
Syrian opposition . This
prompted Syrian state TV to issue a "withering attack" on the Hamas
Khaled Mashal said that
Hamas had been "forced out" of
Damascus because of its disagreements with the Syrian regime. In late
Syrian Army soldiers shot dead two
Hamas leaders in Daraa
refugee camp. On November 5, 2012, the Syrian state security forces
shut down all
Hamas offices in the country. In January 2013, another
Hamas members were found dead in Syria's Husseinieh camp.
Activists said the two had been arrested and executed by state
security forces. In 2013, it was reported that the military wing of
Hamas had begun training units of the Free
Syrian Army . In 2013,
after "several intense weeks of indirect three-way diplomacy between
representatives of Hamas, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority", no
agreement was reached. Also, intra-Palestinian reconciliation talks
stalled and, as a result, during Obama's visit to Israel, Hamas
launched five rocket strikes on Israel. In November, Isra Almodallal
was appointed the first spokeswoman of the group.
2014 ISRAEL–GAZA CONFLICT
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
On 8 July 2014
Operation Protective Edge to counter
Hamas rocket fire from Gaza. The conflict ended with a
permanent cease-fire after 7 weeks, and more than 2,200 dead. 64 of
the dead were Israeli soldiers, 7 were civilians in
rocket attacks), and 2,101 were killed in Gaza, of which according to
UN OCHA at least 1,460 were civilians.
Israel says 1,000 of the dead
were militants. Following the conflict,
Mahmoud Abbas president of the
Palestinian Authority, accused
Hamas of needlessly extending the
fighting in the Gaza Strip, contributing to the high death toll, of
running a "shadow government" in Gaza, and of illegally executing
scores of Palestinians.
Hamas has complained about the slow
delivery of reconstruction materials after the conflict and announced
that they were diverting these materials from civilian uses to build
more infiltration tunnels.
Hamas announced its intention to launch an experimental TV
Al-Aqsa TV . The station was launched on January 7, 2006,
less than three weeks before the Palestinian legislative elections .
It has shown television programs, including some children's
television, which deliver anti-semitic messages.
Hamas has stated
that the television station is "an independent media institution that
often does not express the views of the Palestinian government headed
Ismail Haniyeh or of the
Hamas movement," and that
Hamas does not
hold anti-semitic views.
Hamas produced several propaganda songs
aimed to scare Israeli citizen including Shock Israel\'s Security and
"Go, call a Gazan to rip Giv\'ati ".
Al-Fateh ("the conqueror") is the
Hamas children's magazine,
published biweekly in London, and also posted in an online website. It
began publication in September 2002, and its 108th issue was released
in mid-September 2007. The magazine features stories, poems, riddles,
and puzzles, and states it is for "the young builders of the future".
MEMRI (three of whose seven founding staff had formerly
served in the IDF), the magazine includes incitement to jihad and
martyrdom and glorification of terrorist operations and of their
planners and perpetrators. as well as characterizations of Jews as
"murderers of the prophets" and laudatory descriptions of parents who
encourage their sons to kill Jews. In each issue, a regular feature
titled "The Story of a Martyr" presents the "heroic deeds" of a
mujahid from one of the organizations who died in a suicide operation,
including operations against civilians, or who was killed by the IDF.
MEMRI also noted that the magazine includes illustrations of figures,
including child warriors, who embody the ethos of jihad and martyrdom,
presenting them as role models. These include the magazine's titular
Al-Fateh ("The Conqueror")—a small boy on a horse
brandishing a drawn scimitar—as well as children carrying guns, and
Hamas fighters launching Qassam rockets.
Al-Aqsa TV See also: Tomorrow\'s Pioneers
Al-Aqsa TV is a television channel founded by Hamas. The station
began broadcasting in the
Gaza Strip on January 9, 2006. Its
programming includes ideologically tinged children's shows, news talk,
and religiously inspired entertainment. According to the
Anti-Defamation League , the station promotes terrorist activity and
incites hatred of Jews and Israelis.
Hamas has stated that the
television station is "an independent media institution that often
does not express the views of the Palestinian government headed by
Ismail Haniyeh or of the
Hamas movement," and that
Hamas does not hold
Al-Aqsa TV is headed by
Fathi Ahmad Hammad ,
chairman of al-Ribat Communications and Artistic Productions—a
Hamas-run company that also produces Hamas's radio station, _Voice of
al-Aqsa_, and its biweekly newspaper, _The Message_.
IN THE GAZA STRIP
Islamization of the
The gender ideology outlined in the
Hamas charter, the importance of
women in the religious-nationalist project of liberation is asserted,
while defining that role as one of manufacturing males and caring for
their upbringing and rearing. This is not too different from Fatah's
view of women in the
First Intifada and resembles also Jewish
settlers' outlook, and over time has be subject to change.
In 1989, during the first intifada , a small number of Hamas
followers campaigned for the wearing of the hijab , which is not a
part of traditional women's attire in Palestine, for polygamy, and
also insisted women stay at home and be segregated from men. In the
course of this campaign, women who chose not to wear the hijab were
verbally and physically harassed, with the result that the hijab was
being worn 'just to avoid problems on the streets'. The harassment
dropped drastically when, after 18 months UNLU condemned it, though
similar campaigns reoccurred.
Hamas took control of the
Gaza Strip in 2007, some of its
members have attempted to impose Islamic dress or the hijab head
covering on women. Also, the government's "Islamic Endowment
Ministry" has deployed Virtue Committee members to warn citizens of
the dangers of immodest dress, card playing, and dating. However,
there are no government laws imposing dress and other moral standards,
Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic
dress on students. There has also been successful resistance to
attempts by local
Hamas officials to impose Islamic dress on women.
Hamas officials deny having any plans to impose Islamic law, one
legislator stating that "What you are seeing are incidents, not
policy," and that Islamic law is the desired standard "but we believe
in persuasion". The
Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to
impose Islamic dress on students. When the BBC in 2010 interviewed
five "middle-class" women in
Gaza City , the subjects generally
Hamas attempts to enforce conservative religious standards
of dress had been largely rejected by the local population, with some
expressing concern that the closure of Gaza would allow the
proliferation of extremist enforcement attempts by low-level Hamas
officials, and others indicating they were happy to see Hamas
enforcing such requirements. They also cited examples of leniency by
Hamas authorities, such as allowing widowed women to keep custody of
their children so long as they did not remarry, and other relaxations
in the enforcement of Shariah law. One woman noted that the
environment was "not as bad" as during the First Intifada, when women
were subject to public criticism and stonings for failure to obey
conservative Islamic standards of dress. One woman complained that
women were not free to speak their minds or travel alone, and added:
Hamas want to force themselves onto the people. They want the people
to submit to them, this is their cover. They destroyed the reputation
of Islam, by saying we're doing this because it is religion. This is
how they won the elections."
UNRWA canceled its annual marathon in Gaza after Hamas
rulers prohibited women from participating in the race.
IN THE WEST BANK
In 2005, the human rights organization Freemuse released a report
titled "Palestine: Taliban-like attempts to censor music", which said
that Palestinian musicians feared that harsh religious laws against
music and concerts will be imposed since
Hamas group scored political
gains in the
Palestinian Authority local elections of 2005.
The attempt by
Hamas to dictate a cultural code of conduct in the
1980s and early 1990s led to a violent fighting between different
Hamas members reportedly burned down stores that
stocked videos they deemed indecent and destroyed books they described
In 2005, an outdoor music and dance performance in
suddenly banned by the
Hamas led municipality, for the reason that
such an event would be forbidden by Islam, or "
Haram ". The
municipality also ordered that music no longer be played in the
Qalqiliya zoo, and mufti Akrameh Sabri issued a religious edict
affirming the municipality decision. In response, the Palestinian
Mahmoud Darwish warned that "There are Taliban-type
elements in our society, and this is a very dangerous sign."
The Palestinian columnist Mohammed Abd Al-Hamid, a resident of
Ramallah, wrote that this religious coercion could cause the migration
of artists, and said "The religious fanatics in Algeria destroyed
every cultural symbol, shattered statues and rare works of art and
liquidated intellectuals and artists, reporters and authors, ballet
dancers and singers – are we going to imitate the Algerian and
TAYYIP ERDOğAN\'S TURKEY AS A ROLE MODEL
Hamas members stated that the model of Islamic government that
Hamas seeks to emulate is that of
Turkey under the rule of Tayyip
Erdoğan . The foremost members to distance
Hamas from the practices
Taliban and to publicly support the Erdoğan model were Ahmad
Ghazi Hamad , advisers to Prime Minister Hanieh. Yusuf,
Hamas deputy foreign minister, reflected this goal in an interview
to a Turkish newspaper, stating that while foreign public opinion
Hamas with the
Taliban or al-Qaeda, the analogy is inaccurate.
Yusuf described the
Taliban as "opposed to everything," including
education and women's rights, while
Hamas wants to establish good
relations between the religious and secular elements of society and
strives for human rights, democracy and an open society. According to
Yezid Sayigh of the King\'s College in London, how
influential this view is within
Hamas is uncertain, since both Ahmad
Ghazi Hamad were dismissed from their posts as advisers to
Hamas Prime Minister
Ismail Hanieh in October 2007. Both have since
been appointed to other prominent positions within the Hamas
government. Khaled al-Hroub of the West Bank-based and anti-
Palestinian daily Al Ayyam added that despite claims by
that it wants to repeat the
Turkish model of Islam, "what is happening
on the ground in reality is a replica of the
Taliban model of Islam."
ANTISEMITISM AND ANTI-ZIONISM
See also: Racism in the
According to academic Esther Webman, antisemitism is not the main
Hamas ideology, although antisemitic rhetoric is frequent and
Hamas leaflets. The leaflets generally do not differentiate
between Jews and Zionists. In other
Hamas publications and in
interviews with its leaders attempts at this differentiation have been
made. In 2009 representatives of the small Jewish sect Neturei Karta
Ismail Haniyeh in Gaza, who stated that he held
nothing against Jews but only against the state of Israel. Some
commentators have pointed out parallels between Hamas's youth
Hitler Youth . According to writer Tom Doran, Hamas
is not recognized as a neo-Nazi group because its members are not
Hamas has made conflicting statements about its readiness to
recognize Israel. In 2006 a spokesman signaled readiness to recognize
Israel within the 1967 borders. Speaking of requests for
recognize agreements between the
Palestinian Authority and Israel,
Hamas member Khaled Suleiman said that "these agreements are a
reality which we view as such, and therefore I see no problem." Also
in 2006, a
Hamas official ruled out recognition of
reference to West and East Germany, which never recognized each other.
HAMAS CHARTER (1988)
* Article 7 of the
Hamas Covenant provides the following quotation,
The Day of Judgement will not come about until Moslems fight the Jews
(killing the Jews), when the Jew will hide behind stones and trees.
The stones and trees will say O Moslems, O Abdulla, there is a Jew
behind me, come and kill him. Only the Gharkad tree (evidently a
certain kind of tree), would not do that because it is one of the
trees of the Jews.
* Article 22 states that the
French revolution , the Russian
revolution , colonialism and both world wars were created by the
Zionists or forces supportive of Zionism:
You may speak as much as you want about regional and world wars. They
were behind World War I, when they were able to destroy the Islamic
Caliphate, making financial gains and controlling resources. They
obtained the Balfour Declaration, formed the League of Nations through
which they could rule the world. They were behind World War II,
through which they made huge financial gains by trading in armaments,
and paved the way for the establishment of their state. It was they
who instigated the replacement of the League of Nations with the
United Nations and the Security Council to enable them to rule the
world through them. There is no war going on anywhere, without having
their finger in it.
* Article 32 of the Covenant refers to an antisemitic forgery, _The
Protocols of the Elders of Zion _:
Today it is Palestine, tomorrow it will be one country or another.
Zionist plan is limitless. After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to
expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested
the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and
so on. Their plan is embodied in _The Protocols of the Elders of
Zion_, and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are
STATEMENTS BY HAMAS MEMBERS AND CLERICS TO AN ARAB AUDIENCE
In 2008, Imam Yousif al-Zahar of
Hamas said in his sermon at the
_Katib Wilayat _ mosque in Gaza that "Jews are a people who cannot be
trusted. They have been traitors to all agreements. Go back to
history. Their fate is their vanishing."
Hamas legislator and imam, Sheik Yunus al-Astal, discussed a
Koranic verse suggesting that "suffering by fire is the Jews' destiny
in this world and the next." He concluded "Therefore we are sure that
Holocaust is still to come upon the Jews."
Following the rededication of the Hurva Synagogue in
March 2010, senior
Hamas figure al-Zahar called on Palestinians
everywhere to observe five minutes of silence "for Israel's
disappearance and to identify with
Jerusalem and the al-Aqsa mosque".
He further stated that "Wherever you have been you've been sent to
your destruction. You've killed and murdered your prophets and you
have always dealt in loan-sharking and destruction. You've made a deal
with the devil and with destruction itself – just like your
On August 10, 2012, Ahmad Bahr, Deputy Speaker of the Hamas
Parliament, stated in a sermon that aired on _
Al-Aqsa TV _:
If the enemy sets foot on a single square inch of Islamic land, Jihad
becomes an individual duty, incumbent on every Muslim, male or female.
A woman may set out without her husband's permission, and a servant
without his master's permission. Why? In order to annihilate those
Jews.... O Allah, destroy the Jews and their supporters. O Allah,
destroy the Americans and their supporters. O Allah, count them one by
one, and kill them all, without leaving a single one.
In an interview with
Al-Aqsa TV in September 12, 2012, Marwan Abu
Hamas MP, who is also a member of the International Union of
Muslim Scholars , stated (as translated by
The Jews are behind each and every catastrophe on the face of the
Earth. This is not open to debate. This is not a temporal thing, but
goes back to days of yore. They concocted so many conspiracies and
betrayed rulers and nations so many times that the people harbor
hatred towards them.... Throughout history – from Nebuchadnezzar
until modern times ... They slayed the prophets, and so on.... Any
catastrophe on the face of this Earth – the Jews must be behind it.
On December 26, 2012, Senior
Hamas official and
chief Ahmed Abu Haliba, called on "all Palestinian factions to resume
suicide attacks ... deep inside the
Zionist enemy" and said that "we
must renew the resistance to occupation in any possible way, above all
through armed resistance." Abu Haliba suggested the use of suicide
bombings as a response to Israel's plans to build housing units in
East Jerusalem and the West Bank.
In an interview on Lebanese television on July 28, 2014, Hamas
Osama Hamdan claimed:
We all remember how the Jews used to slaughter Christians, in order
to mix their blood in their holy matzos. This is not a figment of
imagination or something taken from a film. It is a fact, acknowledged
by their own books and by historical evidence. It happened everywhere,
here and there.
STATEMENTS BY HAMAS MEMBERS AND CLERICS TO AN INTERNATIONAL AUDIENCE
In an interview with _
CBS This Morning
CBS This Morning _ in July 27, 2014, Hamas
Khaled Meshaal stated:
We are not fanatics. We are not fundamentalists. We are not actually
fighting the Jews because they are Jews per se. We do not fight any
other races. We fight the occupiers.
On January 8, 2012, during a visit to
Tunis , Gazan
Hamas PM Ismail
Haniyeh told The
Associated Press on that he disagrees with the
anti-Semitic slogans. "We are not against the Jews because they are
Jews. Our problem is with those occupying the land of Palestine," he
said. "There are Jews all over the world, but
Hamas does not target
them." In response to a statement by
Palestinian Authority leader
Mahmoud Abbas that
Hamas preferred non-violent means and had agreed to
adopt "peaceful resistance,"
Hamas contradicted Abbas. According to
Hamas spokesman Sami Abu-Zuhri, "We had agreed to give popular
resistance precedence in the West Bank, but this does not come at the
expense of armed resistance."
In May 2009, senior
Hamas MP Sayed Abu Musameh said, "in our culture,
we respect every foreigner, especially Jews and Christians, but we are
against Zionists, not as nationalists but as fascists and racists."
In the same interview, he also said, "I hate all kinds of weapons. I
dream of seeing every weapon from the atomic bomb to small guns banned
everywhere." In January 2009, Gazan
Hamas Health Minister Basim Naim
published a letter in _
The Guardian _, stating that
Hamas has no
quarrel with Jewish people, only with the actions of Israel. In
October 1994, in a response to Isreael's crackdown on
following a suicide bombing on a
Tel Aviv bus,
retaliation: "Rabin must know that
Hamas loves death more than Rabin
and his soldiers love life." The statement added that "
Hamas will not
hesitate to retaliate severely against any attempt to harm our
STATEMENTS ON THE HOLOCAUST
Hamas has been explicit in its
Holocaust denial . In reaction to the
Stockholm conference on the Jewish
Holocaust , held in late January
Hamas issued a press release that it published on its official
website, containing the following statements from a senior leader:
This conference bears a clear
Zionist goal, aimed at forging history
by hiding the truth about the so-called Holocaust, which is an alleged
and invented story with no basis. (...) The invention of these grand
illusions of an alleged crime that never occurred, ignoring the
millions of dead European victims of Nazism during the war, clearly
reveals the racist
Zionist face, which believes in the superiority of
the Jewish race over the rest of the nations. (...) By these methods,
the Jews in the world flout scientific methods of research whenever
that research contradicts their racist interests.
In August 2003, senior
Hamas official Dr Abd Al-Aziz Al-Rantisi wrote
Hamas newspaper _Al-Risala_ that the Zionists encouraged murder
of Jews by the Nazis with the aim of forcing them to immigrate to
Khaled Mashal called
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 's December 14,
2005 statements on the
Holocaust that Europeans had "created a myth in
the name of Holocaust" ) as "courageous". Later in 2008, Basim Naim ,
the minister of health in the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority
government in Gaza countered holocaust denial, and said "it should be
made clear that neither
Hamas nor the Palestinian government in Gaza
denies the Nazi Holocaust.
The Holocaust was not only a crime against
humanity but one of the most abhorrent crimes in modern history. We
condemn it as we condemn every abuse of humanity and all forms of
discrimination on the basis of religion, race, gender or nationality."
In an open letter to
John Ging published
August 20, 2009, the movement's Popular Committees for Refugees called
Holocaust "a lie invented by the Zionists," adding that the group
refused to let Gazan children study it.
Hamas leader Younis al-Astal
continued by saying that having the
Holocaust included in the UNRWA
curriculum for Gaza students amounted to "marketing a lie and
spreading it". Al-Astal continued "I do not exaggerate when I say this
issue is a war crime, because of how it serves the
and deals with their hypocrisy and lies."
In February 2011,
Hamas voiced opposition to UNRWA's teaching of the
Holocaust in Gaza. According to Hamas, "
Holocaust studies in refugee
camps is a contemptible plot and serves the
Zionist entity with a goal
of creating a reality and telling stories in order to justify acts of
slaughter against the Palestinian people." In July 2012, Fawzi
Hamas spokesman, denounced a visit by Ziad al-Bandak, an
Palestinian Authority President
Mahmoud Abbas , to the
Auschwitz death camp, saying it was "unjustified" and "unhelpful" and
only served the "
Zionist occupation" while coming "at the expense of a
real Palestinian tragedy". He also called the
Holocaust an "alleged
tragedy" and "exaggerated". In October 2012,
Hamas said that they
were opposed to teaching about the
Gaza Strip schools run
by the UN Relief and Works Agency. The Refugee Affairs Department of
Hamas said that teaching the
Holocaust was a "crime against the issue
of the refugees that is aimed at canceling their right of return".
VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM
Criticism of Hamas
Palestinian rocket attacks
A rocket fired from the
Israel , December 2008.
* 2008 ceasefire
* Gaza War
* Army of
* Tawhid wal-
Abdullah Azzam Brigades
REGIONAL COUNCIL AREAS HIT
* Yesha )
Nir Am )
* Sa\'ad )
* Merhavim * Be\'er Tuvia * Yoav
* Bnei Shimon *
SETTLEMENTS HIT (EVACUATED)
* Ganei Tal
* Netzer Hazani
DEFENSE AND RESPONSE
* Civil defense in
* Rocket attacks on
* Lebanese rocket attacks on
Hamas has used both political activities and violence in pursuit of
its goals. For example, while politically engaged in the 2006
Palestinian Territories parliamentary election campaign,
in its election manifesto that it was prepared to use "armed
resistance to end the occupation".
From 2000 to 2004,
Hamas was responsible for killing nearly 400
Israelis and wounding more than 2,000 in 425 attacks, according to the
Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2001 through May 2008, Hamas
launched more than 3,000 Qassam rockets and 2,500 mortar attacks into
ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS
In the first years of the
First Intifada (1987–1993), Hamas
violence was directed first at collaborators with
Israel and at
individuals it considered moral deviants, and then later at the
Israeli military. A new direction began with the formation of the
al-Qassam Brigades militia in 1992, and in 1993 suicide attacks began
against Israeli targets on the West Bank. Aftermath of 1996
Jaffa Road bus bombings in which 26 people were killed
The first such attack occurred on April 16, 1993, when an al-Qassam
Brigades operative detonated explosives in a car he parked next to two
buses, one military and one civilian, in the
West Bank town of Mehola
, killing a Palestinian civilian and wounding 8 Israeli soldiers.
After the February 1994 massacre by
Baruch Goldstein of 30 Muslim
civilians in a Hebron mosque, the al-Qassam Brigades expanded suicide
attacks to target primarily civilians. The first of the suicide
bombings that targeted civilians was at Afula on April 16, 1994, when
a suicide bomber detonated an explosives-laden car next to a bus,
killing nine (including the bomber) and wounding 50. The most deadly
suicide bombing was an attack on a
Netanya hotel on March 27, 2002, in
which 30 people were killed and 140 were wounded. The attack has also
been referred to as the
Passover massacre since it took place on the
first night of the Jewish festival of
Passover at a Seder .
Hamas has defended suicide attacks as a legitimate aspect of its
asymmetric warfare against Israel. In 2003, according to Stephen
Hamas resumed suicide bombings in
Israel as a retaliatory
measure after the failure of peace talks and an Israeli campaign
targeting members of the upper echelon of the
Hamas leadership., but
they are considered as crimes against humanity under international
law. In a 2002 report,
Human Rights Watch stated that
"should be held accountable" for "war crimes and crimes against
humanity" committed by the al-Qassam Brigades.
In May 2006
Israel arrested a top
Ibrahim Hamed , who
Israeli security officials alleged was responsible for dozens of
suicide bombings and other attacks on Israelis. Hamed's trial on
those charges has not yet concluded. In 2008,
engineer Shihab al-Natsheh organized a deadly suicide bombing in
Since 2002, paramilitary soldiers of al-Qassam Brigades and other
groups have used homemade Qassam rockets to hit Israeli towns in the
Negev , such as
Al-Qassam Brigades was estimated in 2007 to
have launched 22% of the rocket and mortar attacks, which killed
fifteen people between the years 2000 and 2009 (see Palestinian rocket
Israel ). The introduction of the _Qassam-2_ rocket in
2008 enabled Palestinian paramilitary groups to reach, from Gaza, such
Israeli cities such as
Khaled Mashal , offered that
Hamas would attack
only military targets if the IDF would stop causing the deaths of
Palestinian civilians. Following a June 19, 2008 ceasefire, the
al-Qassam Brigades ended its rocket attacks and arrested Fatah
militants in Gaza who had continued sporadic rocket and mortar attacks
against Israel. The al-Qassam Brigades resumed the attacks after the
November 4 Israeli incursion into Gaza.
On 15 June 2014, Israeli Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu accused
Hamas of involvement in the kidnapping of three Israeli teenagers
(including one who held American citizenship), saying "This has severe
repercussions." On 20 July 2014, nearly two weeks into Operation
Protective Edge , Netanyahu in an interview with
CNN described Hamas
as "genocidal terrorists."
On 5 August 2014
Israel announced that Israeli security forces
arrested Hussam Kawasme, in
Shuafat , in connection with the murders.
During interrogation, Kawasme admitted to being the mastermind behind
the attack, in addition to securing the funding from Hamas. Officials
have stated that additional people arrested in connection with the
murders are still being held, but no names have been released.
On 20 August, Saleh al-Arouri, a
Hamas leader in exile in Turkey,
claimed responsibility for the kidnapping of the three Israeli teens.
He delivered an address on behalf of
Khaled Mashal at the conference
International Union of Muslim Scholars in
Istanbul , a move
that might reflect a desire by
Hamas to gain leverage. In it he said:
"Our goal was to ignite an intifada in the
West Bank and Jerusalem, as
well as within the 1948 borders... Your brothers in the Al-Qassam
Brigades carried out this operation to support their imprisoned
brothers, who were on a hunger strike... The mujahideen captured these
settlers in order to have a swap deal."
Hamas political leader Khaled
Mashal accepted that members of
Hamas were responsible, stating that
he knew nothing of it in advance and that what the leadership knew of
the details came from reading Israeli reports. Meshaal, who has
headed Hamas's exiled political wing since 2004, has denied being
involved in the "details" of
Hamas "military issues", but "justified
the killings as a legitimate action against
Israelis on "occupied"
Hamas suicide attacks on Israeli civilians have largely disappeared
since 2005; this has coincided with an increase in rocket attacks. One
analysis suggests that the decline in suicide attacks is not motivated
by any lack of supplies or volunteers to carry out such operations, by
enhanced Israeli security measures such as the
West Bank barrier (if
Israeli actions were the reason, one would expect to see an equal
decline in suicide attacks by all Palestinian factions, which is not
observed), or by a newfound desire for reconciliation with
the part of Hamas. Rather, suicide bombings provoked targeted killings
that decimated the leadership of Hamas, whereas rocket attacks have
elicited weaker Israeli reprisals that have tended to harm the
Palestinian population as a whole more than
Hamas (such as the
blockade of the
Gaza Strip )—thereby paradoxically increasing
Hamas's popular support.
ROCKET ATTACKS ON ISRAEL
Rocket attacks by
Hamas have been condemned by Human rights
organizations as war crimes , both because they usually take aim at
civilians and because the weapons' inaccuracy would disproportionately
endanger civilians even if military targets were chosen. After
Operation Pillar of Defense,
Human Rights Watch stated that armed
Palestinian groups fired hundreds of rockets at Israeli cities,
violating international humanitarian law, and that statements by
Palestinian groups that they deliberately targeted Israeli civilians
demonstrated an "intent to commit war crimes". HRW's Middle East
director Sarah Leah Whitson said that Palestinian groups made clear
that "harming civilians was their aim" and said that launching rockets
at populated areas had no legal justification. International
humanitarian law prohibits deliberate attacks on civilians and
intentional violations can be war crimes.
According to Human Rights Watch,
Hamas and other Palestinian armed
groups have launched thousands of rockets into
Israel since 2001,
killing 15 civilians, wounding many more, and posing an ongoing threat
to the nearly 800,000 Israeli civilians who live and work in the
Hamas officials have said that the rockets were aimed
only at military targets, saying that civilian casualties were the
"accidental result" of the weapons' poor quality. According to Human
Rights Watch, statements by
Hamas leaders suggest that the purpose of
the rocket attacks was indeed to strike civilians and civilian
objects. From January 2009, following
Operation Cast Lead , Hamas
largely stopped launching rocket attacks on
Israel and has on at least
two occasions arrested members of other groups who have launched
rockets, "showing that it has the ability to impose the law when it
wants". In February 2010,
Hamas issued a statement regretting any
harm that may have befallen Israeli civilians as a result of
Palestinian rocket attacks during the Gaza war. It maintained that its
rocket attacks had been aimed at Israeli military targets but lacked
accuracy and hence sometimes hit civilian areas.
Israel responded that
Hamas had boasted repeatedly of targeting and murdering civilians in
According to one report, commenting on the 2014 conflict, "nearly all
the 2,500–3,000 rockets and mortars
Hamas has fired at
the start of the war seem to have been aimed at towns", including an
attack on "a kibbutz collective farm close to the Gaza border", in
which an Israeli child was killed. Former Israeli Lt. Col. Jonathan
D. Halevi stated that "
Hamas has expressed pride in aiming long-range
rockets at strategic targets in
Israel including the nuclear reactor
in Dimona, the chemical plants in Haifa, and Ben-Gurion Airport",
which "could have caused thousands" of Israeli casualties "if
In July 2008
Barack Obama , then the Democratic presidential
candidate, said: "If somebody was sending rockets into my house, where
my two daughters sleep at night, I'm going to do everything in my
power to stop that, and I would expect
Israelis to do the same thing."
On December 28, 2008, Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice said in a
United States strongly condemns the repeated rocket
and mortar attacks against Israel." On March 2, 2009, Secretary of
Hillary Clinton condemned the attacks.
ATTEMPTS TO DERAIL 2010 PEACE TALKS
2010 Palestinian militancy campaign
In 2010, Hamas, who have been actively sidelined from the peace talks
by Israel, spearheaded a coordinated effort by 13 Palestinian militant
groups, in attempt to derail the stalled peace talks between Israel
Mahmoud Abbas , President of the
Palestinian Authority . According
to the Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories
Major Gen. Eitan Dangot,
Israel seeks to work with
Salam Fayyad , to
help revive the Palestinian economy, and hopes to ease restrictions on
Gaza Strip further, "while somehow preventing the Islamic
militants who rule it from getting credit for any progress". According
Hamas must not be seen as ruling successfully or be allowed
to "get credit for a policy that would improve the lives of people".
The campaign consists of attacks against
Israelis in which, according
Hamas declaration in early September, "all options are open".
The participating groups also include Palestinian Islamic
Jihad , the
Popular Resistance Committees and an unnamed splinter group of
As part of the campaign, on August 31, 2010, 4 Israeli settlers,
including a pregnant woman, were killed by
Hamas militants while
Route 60 near the settlement
Kiryat Arba , in the West
bank. According to witnesses, militants opened fire on the moving
vehicle, but then "approached the car" and shot the occupants in their
seats at "close range". The attack was described by Israeli sources as
one of the "worst" terrorist acts in years. A senior
Israeli settlers in the
West Bank are legitimate targets
since "they are an army in every sense of the word".
THEMES OF MARTYRDOM
See also: Martyrdom in
According to a translation by Palestinian Media Watch, in 2008, Fathi
Hamad, a member of the
Palestinian Legislative Council , stated on
Al-Aqsa TV , "For the
Palestinian people death became an industry, at
which women excel and so do all people on this land: the elderly
Jihad fighters excel, and the children excel. Accordingly
(Palestinians) created a human shield of women, children, the elderly
Jihad fighters against the
Zionist bombing machine, as if they
were saying to the
Zionist enemy: 'We desire death as you desire
Hamas speaker Ahmad Bahr praised the virtues of martyrdom
and Jihad, and said that 2.5 million black-eyed virgins were waiting
Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden , which could be entered only by prophets, by
the righteous, and by martyrs. He continued by saying that nobody on
Earth "will be able to confront the resistance, or to confront the
mujahideen, those who worship Allah and seek martyrdom".
Hamas anti-tank rockets, captured by
Israel Defense Forces
Operation Protective Edge
Hamas has made great use of guerrilla tactics in the
Gaza Strip and
to a lesser degree the West Bank. It has successfully adapted these
techniques over the years since its inception. According to a 2006
report by rival
Hamas had smuggled between several
hundred and 1,300 tons of advanced rockets, along with other weaponry,
Hamas has used IEDs and anti-tank rockets against the IDF in Gaza.
The latter include standard
RPG-7 warheads and home-made rockets such
Al-Bana , Al-
Batar and Al-Yasin . The IDF has a difficult, if
not impossible time trying to find hidden weapons caches in
Palestinian areas — this is due to the high local support base Hamas
EXTRAJUDICIAL KILLINGS OF RIVALS
In addition to killing Israeli civilians and armed forces,
also murdered suspected Palestinian
Israel collaborators and Fatah
rivals. Hundreds of Palestinians were executed by both
Fatah during the
First Intifada . In the wake of the 2006 Israeli
conflict with Gaza,
Hamas was accused of systematically rounding up,
torturing and summarily executing
Fatah supporters suspected of
supplying information to Israel.
Human Rights Watch estimates several
hundred Gazans were "maimed" and tortured in the aftermath of the
conflict. Seventy-three Gazan men accused of "collaborating" had their
arms and legs broken by "unidentified perpetrators" and 18
Palestinians accused of helping
Israel were executed by
officials in the first days of the conflict. In November 2012,
Hamas's Izzedine al-Qassam brigade publicly executed six Gaza
residents accused of collaborating with Israel. According to the
witnesses, six alleged informers were shot dead one by one in Gaza
City , while the corpse of the sixth victim was tied by a cable to the
back of a motorcycle and dragged through the streets. In 2013, Human
Rights Watch issued a statement condemning
Hamas for not investigating
and giving a proper trial to the 6 men. Their statement was released
the day before
Hamas issued a deadline for "collaborators" to turn
themselves in, or they will be pursued "without mercy". In August
2014, during the
2014 Israel-Gaza conflict , at least 22 accused
collaborators were executed by
Hamas shortly after 3 of its commanders
were assassinated by Israeli forces. An Israeli source denied that
any of the commanders had been targeted on the basis of human
Frequent killings of unarmed people have also occurred during
Fatah clashes. NGOs have cited a number of summary executions
as particular examples of violations of the rules of warfare,
including the case of
Muhammad Swairki, 28, a cook for Palestinian
Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas's presidential guard, who was thrown
to his death, with his hands and legs tied, from a 15-story apartment
building in Gaza City.
Hamas security forces reportedly shoot and
torture Palestinians who opposed
Hamas rule in Gaza. In one case, a
Palestinian had criticized
Hamas in a conversation on the street with
some friends. Later that day, more than a dozen armed men with black
masks and red kaffiyeh took the man from his home, and brought him to
a solitary area where they shot him three times in the lower legs and
ankles. The man told
Human Rights Watch that he was not politically
On August 14, 2009,
Hamas fighters stormed the Mosque of cleric
Abdel-Latif Moussa . The cleric was protected by at least 100
Jund Ansar Allah ("Army of the Helpers of God"), an
Islamist group with links to Al-Qaeda. The resulting battle left at
least 13 people dead, including Moussa and 6
Hamas fighters, and 120
people injured. According to Palestinian president
Mahmoud Abbas ,
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict ,
Hamas killed more than 120
Palestinian youths for defying house arrest imposed on them by Hamas,
in addition to 30-40 Palestinians killed by
Hamas in extrajudicial
executions after accusing them of being collaborators with Israel.
Referring to the killing of suspected collaborators, a Shin Bet
official stated that "not even one" of those executed by Hamas
provided any intelligence to Israel, while the
Shin Bet officially
"confirmed that those executed during
Operation Protective Edge had
all been held in prison in Gaza in the course of the hostilities".
2011–2013 SINAI INSURGENCY
Hamas has been accused of providing weapons, training and fighters
for Sinai-based insurgent attacks, although
Hamas strongly denies
the allegations, calling them a smear campaign aiming to harm
relations with Egypt. According to the Egyptian Army, since the
ouster of Egypt's Muslim-Brotherhood president
Mohamed Morsi , over
Hamas members have entered the Sinai Peninsula through smuggling
tunnels. In addition, several weapons used in Sinai's insurgent
attacks are being traced back to
Hamas in the Gaza Strip, according to
the army. The four leading insurgent groups in the Sinai have all
reportedly maintained close ties with the Gaza Strip.
Hamas is also
accused of helping Morsi and other high-ranking Egyptian Muslim
Brotherhood members break out of the Wadi Natroun prison in Cairo
during the 2011 revolution.
Hamas called the accusation a "dangerous
development". Egyptian authorities stated that the 2011 Alexandria
bombing was carried out by the Gaza-based Army of
Islam , which has
received sanctuary from
Hamas and earlier collaborated in the capture
of Gilad Shalit. Army of
Islam members linked to the August 2012
Sinai attack have reportedly sought refuge in the Gaza Strip. Egypt
Hamas directly provided logistical support to the Muslim
Brotherhood militants who carried out the December 2013 Mansoura
INTERNATIONAL DESIGNATIONS AS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
International Positions on the Nature of Hamas
Hamas, together with several charities it runs, has been designated
by several governments and some academics as a terrorist organization.
Hamas as a complex organization with terrorism as only
Hamas in September 1989 The United
States followed suit in 1995, as did Canada in November 2002. The
European Union outlawed Hamas's military wing in 2001 and included
Hamas in its list of terrorist organizations in 2003, which Hamas
successfully challenged in the courts, and continued to do so under
American and Israeli pressure. The basis of Hamas's challenge to the
EU classification in 2007 was that it was drawn up on the basis of
media reports, rather than grounded in any analysis of Hamas's
history. In July 2017, the
European Court of Justice
European Court of Justice overruled this
challenge, citing that the evidence of media reports was only used for
Hamas on the list, rather than to add it to the list in the
The European General Court found in favour of
Hamas in 2014, though
the verdict was appealed by the EU countries. In September 2016 a
legal advisor to the European Court of Justice, Eleanor Sharpston,
provided an advisory opinion, in favour of cancelling the listing of
Hamas as a terrorist organization. She argued that the determination
originally adopted was flawed, and that the EU cannot "rely on facts
and evidence found in press articles and information from the
internet" in order to list organizations as terrorists. Egypt, Saudi
Arabia, Japan, New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom have
designated the military wing of
Hamas as a terrorist organization.
The organization is banned in
Jordan . It is not regarded as a
terrorist organization by Iran, Russia, Norway, Switzerland,
Turkey, China, and Brazil.
Hamas rocket launch site and its civilian surroundings.
Operation Pillar of Defense ,
Human Rights Watch stated that
Palestinian groups had endangered civilians by "repeatedly fired
rockets from densely populated areas, near homes, businesses, and a
hotel" and noted that under international law, parties to a conflict
may not to place military targets in or near densely populated areas.
One rocket was launched close to the Shawa and Housari Building, where
various Palestinian and international media have offices; another was
fired from the yard of a house near the Deira Hotel. _New York Times
Steven Erlanger reported that "
Hamas rocket and weapons
caches, including rocket launchers, have been discovered in and under
mosques, schools and civilian homes." Another report published by
Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center revealed that
close to 100 mosques to store weapons and as launch-pads to shoot
rockets. The report contains testimony from variety Palestinian
sources, including a
Hamas militant Sabhi Majad Atar, who said he was
taught how to shoot rockets from inside a mosque.
Hamas has also been
criticized by Israeli officials for blending into or hiding among the
Palestinian civilian population During the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza
conflict . The Israeli government published what it said was video
evidence of human shield tactics by Hamas.
Israel said that Hamas
frequently used mosques and school yards as hideouts and places to
store weapons, and that
Hamas militants stored weapons in their
homes, making it difficult to ensure that civilians close to
legitimate military targets are not hurt during Israeli military
operations. Israeli officials also accused the
Hamas leadership of
Shifa Hospital during the conflict, using the patients
inside to deter an Israeli attack.
The Israeli government filed a report entitled "Gaza Operations
Investigation: Second Update" to the
United Nations accusing
exploiting its rules of engagement by shooting rockets and launching
attacks within protected civilian areas.
Israel says 12,000 rockets
and mortars were fired at it between 2000 and 2008—nearly 3,000 in
2008 alone. In one case, an errant Israeli mortar strike killed
dozens of people near a UN school.
Hamas said that the mortar killed
42 people and left dozens wounded.
Israel said that
had launched a rocket from a yard adjacent to the school and one
mortar of three rounds hit the school, due to a
GPS error. According
to the Israeli military probe, the remaining two rounds hit the yard
used to launch rockets into Israel, killing two members of Hamas's
military wing who fired the rockets.
Human Right Watch called Hamas
to "publicly renounce" the rocket attacks against Israeli civilians
and hold those responsible to account.
Human Right Watch program
director Iain Levine said the attacks by
Hamas were "unlawful and
unjustifiable, and amount to war crimes", and accused
Hamas of putting
Palestinians at risk by launching attacks from built-up areas. Hamas
spokesman relied that the report was "biased" and he denied that Hamas
uses human shields.
Human Rights Watch investigated 19 incidents involving 53 civilian
deaths in Gaza that
Israel said were the result of
Hamas fighting in
densely populated areas and did not find evidence for existence of
Palestinian fighters in the areas at the time of the Israeli attack.
In other cases where no civilians had died, the report concluded that
Hamas may have deliberately fired rockets from areas close to
civilians. HRW also investigated 11 deaths that
Israel said were
civilians being used as human shields by Hamas. HRW found no evidence
that the civilians were used as human shields, nor had they been shot
in crossfire. The Israeli 'human shields' charge against
called "full of holes" by _The National_ (UAE) , which stated that
Hamas of using human shields during the conflict,
Hamas "may be guilty" of "locating military objectives within
or near densely populated areas" and for "deliberately firing
indiscriminate weapons into civilian populated areas".
On July 8, 2014, Hamas's spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri encouraged the
"policy of people confronting the Israeli warplanes with their bare
chests", saying it has proven itself. One survey of Gazan residents
addressed the subject of human shields during the 2014 war, with
respondents issuing statements such as "People received warnings from
Israelis and tried to evacuate...
Hamas shot some of those
people...the rest were forced to return to their homes and get
Hamas imposed a curfew: anyone walking out in the street was
shot without being asked any questions. That way
Hamas made sure
people had to stay in their homes even if they were about to get
bombed"; and "My father received a text-message from the Israeli army
warning him that our area was going to be bombed, and
us from leaving." Israeli soldiers recounted "Suddenly, a small boy
appeared, and the terrorist grabbed him and escaped with him"; "I saw
with my own eyes someone using another person, a woman, as a
shield...And I can see very clearly that the woman doesn't want to be
there and he's pulling her with him"; and "We even found explosives
in nurseries. The whole neighborhood was practically a terrorist
Israel has accused
Hamas of using children as human shields . The
Israeli government released video footage in which it claims two
militants are shown grabbing a young boy's arm from behind holding him
to walk in front of them toward a group of people waiting near a wall.
The IDF argues the militants were placing the boy between themselves
and an Israeli sniper. The second scene shows an individual, described
as a terrorist, grabbing a school boy off of a floor, where he is
hiding behind a column from IDF fire, and using him as a human shield
to walk to a different location. After 15 alleged militants sought
refuge in a mosque from Israeli forces, the BBC reported that Hamas
radio instructed local women to go the mosque to protect the
militants. Two women were later killed when Israeli forces opened
In November 2006, the Israeli Air Force warned
Muhammad Weil Baroud,
commander of the
Popular Resistance Committees who are accused of
launching rockets into Israeli territory, to evacuate his home in a
Jabalya refugee camp apartment block in advance of a planned Israeli
air strike. Baroud responded by calling for volunteers to protect the
apartment block and nearby buildings and, according to _The Jerusalem
Post _, hundreds of local residents, mostly women and children,
Israel suspended the air strike.
Israel termed the action
an example of
Hamas using human shields. In response to the incident,
Hamas proclaimed: 'We won. From now on we will form human chains
around every house threatened with demolition.'" In a November 22
Human Rights Watch condemned Hamas, stating: "There is
no excuse for calling civilians to the scene of a planned attack.
Whether or not the home is a legitimate military target, knowingly
asking civilians to stand in harm's way is unlawful." Following
Human rights Watch issued a statement saying that their
initial assessment of the situation was in error. They stated that, on
the basis of available evidence, the home demolition was in fact an
administrative act, viewed in the context of Israel's longstanding
policy of punitive home demolitions, not a military act and thus would
not fall within the purview of the law regulating hostilities during
armed conflict, which had been the basis for their initial criticism
When the UN-sponsored Goldstone Commission Report on the Gaza War was
commissioned in 2009, it stated that it "found no evidence that
Palestinian combatants mingled with the civilian population with the
intention of shielding themselves from attack" though they deemed
credible reports that Palestinian militants were "not always dressed
in a way that distinguished them from civilians".
Hamas MP Fathi
Hamed stated that "For the Palestinian people, death has become an
industry, at which women excel...the elderly excel at this...and so do
the children. This is why they have formed human shields of the women,
the children." Following the release of the Goldstone Report, the
former commander of the British forces in Afghanistan Col. Richard
Kemp was invited to testify at the UN
Human Rights Council
Human Rights Council 12th
Special Session that during
Operation Cast Lead
Israel encountered an
"enemy that deliberately positioned its military capability behind the
human shield of the civilian population".
CHILDREN AS COMBATANTS
Children in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
The Israeli government released a video compiled mostly from Arab
news sources showing Palestinian children under the age of 15 going
through military training and carrying and firing arms. The video's
narration explains that
Hamas indoctrinates these child combatants and
Hamas operators send the children "on missions from which they
would not risk their own lives". According to the Israeli government,
the children are used as spotters, to transport explosives and
weapons, sent to play in areas to deter Israeli attacks and are sent
unknowingly with explosive devices in their schoolbags to be blown up
in the vicinity of Israelis. The
United Nations defines the use of
children for military purposes as a war crime and a form of slavery.
Military use of children .
Hamas admits to sponsoring summer schools to train teenagers
in handling weapons they condemn attacks by children. Following the
deaths of three teenagers during a 2002 attack on
Netzarim in central
Hamas banned attacks by children and "called on the teachers and
religious leaders to spread the message of restraint among young
boys". Hamas's use of child labor to build tunnels with which to
Israel has also been criticized, with at least 160 children
killed in the tunnels as of 2012.
Hamas mural in the
Human rights groups and Gazans have accused the
Hamas government in
Gaza Strip of restricting freedom of the press and forcefully
suppressing dissent. Both foreign and Palestinian journalists report
harassment and other measures taken against them. In September 2007
the Gaza Interior Ministry disbanded the
Gaza Strip branch of the
Fatah Union of Palestinian Journalists, a move criticized by
Reporters without borders
Reporters without borders . In November of that year the Hamas
government arrested a British journalist and for a time canceled all
press cards in Gaza. On February 8, 2008,
Hamas banned distribution
of the pro-
Fatah Al-Ayyam newspaper, and closed its offices in the
Gaza Strip because it ran a caricature that mocked legislators loyal
to Hamas,. The
Gaza Strip Interior Ministry later issued an arrest
warrant for the editor.
More widely, in late August 2007 the group was accused in _The
Telegraph _, a conservative British newspaper, of torturing,
detaining, and firing on unarmed protesters who had objected to
policies of the
Hamas government. Also in late August, Palestinian
health officials reported that the
Hamas government had been shutting
down Gaza clinics in retaliation for doctor strikes – The Hamas
government confirmed the "punitive measure against doctors" because,
in its view, they had incited other doctors to suspend services and go
out on strike. In September 2007 the
Hamas government banned public
Fatah supporters began holding worship sessions that
quickly escalated into raucous protests against
Hamas rule. Government
security forces beat several gathering supporters and journalists. In
October 2008, the
Hamas government announced it would release all
political prisoners in custody in Gaza. Several hours after the
Fatah members were released.
On August 2, 2012, the
International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)
Hamas of harassing elected officials belong to the Palestinian
Journalists' Syndicate (PJS) in Gaza. The IFJ said that journalists'
leaders in Gaza have faced a campaign of intimidation, as well as
threats designed to force them to stop their union work. Some of these
journalists are now facing charges of illegal activities and a travel
ban, due to their refusal "to give in to pressure". The IFJ said that
these accusations are "malicious" and "should be dropped immediately".
The IFJ explained that the campaign against PJS members began in March
2012, after their election, and included a raid organized by Hamas
supporters who took over the PJS offices in Gaza with the help of the
security forces, and subsequently evicted the staff and elected
officials. Other harassment includes the targeting of individuals who
were bullied into stopping union work. The IFJ backed the PJS and
called on Prime Minister
Ismail Haniyeh to intervene to stop "his
officials' unwarranted interference in journalists' affairs". In
November 2012, two Gazan journalists were prevented from leaving Gaza
by Hamas. There were scheduled to participate in a conference in
Cairo, Egypt. After being questioned by security forces, their
passports were confiscated. In 2016 Reporters Without Borders
Hamas for censorship and for torturing journalists.
Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders Secretary-General Christophe Deloire said
"As living conditions in the
Gaza Strip are disastrous,
Hamas wants to
silence critics and does not hesitate to torture a journalist in order
to control media coverage in its territory."
HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES
In June 2011, the Independent Commission for Human Rights based in
Ramallah published a report whose findings included that the
Palestinians in the
West Bank and the
Gaza Strip were subjected in
2010 to an "almost systematic campaign" of human rights abuses by the
Palestinian Authority and Hamas, as well as by Israeli authorities,
with the security forces belonging to the PA and
responsible for torture, arrests and arbitrary detentions.
In 2012, the
Human Rights Watch presented a 43 page long list of
human rights violation committed by Hamas. Among actions attributed to
Hamas the HRW report mentions beatings with metal clubs and rubber
hoses, hanging of alleged collaborationists with Israel, and torture
of 102 individuals. According to the report,
Hamas also tortured civil
society activists and peaceful protesters. Reflecting on the captivity
Gilad Shalit , the HRW report described it as "cruel and inhuman".
The report also slams
Hamas for harassment of people based on so
called morality offenses and for media censorship. In a public
Joe Stork , the deputy Middle East director of HRW claimed,
"after five years of
Hamas rule in Gaza, its criminal justice system
reeks of injustice, routinely violates detainees' rights and grants
impunity to abusive security services."
Hamas responded by denying
charges and describing them as "politically motivated"
On May 26, 2015
Amnesty International released a report saying that
Hamas carried out extrajudicial killings, abductions and arrests of
Palestinians and used the Al-
Shifa Hospital to detain, interrogate and
torture suspects during the Israel–Gaza conflict in 2014. It details
the executions of at least 23 Palestinians accused of collaborating
Israel and torture of dozens of others, many victims of torture
were members of the rival Palestinian movement, Fatah.
Hamas has always maintained leadership abroad. The movement is
deliberately fragmented to ensure that
Israel cannot kill its top
political and military leaders.
Hamas used to be strongly allied with
both Iran and Syria. Iran gave
Hamas an estimated $13–15 million in
2011 as well as access to long-range missiles. Hamas’s political
bureau was once located in the Syrian capital of
Damascus before the
start of the Syrian civil war. Relations between Hamas, Iran, and
Syria began to turn cold when
Hamas refused to back the government of
Bashar al-Assad . Instead,
Hamas backed the Sunni
rebels fighting against Assad. As a result, Iran cut funding to Hamas,
and their terror proxy
Hamas members out of Lebanon.
Hamas was then forced out of Syria. Since then, Iran and Hezbollah
have tried to mend fences with Hamas.
Sudan to see if either would open up its borders to its political
bureau. But both countries refused—though they welcomed many Hamas
members leaving Syria. In 2012
Hamas headquarters subsequently moved
to Doha, Qatar.
From 2012 to 2013, under the leadership of Muslim Brotherhood
Mohamed Morsi ,
Hamas had the support of Egypt. However,
when Morsi was removed from Office, his replacement Abdul Fattah
al-Sisi outlawed the
Muslim Brotherhood and destroyed the tunnels
Hamas built into Egypt. The United Arab Emirates and
Saudi Arabia are
likewise hostile to Hamas. Like Egypt, they designated the Brotherhood
as a terrorist organization and
Hamas was viewed as its Palestinian
QATAR AND TURKEY
According to Middle East experts, now
Hamas has two firm allies:
Turkey . Both give
Hamas public and financial assistance
estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Shashank
Joshi, senior research fellow at the
Royal United Services Institute ,
says that "
Qatar also hosts Hamas's political bureau which includes
Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal." Meshaal also visits
Turkey frequently to
meet with Turkish Prime Minister
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Recep Tayyip Erdogan . Erdogan has
dedicated himself to breaking
Hamas out of its political and economic
seclusion. Last year on U.S. television Erdogan said, "I don't see
Hamas as a terror organization.
Hamas is a political party."
Qatar was, with Turkey, the only country to back
the group ousted the
Palestinian Authority out of the Gaza Strip. The
Qatar strengthened in 2008 and 2009
Khaled Meshaal was invited to attend the Doha Summit where he was
seated next to the then Qatari Emir
Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani , who
pledged $250 million to repair the damage caused by the
Israel in the
Israeli war on Gaza. These events caused
Qatar to become the main
player in the "Palestinian issue".
Qatar called Gaza's blockade unjust
and immoral, which prompted the
Hamas government in Gaza, including
former Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh, to thank
Qatar for their
Qatar then began regularly handing out
political, material, humanitarian and charitable support for Hamas.
In 2012, Qatar's former Emir, Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, became the
first head of state to visit Gaza under
Hamas rule. He pledged to
raise $400 million for reconstruction. Some have argued that the money
Qatar gives to reconstruct Palestine is an excuse to pour even more
money into Hamas. Qatar’s reason for funding Hamas, which is shared
by Recep Tayyip Erdogan, is allegedly that Islamist groups are growing
and will eventually play a role in the region; thus it is important
Qatar (and Turkey) to maintain ties. During the Arab Spring, for
Qatar backed the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Islamist
group whose offshoot is Hamas. Other sources say that advocating for
Hamas is politically beneficial to
Qatar because the
Palestinian cause draws popular support amongst their citizens at
Some began to label
Qatar a terrorist haven in part because it is
Hamas leader Meshaal. They also harbor Husam Badran, former
leader of Hamas's military wing in the northern West Bank. Husam
Badran , current media spokesman for Hamas, was the instigator of
several of the deadliest suicide bombings of the second intifada ,
including the Dolphinarium discotheque bombing in Tel Aviv, which
killed 21 people.
Turkey has also been criticized for housing
Saleh al-Arouri , the senior
Hamas officer, known
for his ability to mastermind attacks from abroad. Al-Arouri is
alleged to have orchestrated the June 2014 abduction and killing of
three Israeli teenagers and to have started the 50-day war between
Israel and Palestine, and now lives in Turkey.
Speaking in reference to Qatar’s support for Hamas, during a 2015
visit to Palestine, Qatari official Mohammad al-Emadi, said
using the money not to help
Hamas but rather the
Palestinian people as
a whole. He acknowledges however that giving to the Palestinian people
Hamas as the local contact. Emadi said, "You have to
support them. You don't like them, don't like them. But they control
the country, you know." Some argue that Hamas’s relations with
Qatar are putting
Hamas in an awkward position because
become part of the regional Arab problem.
Hamas claims that having contacts with various Arab countries
establishes positive relations which will encourage Arab countries to
do their duty toward the Palestinians and support their cause by
influencing public opinion in the Arab world. In March 2015, Hamas
has announced its support of the Saudi Arabian -led military
intervention in Yemen against the Shia
Houthis and forces loyal to
Ali Abdullah Saleh .
Several U.S. organizations were either shut down or held liable for
Hamas in early 2001, groups that have origins from the
Holy Land Foundation (HLF), Islamic Association for
Palestine (IAP), and Kind Hearts . The U.S. Treasury Department
specially designated the HLF in 2001 for terror ties: "from 1995 to
2001 the HLF transferred "approximately $12.4 million outside of the
United States with the intent to contribute funds, goods, and services
to Hamas." According to the Treasury Department, Khaled Meshal
identified one of HLF's officers, Mohammed El-Mezain as "the Hamas
leader for the U.S." In 2003, IAP was found liable for financially
supporting Hamas, and in 2006, Kind Hearts had their assets frozen for
supporting Hamas. In 2016, it was reported that the Boycott,
Divestment and Sanctions movement (BDS) against
Israel includes a web
Hamas supporters from the Illinois-based organization American
Muslims for Palestine (AMP).
* Book: Islamic terrorism
* Book: Islamic terrorist groups
* Palestine portal
* Terrorism portal
25th anniversary of Hamas
Human rights in the
Palestinian National Authority
List of Palestinian suicide attacks
* List of political parties in the
Palestinian National Authority
Matthew Levitt , _Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in
the Service of Jihad_,
Yale University Press , 2007 p.44.
* ^ Tristan Dunning, _Hamas,
Jihad and Popular Legitimacy:
Reinterpreting Resistance in Palestine_,
Routledge 2016 p.270.
* ^ Ekaterina Stepanova, "Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict:
Ideological and Structural Aspects", Stockholm International Peace
Research Institute ,
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press 2008, p.113.
* ^ Sujata Ashwarya Cheema, "
Hamas and Politics in Palestine:Impact
on Peace-Building", in Rajendra Madhukar Abhyankar (ed.), _West Asia
and the Region: Defining India\'s Role_, Academic Foundation 2008 pp.
465, 463–491: "
Hamas considers Palestine the main front of _jihad_
and viewed the uprising as an Islamic way of fighting the Occupation.
The leaders of the organization argued that
Islam gave the Palestinian
people the power to confront
Israel and described the Intifada as the
return of the masses to Islam. Since its inception,
Hamas has tried to
reconcile nationalism and Islam. ...
Hamas claims to speak as a
nationalist movement but with an Islamic-nationalist rather than a
secular nationalist agenda."
* ^ Meir Litvak, "Religious and Nationalist Fanaticism: The Case of
Hamas", in Matthew Hughes & Gaynor Johnson (eds.), _Fanaticism and
Conflict in the Modern Age_,
Frank Cass , London and New York, 2004,
pp. 156–157: "
Hamas is primarily a religious movement whose
nationalist world view is shaped by its religious ideology."
Anthony H. Cordesman ._Peace and War: The Arab–Israeli
Military Balance Enters the 21st Century_. Greenwood Publishing Group
. 2002. p. 243: "
Hamas is a radical Islamic fundamentalist
organization that has stated that its highest priority is a Jihad
(holy war) for the liberation of Palestine."
* ^ Meir Litvak. "Hamas: Palestinian Identity, Islam, and National
Sovereignty," in Asher Susser (ed.) _Challenges to the Cohesion of the
Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African
Tel Aviv University. 2008. p. 153: 'One of the secrets
behind the success of
Hamas is that it is an Islamic and national
movement at one and the same time,'
* ^ Richard Davis. _Hamas, Popular Support and War in the Middle
East: Insurgency in the Holy Land_
Routledge . 2016. pp. 67-69.
* ^ Tariq Mukhimer. _
Hamas Rule in Gaza: Human Rights Under
Palgrave Macmillan . 2012. pp. vii, 57.
* ^ "Gaza ceasefire:
Israel and Palestinians agree to halt weeks of
fighting". TheGuardian. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
* ^ "EU keeps
Hamas on terror list, despite court ruling".
_Euractiv_. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
* ^ https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/65462.pdf
* ^ _
Fatah agrees to celebrate
Hamas anniversary in Gaza_. JTA, 7
* ^ Amal Jamal. _The Palestinian National Movement: Politics of
Contention, 1967-2005_. Indiana University Press. 2005. p. 197. n.21.
Dates differ, between December 1987-January 1988, and August 1988.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Andrew Higgins, \'How
Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas\',
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal 24 January 2009.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _ This article incorporates public domain material from
Congressional Research Service
Congressional Research Service document "Hamas: The Organizations,
Goals and Tactics of a Militant Palestinian Organization".
* ^ Helena Lindholm Schulz The Reconstruction of Palestinian
Nationalism: Between Revolution and Statehood,_ Manchester University
Press, 1999 p.76
Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement), http://www.ict.org.il
* ^ "Israeli Official Says
Hamas Has Made Abbas Irrelevant" _The
New York Times
New York Times _, February 27, 2006
* ^ Efraim Inbar. Israel's National Security: Issues and Challenges
Since the Yom Kippur War. Routledge, Dec 21, 2007. p. 193
* ^ "Hamas". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 2,
* ^ Solomon, Jay (July 31, 2009). "
Hamas Chief Outlines Terms for
Talks on Arab-Israeli Peace". _The Wall Street Journal_. Retrieved
August 2, 2011.
* ^ Amer, Adnan Abu (May 5, 2014). "Hamas\' Abu Marzouk says
Israel a \'red line\'". _Al-Monitor_.
* ^ Tostevin, Matthew (2004-03-06). "eircom net
Ireland-International / Irish news headlines from leading Irish
newspapers". _Internet Archive_. Archived from the original on March
6, 2004. Retrieved 2016-03-17.
* ^ "Report:
Hamas proposes 10-year cease-fire in return for
conditions being met". _The
Jerusalem Post JPost.com_. 2014-07-16.
* ^ Fletcher, Martin (2014-07-16). "How Realistic Are Hamas\'
Cease-Fire Terms?". _NBC News_. Retrieved 2016-03-17.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Stephen E. Atkins, _Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide
Extremists and Extremist Groups,_ Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004
:'This ceasefire ended when
Israel started targeting
Hamas leaders for
assassination in July 2003.
Hamas retaliated with a suicide bombing in
Israel on August 19, 2003, that killed 20 people, including 6
children. Since then
Israelis have mounted an assassination campaign
against the senior leadership of
Hamas that has killed 13 Hamas
members, including Ismail Abu Shanab, one of the most moderate leaders
of Hamas. . .After each of these assassinations,
Hamas has sent a
suicide bomber into
Israel in retaliation.'
* ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Ori Lewis (April 19, 2008). "
killed in attack at Gaza-
Israel border". Reuters. Retrieved April 28,
* ^ Jamie Chosak; Julie Sawyer (October 19, 2005). "Hamas\'s
Tactics: Lessons from Recent Attacks". Washington Institute for Near
East Policy. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
* ^ Clauset, A.; Heger, L.; Young, M.; Gleditsch, K. S. (2010).
"The strategic calculus of terrorism: Substitution and competition in
the Israel--Palestine conflict". _Cooperation and Conflict_. 45 (1):
6–33. ISSN 0010-8367 . doi :10.1177/0010836709347113 .
* ^ Lankford, Adam (2014). "Précis of The Myth of Martyrdom: What
Really Drives Suicide Bombers, Rampage Shooters, and Other
Self-Destructive Killers". _Behavioral and Brain Sciences_. 37 (04):
351–362. ISSN 0140-525X . doi :10.1017/S0140525X13001581 .
* ^ Mark Perry , 'Gaza's Bottle Rockets', in Gideon Rose (ed)
_Clueless in Gaza,_
Foreign Affairs , 2014 p.110: 'most of Hamas'
arsenal is comprised of homemade rockets that are decidedly incapable
of inflicting mass civilian casualties, flattening apartment blocks,
or causing conflagrations that consume entire cities. "Hamas' rockets
can kill people and they have," a counter-intelligence veteran of the
U.S., CIA who spent his career monitoring Israeli and Palestinian
military capabilities, told me recently, "but compared to what the
Israelis are using, the Palestinians are firing bottle rockets."
* ^ The Growing Reach of Hamas\'s Rockets. The New York Times. July
* ^ "
Hamas Rockets from Gaza Target Haifa, Reach Far into Northern
Israel". _Washington Free Beacon_. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
* ^ "Gaza: Palestinian Rockets Unlawfully Targeted Israeli
Civilians". _hrw.org/news/_. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 11 July
* ^ Israel/PA: Suicide Bombers Commit Crimes Against Humanity.
Human Rights Watch
* ^ Pollock, David. "The Surprising Opinions of Palestinians." _The
Washington Institute_. 7 June 2017. 14 June 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Who are Hamas?". London: BBC News. January 26, 2006.
* ^ Erlanger, Steven (February 18, 2006). "
Hamas Leader Faults
Israeli Sanction Plan". _The New York Times_. Retrieved April 22,
* ^ "We\'re sorry, that page can\'t be found." (PDF).
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Hamas _The New York Times_, June 18, 2010 "The pact did not
succeed in restoring the flow of aid and did not last. Clashes between
the two groups steadily escalated until gunmen loyal to
control of Gaza in June, ousting the remnants of Fatah."
* Backgrounder: Hamas. Council of Foreign Relations. August 27,
2009, "In the summer of 2007,
Hamas tensions with the Palestinian
President Mahmoud Abbas, a
Fatah man, came to a head and
Fatah supporters, killing many and sending others fleeing to the West
Bank. The result was a de facto geographic division of
Palestinian-held territory, with
Hamas holding sway in Gaza and Fatah
maintaining the internationally recognized Palestinian Authority
government in the
West Bank town of Ramallah."
* ^ "Gaza may face economic disaster if blockade continues". _USA
Today_. Associated Press. March 29, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
* ^ "Palestinian rivals
Fatah sign reconciliation deal"
The Guardian (UK) _, May 4, 2011
* ^ _A_ _B_ Keinon, Herb. "Politics: Fatah-
Hamas unity talks breed
Likud harmony". _The
Jerusalem Post_. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
* ^ Martha Crenshaw, John Pimlott. _International Encyclopedia of
Terrorism_. Routledge. 2015. p. 415.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Jennifer Jefferis. _Hamas: Terrorism, Governance, and
Its Future in Middle East Politics_.
ABC-CLIO . 2016. p. 119.
* ^ "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)".
MidEast Web. August 18, 1988.
* ^ "
Hamas Islamic Resistance". _Hamas.ps_.
Al-Qassam Brigades - about us Archived November 11, 2014, at
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Levitt 2006 pp.10-11.
* ^ Levitt, 2006 pp.11-12.
Sara Roy , _
Hamas and Civil Society in Gaza: Engaging the
Islamist Social Sector,_
Princeton University Press , Rev.ed. 2013
* ^ CNN, Andrew Carey and Joe Sterling. "
Ismail Haniya elected new
Hamas leader". _CNN_.
* ^ Davis 2016 pp.44-45.
* ^ A. Hovdenak, '
Hamas in Transition:The Failure of Sanctions,' in
Michelle Pace, Peter Seeberg (eds.), _The European Union\'s
Democratization Agenda in the Mediterranean,_ Routledge, 2013 pp.50-79
* ^ Peter Mandaville,_
Islam and Politics,_ Routledge, 2014 Rev.ed,
* ^ _A_ _B_ Benedetta Berti, _Armed Political Organizations: From
Conflict to Integration,_ JHU Press, 2013 p.88.
* ^ Mohammed Ayoob, _Will the Middle East Implode?,_ John Wiley &
Sons, 2014 p.47.
* ^ Tristan Dunning,p.136.
* ^ Levitt, pp.16-23.
* ^ Phillips p.78
* ^ Lihi Ben Shitrit, _Righteous Transgressions: Women\'s Activism
on the Israeli and Palestinian Religious Right,_ Princeton University
Press , 2015 p.71.
* ^ _A_ _B_ David L. Phillips,_From Bullets to Ballots: Violent
Muslim Movements in Transition,_
Transaction Publishers , 2011 p.75.
* ^ Davis,pp.47ff.
* ^ Levitt, p.23:'In a 1995 lecture, Sheikh Jamil Hamami, a party
to the foundation of
Hamas and a senior member of its West Bank
leadership, expounded the importance of Hamas' dawa infrastructure as
the soil from which militancy would flower.'
* ^ Levitt, pp.25-26.
* ^ Mohsen Saleh, _The Palestinian Strategic Report 2006,_ Al
Manhal, 2007 p.198.
* ^ James J. F. Forrest, 'Conclusion', in James Dingley, _Combating
Terrorism in Northern Ireland,_ Routledge, 2008 pp.280-300 p.290.
* ^ Phillips p.81.
* ^ Levitt, pp. 122–123.
* ^ Davis, p.48.
* ^ Davis, pp.48-49.
* ^ Aoibhín de Búrca, _Preventing Political Violence Against
Civilians: Nationalist Militant Conflict in Northern Ireland, Israel
And Palestine,_ Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 pp.100-102.
* ^ Mohammad Najib and Roland Friedrich 'Non-Statutory Armed Groups
and Security Sector Governance,' in Roland Friedrich, Arnold Luethold
(eds.),_Entry-points to Palestinian Security Sector Reform,_ DCAF ,
2007 pp.101-127 p.103.This date is based on a
Hamas operation that
assassinated the rabbi of the
Israeli settlement of
Kfar Darom inside
the Gaza Strip.
* ^ Davis,pp.110-111.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Mathieu Guidère, _Historical Dictionary of
Scarecrow Press , 2012 p.173.
* ^ Najib p.103.
* ^ Alincée Van Engeland,'Hamas,' in Jeffrey Ian Ross
Religion and Violence: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict
from Antiquity to the Present,_
Routledge 2015 pp.319-323: p.319.
* ^ Davis, p.111.
* ^ Mohannad Sabry,_Sinai: Egypt\'s Linchpin, Gaza\'s Lifeline,
Israel\'s Nightmare_, British Academic Press, 2015, p. 65.
* ^ Najib p. 107
* ^ Sabry p. 67.
* ^ Sabry, p.73.
* ^ Jefferis,p.119.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Najib p. 107.
* ^ Shitrit, p.71.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Najib p.106.
* ^ Najib p.105.
* ^ Najib pp. 105–106.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Najib p.106
* ^ R.Kim Cragin,'Learning to Survive:The Case of the Islamic
Resistance Movement (Hamas)', in James JF Forrest (ed.), _Teaching
Terror: Strategic and Tactical Learning in the Terrorist World,_
Rowman & Littlefield , 2006 pp.189-204 p.196.
* ^ Erlich Reese,
Robert Baer , _Conversations with Terrorists:
Middle East Leaders on Politics, Violence, and Empire,_ Routledge,
* ^ Dunning, p.34.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Harry Raymond Hueston, Paul G. Pierpaoli Jr.,
Sherifa Zahar, 'Hamas' in Priscilla Roberts (ed.) _Arab-Israeli
Conflict: The Essential Reference Guide,_
ABC-CLIO , 2014 pp.676-71
* ^ _A_ _B_ Jeroen Gunning, 'Hamas:Harakat al-Muqamama
al-Islamiyya,' in Marianne Heiberg, Brendan O'Leary, John Tirman
(eds.), _Terror, Insurgency, and the State: Ending Protracted
University of Pennsylvania Press
University of Pennsylvania Press , 2007 pp.123-155 p.134.
* ^ Najib pp.107-108-
* ^ Joyce Davis
Innocence, Vengeance, and Despair in the Middle East,_ Palgrave
Macmillan , 2004 p.100.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Julie C.Herrick,'Non-State Actors: A Comparative
Analysis of Change and Development Within
Hamas and Hezbollah,' in
Bahgat Korany (ed.), _The Changing Middle East: A New Look at Regional
Dynamics,_ American University in Cairo Press, 2010 pp.167-195, p.179.
* ^ Mandaville, p.282.
* ^ Matthew Levitt,_Negotiating Under Fire: Preserving Peace Talks
in the Face of Terror Attacks,_
Rowman & Littlefield 2008 pp.89f.
* ^ John L.Esposito, _
Islam and Violence,_ Syracuse University
Press 1998 p.231.
* ^ Ilana Kass 'Politically speaking, Islamic fundamentalists were
sometimes regarded as useful to
Israel because they had their
conflicts with the secular supporters of the PLO . . .the Israeli
military governor of the Gaza Strip, Brigadier General Yitzhak Segev,
once told me how he had financed the Islamic movement as a
counterweight to the PLO and the Communists . . .In 1980, when
fundamentalist protesters set fire to the office of the Red Crescent
Society in Gaza, headed by Dr Haidar Abdel-Shafi, a Communist and PLO
supporter, the Israeli army did nothing, intervening only when the mob
marched to his home and seemed to threaten him personally'.p.35
* ^ Helena Lindholm Schulz _The Reconstruction of Palestinian
Nationalism: Between Revolution and Statehood,_ Manchester University
Press , 1999 p.76
* ^ _A_ _B_ Laura Neack, _The New Foreign Policy: Power Seeking in
a Globalized Era,_
Rowman & Littlefield 2008 p.101.
* ^ Amal Jamal,_The Palestinian National Movement: Politics of
Indiana University Press , 2005 p.197
n.21.Dates differ, between December 1987-January 1988, and August 1988
* ^ _The World Almanac of Islamism: 2014,_ American Foreign Policy
Rowman & Littlefield , 2014 (
* ^ Joshua L. Gleis, Benedetta Berti, _
Hezbollah and Hamas: A
Johns Hopkins University Press , 2012 p.119:'In
truth, the creation of
Hamas as a separate entity from the Muslim
Brotherhood was done precisely to prevent Israeli authorities from
targeting the organizations' greater activities, in the hopes that it
would leave them relatively immune. Moreover,
Hamas was created
essentially because the Islamicists connected to the Muslim
Brotherhood feared that without their direct participation in the
first Intifada, they would lose supporters to both the PIJ and the
PLO, the latter of which was anxious to reassert itself in the
Palestinian territories after being marginalized following its
expulsion from Lebanon. As authors Mishal and Saela, explain, "The
Mujamma's decision to adopt a 'jihad now' policy against 'enemies of
Allah' (through the creation of Hamas) was thus largely a matter of
* ^ "
Hamas Prime Minister
Ismail Haniya Reaffirms Hamas\'
Commitment to Armed Resistance and Says: We Will Liberate Palestine in
Its Entirety, from the Mediterranean to the
Jordan River". _Memri TV_.
Retrieved 22 July 2014.
* ^ Ronni Shaked, 'Ethos of Conflict of the Palestinian Society,'
in Keren Sharvit, Eran Halperin (eds.), _A Social Psychology
Perspective on The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Celebrating the
Legacy of Daniel Bar-Tal,_ Springer, 2016 Volume 2 pp.133-149 p.142.
* ^ According to
Khaled Hroub ,_Hamas: A Beginner's Guide,_ Pluto
Press 2006 p.33: 'The Charter was written in early 1988 by one
individual and was made public without appropriate general Hamas
consultation, revision or consensus, to the regret of Hamas's leaders
in later years. The author of the Charter was one of the 'old guard'
Muslim Brotherhood in the Gaza Strip, completely cut off from
the outside world. All kinds of confusions and conflations between
Judaism and Zionism found their way into the Charter, to the
Hamas ever since, as this document has managed to brand
it with charges of 'anti-Semitism' and a naïve world-view' Hamas
leaders and spokespeople have rarely referred to the Charter or quoted
from it, evidence that it has come to be seen as a burden rather than
an intellectual platform that embraces the movement's principles.'
Khaled Hroub , 'A "New Hamas" through its new documents',
Journal of Palestine Studies , vol. 35, No. 4, Summer 2006, Issue 140,
pp. 6-28, p.6, cited Michael Schulz, '
Sharia Rule and
Demo-Islam,' in Ashok Swain, Ramses Amer, Joakim Öjendal
(eds.),_Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace,_
Hamas continues to be characterized with reference to its
1988 charter drawn up less than a year after the movement was
established in direct response to the outbreak of the third intifada
and when its raison d'être was armed resistance to the occupation.
Yet when its election and post-election documents are compared to the
charter, it becomes clear that what is being promoted is a profondly
* ^ 'The non-
Zionist Jew is one who belongs to the Jewish culture,
whether as a believer in the Jewish faith or simply by accident of
birth, but . .(who) takes no part in aggressive actions against our
land and our nation...
Hamas will not adopt a hostile position in
practice against anyone because of his ideas or his creed but will
adopt such a position if those ideas and creed are translated into
hostile or damaging actions against our people.' (1990)
Khaled Hroub ,
* ^ Giandomenico Picco, Gabrielle Rifkind, _The Fog of Peace_,
I.B.Tauris , 2014 pp.47-48
* ^ Gabriel Weimann,_Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New
Challenges,_ US Institute of Peace Press , 2006 p.82.
* ^ Jim Zanotti, _Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress,_ DIANE
Publishing, 2011 p.15.
* ^ Zanotti, p.15.
* ^ Roberts p.68 :'The Charter condemns world Zionism and the
efforts to isolate Palestine, defines the mission of the organization,
and locates that mission within Palestinian, Arab and Islamic
elements. It does not condemn the West or non-Muslims, but does
condemn aggression against the Palestinian people, arguing for a
defensive jihad. It also calls for fraternal relations with the other
Palestinian nationalist groups'.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "
Hamas Covenant 1988: The Covenant of the Islamic
Resistance Movement". _The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History
and Diplomacy_. Yale Law School. August 18, 1988. Retrieved February
* ^ Shaul Mishal, Avraham Sela,_The Palestinian Hamas: vision,
violence, and coexistence_ Columbia University Press, 2006 p.178.
* ^ Mark A. Tessler _A History of the Israeli-Palestinian
Conflict,_ Indiana University Press, 1994 pp.546,696
Peter Beinart , _The Crisis of Zionism,_ Melbourne University
Press 2012 p.219 n.53.
* ^ Ayala H. Emmett, _Our Sisters\' Promised Land: Women, Politics,
and Israeli-Palestinian Coexistence,_ University of Michigan Press,
* ^ Glenn Frankel, _Beyond the Promised Land: Jews and Arabs on the
Hard Road to a New Israel,_
Simon and Schuster , 1996 p.389-391, cites
Binjamin Netanyahu as declaring:'You say the Bible is not a property
deed. But I say the opposite-the Bible is our mandate, the Bible is
Yitzhak Rabin at the time charged that "Bibi Netyanyahu is
Hamas collaborator . .
Likud have the same political
* ^ David Whitten Smith, Elizabeth Geraldine Burr,_Understanding
World Religions: A Road Map for Justice and Peace,_ Rowman &
Littlefield , 2014 2nd.ed. pp.250-1 for a comparison of similarities
regarding ownership of the land in the
* ^ Louise Fawcett, _International Relations of the Middle East,_
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press 2013 p.49:'The
Hamas platform calls for full
Muslim-Palestinian control of the Mediterranean to the
– the mirror image of Likud’s platform for Jewish control of the
* ^ Padraig O\'Malley _The Two-State Delusion:
Palestine--A Tale of Two Narratives,_ Penguin Books 2015 p.
Israel incessantly invokes provisions of Hamas’s charter that
call for the elimination of Jews and the destruction of Israel, and
its refusal to recognize the state of Israel. . .
Hamas also calls
attention to the clauses in the
Likud charter that explicitly denounce
a two-state solution. A double standard, says Hamas.'
Noam Chomsky , in Elliot N. Dorff, Danya Ruttenberg, Louis E
Newman (eds.), _Jewish Choices, Jewish Voices: War and National
Jewish Publication Society , 2010 pp.26-7
* ^ Dunning, Tristan (20 November 2014), _Israel’s policy on
statehood merits the same scrutiny as
* ^ David Whitten, Smith, Elizabeth Geraldine Burr, _Understanding
World Religions: A Road Map for Justice and Peace,_ Rowman &
Littlefield, 2014 p.250
Peter Beinart , _The Crisis of Zionism,_ Melbourne University
Press 2012 p.231:'If
Israel withdraws to the borders of 1967, it
doesn't mean that it gives us back all the land of the Palestinians.
But we do consider this as an acceptable solution to have a
Palestinian state on the borders of 1967'.
* ^ Dr. Lorenzo Kamel, \'Why do Palestinians in Gaza support
Haaretz 5 August 2014
* ^ Davis, p.41
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