Hamadān (pronounced [hæmædɒːn]) or Hamedān (Persian:
همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the
capital city of
Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its
population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.
Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is
possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the
Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of
the Medes, around 700 BCE.
Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the
Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is
1,850 meters above sea level.
The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract
tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360
kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran.
The main symbols of this city are the
Ganj Nameh inscription, the
Avicenna monument and the
Baba Taher monument. The majority of the
population is Persian; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani
3 Panoramic view
9 Famous Hamadanians
10 International relations
10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
11 See also
14 External links
Ecbatana and Timeline of Hamadan
16th century map of
Hamadan by Matrakçı Nasuh
The Ganjnameh, a cuneiform inscription in Hamadan
Silver Drachma of Parthian king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint
According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "
Hamadan is a very old city. It
may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from
ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is
certainly mentioned by
Herodotus (i.98) who says that the king of
Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century
Hamadan was established by the Medes. It then became one of several
capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty.
Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a
scroll was found giving the
Jews permission from King Darius to
rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of
Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea
level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.
During the Parthian era,
Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and
Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After
the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in
Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of
Nahavand took place and Hamadan
fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.
During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th
Seljuks shifted their capital from
Baghdad to Hamadan.
The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of
regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion.
Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th
Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work
of Nader Shah e Afshar,
Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a
result of a peace treaty between
Iran and the Ottomans, it was
returned to Iran.
Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent
centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of
its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia
During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between
Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and
finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the
Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.
Hamadan spot (light blue in center) in
Hamadan province topography map
Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of
Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are
influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year.
The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west
winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and
bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn,
and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure
between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the
Asad Abad region.
Hamadan is in the vicinity of the
Alvand mountains and has a dry
summer continental climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Dsa), in
transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate
classification BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the
coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C
(−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during
winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During
the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.
Climate data for Hamedan
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)
Mishan, a plain of
Hamadan at night.
Hamadan was redesigned in 1928 by German architects
and urban planners to resemble the spokes of a hexagram.
According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of
Hamadan was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the
Hamadan county was 563,444 people. The majority of
population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris, and a
small group of Persian Jews.
The Saint Mary Church of Hamadan
The Stone Lion
Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is
also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited
Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather,
ceramic, and carpets.
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical
and cultural significance in the city of
A tomb believed by some to hold the remains of tomb the biblical
Esther and her uncle
Mordechai is located in Hamadan.
The scientist and writer known in the west as
Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina)
is buried in Hamadan, where a Mausoleum was built in his honor in
1952. The 11th-century Iranian poet
Baba Taher is also interred in
This city is also the birthplace of Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, author
of the Maqamat.
Tomb of Baba Taher
Inside the tomb of Baba Taher
The Tomb of Avicenna
The handwriting of
Canon of Medicine
Canon of Medicine in the Tomb of Avicenna
Esther and Mordechai, a tomb believed by some to hold the
Esther and Mordechai
Inside the structure alleged by some to be the Tomb of
Emamzade Abdollah Mosque
Dome of Alavian related with Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
PAS Hamedan F.C.
PAS Hamedan F.C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of
Tehran F.C.. The team, along with
Alvand Hamedan F.C., currently
participates in the Azadegan League.
Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium, Shahid
Mofatteh Stadium, Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of
Hamadan University of Technology, in Hamadan
Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in
limited to some
Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie
Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was
built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first
modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan.
Some of the popular universities in
Bu-Ali Sina University
Hamadan Medical University
Islamic Azad University of Hamadan
Hamadan University of Technology
Fazlollah Zahedi and his family
Abolhassan Banisadr, economist, politician, and the first
post-revolutionary elected president of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Amir Nosrat'ollah Balakhanlou, born in
Tehran — two-time mayor and
Hamadan City (1950s and early 1960s)
Amir-Shahab Razavian, film director, writer and producer
Baba-Taher-e Oryan, a famous Poet (1100 A.c)
Ein-Alqozat Hamadani, a great philosopher and sufist (1100 A.C)
Ehsan Yarshater, historian, scientists, and founder of Encyclopædia
Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi, celebrated poet (1300 A.C)
Fazlollah Zahedi, military general
Fereydoun Moshiri, contemporary poet (originally from Hamadan, but
born in Tehran)
Hanieh Tavassoli, actress
Joseph Emin, a major activist in the attempts to liberate Armenia
during the 18th century
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, poet and scholar
Mirzadeh Eshghi, a celebrated nationalist poet
Moshfegh Hamadani, writer, journalist and translator
Parviz Parastouei, acclaimed actor
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Persian statesman, historian and physician of
the 13th-14th centuries
Shirin Ebadi, lawyer and the 2003 Nobel Peace Laureate
Samuel Rahbar, scientist
Viguen, known as the king of Persian pop and jazz music
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Iran
Twin towns – Sister cities
Hamadan is twinned with:
Baba Taher Orian
Ali Sadr Cave
Wojtek (soldier bear)
^ "معارفه سرپرست شهرداري همدان".
Municipality.hamadan.ir (in Persian). Hamedan Municipality. Retrieved
18 February 2017.
^ Multiple Authors (April 18, 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia
Iranica. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic
Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on
^ Introduction: Hamedan Province
^ Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat
Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and
Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is
'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic
Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom,
Yazd and Tehran..."
^ (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopædia
Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamedān has been a crossroads of
civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live
there side by side. The main language spoken, especially in the
provincial capital and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the
lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province,
however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the
northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and
Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other
cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori
and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)."
^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic
World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151.
^ "Hamedan Nozheh Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
^ Subani, Hamad (2013). The Secret History of Iran. Lulu.com.
p. 19. ISBN 9781304082893.
^ Official statistics from 1997 (1375) -
Hamadan provinces -
Population and ethnicites - "Archived copy". Archived from the
original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-22. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link) accessed on March 12, 2006.
Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010.
Hamadan (Iran) - Encyclopædia Britannica
Hamadan - LookLex Encyclopaedia
^ در ششمین همایش بوعلی سینا در بخارا؛
«بخارا» زادگاه و «همدان» مدفن
بوعلیسینا خواهرخوانده میشوند
See also: Bibliography of the history of Hamadan
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hamadan.
Hamadan Medical University
Ecbatana, Photos from Iran, Livius.
Gandj Nameh, Photos from Iran, Livius.
The Bisotun inscription, Photos from Iran, Livius.
Hamadan: Older than history
Hamadan; Capital of Median Empire
Iconos satellite photo (January, 2005)
Google Satellite Picture
Hamedan Cultural Heritage Organization (in Persian)
Hegmataneh Official Website
Hamadān entries in the
Capital of Median Empire
Achaemenid Empire (Persia)
Served as Summer Capital
Seljuq Empire (Persia)
Counties and cities
Shrine of Habakkuk, Toyserkan
Hamedan Stone Lion
Ali Sadr Cave
Hamedan Museum of Natural History
Noshijan fire temple,Malayer
Esther and Mordechai, Hamedan
Baba Taher Mausleum, Hamedan
Avicenna mausoleum, Hamedan
Alvand ski resort
Median capital of Hegmataneh, Hamedan
List of cities, towns and villages in
Ansar ol Emam
Heydareh-ye Posht-e Shahr
Aliabad-e Aq Hesar
Aliabad-e Posht Shahr
Buli Industrial Estate
Zia ol Din
Emamzadeh Pir Nahan
Largest cities or towns in Iran
Sistan and Baluchestan