Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of All Hallows' Evening),
also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints'
Eve, is a celebration observed in a number of countries on 31
October, the eve of the
Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day.
It begins the three-day observance of Allhallowtide, the time in
the liturgical year dedicated to remembering the dead, including
saints (hallows), martyrs, and all the faithful departed.
It is widely believed that many
Halloween traditions originated from
ancient Celtic harvest festivals, particularly the Gaelic festival
Samhain; that such festivals may have had pagan roots; and that
Samhain itself was Christianized as
Halloween by the early
Church. Some believe, however, that Halloween
began solely as a Christian holiday, separate from ancient festivals
Halloween activities include trick-or-treating (or the related
Halloween costume parties, carving pumpkins into
jack-o'-lanterns, lighting bonfires, apple bobbing, divination games,
playing pranks, visiting haunted attractions, telling scary stories,
and watching horror films. In many parts of the world, the Christian
religious observances of All Hallows' Eve, including attending church
services and lighting candles on the graves of the dead, remain
popular, although elsewhere it is a more commercial and
secular celebration. Some Christians historically
abstained from meat on All Hallows' Eve, a tradition reflected in the
eating of certain vegetarian foods on this vigil day, including
apples, potato pancakes, and soul cakes.
2.1 Gaelic and Welsh influence
2.2 Christian influence
2.3 Spread to North America
Trick-or-treating and guising
6 Games and other activities
7 Haunted attractions
9 Christian religious observances
10 Analogous celebrations and perspectives
11 Around the world
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
The word appears as the title of Robert Burns' "Halloween" (1785), a
poem traditionally recited by Scots
Halloween or Hallowe'en dates to about 1745 and is of
Christian origin. The word "Hallowe'en" means "hallowed evening"
or "holy evening". It comes from a Scottish term for All Hallows'
Eve (the evening before All Hallows' Day). In Scots, the word
"eve" is even, and this is contracted to e'en or een. Over time, (All)
Hallow(s) E(v)en evolved into Hallowe'en. Although the phrase "All
Hallows'" is found in
Old English "All Hallows' Eve" is itself not
seen until 1556.
Gaelic and Welsh influence
An early 20th-century Irish
Halloween mask displayed at the Museum of
Halloween customs are thought to have been influenced by folk
customs and beliefs from the Celtic-speaking countries, some of which
are believed to have pagan roots. Jack Santino, a folklorist,
writes that "there was throughout Ireland an uneasy truce existing
between customs and beliefs associated with Christianity and those
associated with religions that were Irish before Christianity
arrived". Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of
Halloween, notes that while "some folklorists have detected its
origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds,
or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it is more typically
linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain, which comes from the Old
Irish for "summer's end". [check quotation syntax]
Samhain (/ˈsɑːwɪn, ˈsaʊɪn/) was the first and most important of
the four quarter days in the medieval Gaelic calendar and was
31 October – 1 November in Ireland,
Scotland and the
Isle of Man. A kindred festival was held at the same time of
year by the Brittonic Celts, called
Calan Gaeaf in Wales, Kalan Gwav
in Cornwall and Kalan Goañv in Brittany; a name meaning "first day of
winter". For the Celts, the day ended and began at sunset; thus the
festival began on the evening before 1 November by modern
Calan Gaeaf are mentioned in some of the
earliest Irish and Welsh literature. The names have been used by
historians to refer to Celtic
Halloween customs up until the 19th
century, and are still the Gaelic and Welsh names for Halloween.
Snap-Apple Night, painted by
Daniel Maclise in 1833, shows people
feasting and playing divination games on
Halloween in Ireland.
Calan Gaeaf marked the end of the harvest season and beginning
of winter or the 'darker half' of the year. Like Beltane/Calan
Mai, it was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this
world and the Otherworld thinned. This meant the Aos Sí
(/iːsˈʃiː/ eess-SHEE), the 'spirits' or 'fairies', could more
easily come into our world and were particularly active. Most
scholars see the
Aos Sí as "degraded versions of ancient gods [...]
whose power remained active in the people's minds even after they had
been officially replaced by later religious beliefs". The
Aos Sí were
both respected and feared, with individuals often invoking the
protection of God when approaching their dwellings. At
Samhain, it was believed that the
Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to
ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter.
Offerings of food and drink, or portions of the crops, were left
outside for the Aos Sí. The souls of the dead were also
said to revisit their homes seeking hospitality. Places were set
at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them. The belief
that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and
must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many
cultures throughout the world. In 19th century Ireland, "candles
would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead.
After this the eating, drinking, and games would begin".
Throughout Ireland and Britain, the household festivities included
rituals and games intended to foretell one's future, especially
regarding death and marriage. Apples and nuts were often used in
these divination rituals. They included apple bobbing, nut roasting,
scrying or mirror-gazing, pouring molten lead or egg whites into
water, dream interpretation, and others.
Special bonfires were lit
and there were rituals involving them. Their flames, smoke and ashes
were deemed to have protective and cleansing powers, and were also
used for divination. In some places, torches lit from the
bonfire were carried sunwise around homes and fields to protect
them. It is suggested that the fires were a kind of imitative or
sympathetic magic – they mimicked the Sun, helping the "powers of
growth" and holding back the decay and darkness of winter.
In Scotland, these bonfires and divination games were banned by the
church elders in some parishes. In Wales, bonfires were lit to
"prevent the souls of the dead from falling to earth". Later,
these bonfires served to keep "away the devil".
A traditional Irish
Halloween turnip (rutabaga) lantern on display in
the Museum of Country Life, Ireland
From at least the 16th century, the festival included mumming and
guising in Ireland, Scotland, the
Isle of Man
Isle of Man and Wales. This
involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise),
usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have
originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí,
or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf,
similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these
beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself
from them. It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify
the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for
good fortune". In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included
a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths
house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan
overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it
could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would
bring misfortune. In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with
masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief
if they were not welcomed.
F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient
festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that
faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred
bonfire. In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome
beings called gwrachod. In the late 19th and early 20th century,
young people in
Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses were part of other
yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were
"particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings
were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human
wanderers". From at least the 18th century, "imitating malignant
spirits" led to playing pranks in Ireland and the Scottish
Highlands. Wearing costumes and playing pranks at
to England in the 20th century. Traditionally, pranksters used
hollowed out turnips or mangel wurzels often carved with grotesque
faces as lanterns. By those who made them, the lanterns were
variously said to represent the spirits, or were used to ward off
evil spirits. They were common in parts of Ireland and the
Scottish Highlands in the 19th century, as well as in Somerset
(see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other parts of
England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns.
Halloween customs are also thought to have been influenced by
Christian dogma and practices derived from it.
Halloween is the
evening before the Christian holy days of All Hallows' Day (also known
as All Saints' or Hallowmas) on 1 November and
All Souls' Day
All Souls' Day on 2
November, thus giving the holiday on
31 October the full name of All
Hallows' Eve (meaning the evening before All Hallows' Day). Since
the time of the early Church, major feasts in Christianity (such
Easter and Pentecost) had vigils that began the night
before, as did the feast of All Hallows'. These three days are
Allhallowtide and are a time for honoring the
saints and praying for the recently departed souls who have yet to
reach Heaven. Commemorations of all saints and martyrs were held by
several churches on various dates, mostly in springtime. In 609,
Pope Boniface IV
Pope Boniface IV re-dedicated the Pantheon in Rome to "St Mary and all
martyrs" on 13 May. This was the same date as Lemuria, an ancient
Roman festival of the dead, and the same date as the commemoration of
all saints in
Edessa in the time of Ephrem.
The feast of All Hallows', on its current date in the Western Church,
may be traced to Pope Gregory III's (731–741) founding of an oratory
in St Peter's for the relics "of the holy apostles and of all saints,
martyrs and confessors". In 835, All Hallows' Day was
officially switched to 1 November, the same date as Samhain, at the
behest of Pope Gregory IV. Some suggest this was due to Celtic
influence, while others suggest it was a Germanic idea, although
it is claimed that both Germanic and Celtic-speaking peoples
commemorated the dead at the beginning of winter. They may have
seen it as the most fitting time to do so, as it is a time of 'dying'
in nature. It is also suggested that the change was made on
the "practical grounds that Rome in summer could not accommodate the
great number of pilgrims who flocked to it", and perhaps because of
public health considerations regarding Roman Fever – a disease that
claimed a number of lives during the sultry summers of the region.
On All Hallows' Eve, Christians in some parts of the world visit
cemeteries to pray and place flowers and candles on the graves of
their loved ones. Top photograph shows Bangladeshi Christians
lighting candles on the headstone, while the bottom painting shows an
artist's rendering of
Lutheran Christians praying and lighting candles
in front of the crucifix.
By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation
across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing church bells for
the souls in purgatory. In addition, "it was customary for criers
dressed in black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful
sound and calling on all good Christians to remember the poor
souls." "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for
all christened souls, has been suggested as the origin of
trick-or-treating. The custom dates back at least as far as the
15th century and was found in parts of England, Flanders, Germany
and Austria. Groups of poor people, often children, would go
door-to-door during Allhallowtide, collecting soul cakes, in exchange
for praying for the dead, especially the souls of the givers' friends
and relatives. Soul cakes would also be offered for the
souls themselves to eat, or the 'soulers' would act as their
representatives. As with the Lenten tradition of hot cross buns,
Allhallowtide soul cakes were often marked with a cross, indicating
that they were baked as alms.
Shakespeare mentions souling in his
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593). On the custom of
wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: "It
was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the
earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last
chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving
to the next world. In order to avoid being recognized by any soul that
might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to
disguise their identities".
It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to
display the relics of martyred saints at
parishioners dress up as saints instead. Some Christians
continue to observe this custom at
Halloween today. Lesley
Bannatyne believes this could have been a
Christianization of an
earlier pagan custom. While souling, Christians would carry with
them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips". It has been
suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of
Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead. On
Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit
to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to
deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk.
Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning
in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes".
These were known as "soul lights". Many Christians in
mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on
Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous
carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in
Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick
write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were
moved by the sight of the
Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee;
their hearts were touched by the Pietà; and patron saints reassured
them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged
them not to forget the end of all earthly things." This danse
macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with
people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and
may have been the origin of modern-day
In parts of Britain, these customs came under attack during the
Reformation as some Protestants berated purgatory as a "popish"
doctrine incompatible with their notion of predestination. Thus, for
some Nonconformist Protestants, the theology of All Hallows' Eve was
redefined; without the doctrine of purgatory, "the returning souls
cannot be journeying from
Purgatory on their way to Heaven, as
Catholics frequently believe and assert. Instead, the so-called ghosts
are thought to be in actuality evil spirits. As such they are
threatening." Other Protestants maintained belief in an
intermediate state, known as Hades (Bosom of Abraham), and
continued to observe the original customs, especially souling,
candlelit processions and the ringing of church bells in memory of the
dead. Mark Donnelly, a professor of medieval archæology, and
historian Daniel Diehl, with regard to the evil spirits, on Halloween,
write that "barns and homes were blessed to protect people and
livestock from the effect of witches, who were believed to accompany
the malignant spirits as they traveled the earth." In the 19th
century, in some rural parts of England, families gathered on hills on
the night of All Hallows' Eve. One held a bunch of burning straw on a
pitchfork while the rest knelt around him in a circle, praying for the
souls of relatives and friends until the flames went out. This was
known as teen'lay. The rising popularity of
Guy Fawkes Night
Guy Fawkes Night (5
November) from 1605 onward, saw many
Halloween traditions appropriated
by that holiday instead, and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain,
with the noteworthy exception of Scotland. There and in Ireland,
they had been celebrating
Halloween since at least the
early Middle Ages, and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic
approach to Halloween, seeing it as important to the life cycle and
rites of passage of communities and thus ensuring its survival in the
In France, some Christian families, on the night of All Hallows' Eve,
prayed beside the graves of their loved ones, setting down dishes full
of milk for them. On Halloween, in Italy, some families left a
large meal out for ghosts of their passed relatives, before they
departed for church services. In Spain, on this night, special
pastries are baked, known as "bones of the holy" (Spanish: Huesos de
Santo) and put them on the graves of the churchyard, a practice that
continues to this day.
Spread to North America
Greenwich Village Halloween Parade
Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in New York City is the
Lesley Bannatyne and Cindy Ott both write that
Anglican colonists in
the Southern United States and
Catholic colonists in Maryland
"recognized All Hallow's Eve in their church calendars",
although the Puritans of
New England maintained strong opposition to
the holiday, along with other traditional celebrations of the
established Church, including Christmas. Almanacs of the late
18th and early 19th century give no indication that
widely celebrated in North America. It was not until mass Irish
and Scottish immigration in the 19th century that
Halloween became a
major holiday in North America. Confined to the immigrant
communities during the mid-19th century, it was gradually assimilated
into mainstream society and by the first decade of the 20th century it
was being celebrated coast to coast by people of all social, racial
and religious backgrounds. "In
Cajun areas, a nocturnal Mass was
said in cemeteries on
Halloween night. Candles that had been blessed
were placed on graves, and families sometimes spent the entire night
at the graveside".
At Halloween, yards, public spaces, and some houses may be decorated
with traditionally macabre symbols including witches, skeletons,
ghosts, cobwebs, and headstones.
Development of artifacts and symbols associated with
over time. Jack-o'-lanterns are traditionally carried by guisers on
All Hallows' Eve in order to frighten evil spirits. There is
a popular Irish Christian folktale associated with the
jack-o'-lantern, which in folklore is said to represent a "soul
who has been denied entry into both heaven and hell":
On route home after a night's drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and
tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign
of the cross into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a
Satan can never claim his soul. After a life of sin,
drink, and mendacity, Jack is refused entry to heaven when he dies.
Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell and
throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a
cold night, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop
it from going out, since which time Jack and his lantern have been
roaming looking for a place to rest.
In Ireland and Scotland, the turnip has traditionally been carved
during Halloween, but immigrants to North America used the
native pumpkin, which is both much softer and much larger –
making it easier to carve than a turnip. The American tradition
of carving pumpkins is recorded in 1837 and was originally
associated with harvest time in general, not becoming specifically
Halloween until the mid-to-late 19th century.
Decorated house in Weatherly, Pennsylvania
The modern imagery of
Halloween comes from many sources, including
Christian eschatology, national customs, works of Gothic and horror
literature (such as the novels
Frankenstein and Dracula) and classic
horror films (such as
Frankenstein and The Mummy). Imagery
of the skull, a reference to
Golgotha in the Christian tradition,
serves as "a reminder of death and the transitory quality of human
life" and is consequently found in memento mori and vanitas
compositions; skulls have therefore been commonplace in
Halloween, which touches on this theme. Traditionally, the back
walls of churches are "decorated with a depiction of the Last
Judgment, complete with graves opening and the dead rising, with a
heaven filled with angels and a hell filled with devils", a motif that
has permeated the observance of this triduum. One of the earliest
works on the subject of
Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne,
who, in 1780, made note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks
ensue!", as well as the supernatural associated with the night,
"Bogies" (ghosts), influencing Robert Burns' "Halloween" (1785).
Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins, corn husks, and
scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these
types of symbols around Halloween.
Halloween imagery includes themes
of death, evil, and mythical monsters. Black, orange, and
sometimes purple are Halloween's traditional colors.
Trick-or-treating and guising
Main article: Trick-or-treating
Trick-or-treaters in Sweden
Trick-or-treating is a customary celebration for children on
Halloween. Children go in costume from house to house, asking for
treats such as candy or sometimes money, with the question, "Trick or
treat?" The word "trick" implies a "threat" to perform mischief on the
homeowners or their property if no treat is given. The practice is
said to have roots in the medieval practice of mumming, which is
closely related to souling. John Pymm writes that "many of the
feast days associated with the presentation of mumming plays were
celebrated by the Christian Church." These feast days included
All Hallows' Eve, Christmas, Twelfth Night and Shrove
Mumming practiced in Germany, Scandinavia and other
parts of Europe, involved masked persons in fancy dress who
"paraded the streets and entered houses to dance or play dice in
Girl in a
Halloween costume in 1928, Ontario, Canada, the same
province where the Scottish
Halloween custom of "guising" is first
recorded in North America
In England, from the medieval period, up until the 1930s,
people practiced the Christian custom of souling on Halloween, which
involved groups of soulers, both
Protestant and Catholic, going
from parish to parish, begging the rich for soul cakes, in exchange
for praying for the souls of the givers and their friends.
Scotland and Ireland, guising – children disguised in
costume going from door to door for food or coins – is a
Halloween custom, and is recorded in
Scotland at Halloween
in 1895 where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of
scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit, and
money. The practice of guising at
Halloween in North America is
first recorded in 1911, where a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario, Canada
reported children going "guising" around the neighborhood.
American historian and author
Ruth Edna Kelley
Ruth Edna Kelley of
the first book-length history of
Halloween in the US; The Book of
Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en
in America". In her book, Kelley touches on customs that arrived
from across the Atlantic; "Americans have fostered them, and are
making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its
best days overseas. All
Halloween customs in the United States are
borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries".
While the first reference to "guising" in North America occurs in
1911, another reference to ritual begging on
Halloween appears, place
unknown, in 1915, with a third reference in Chicago in 1920. The
earliest known use in print of the term "trick or treat" appears in
1927, in the Blackie Herald Alberta, Canada.
An automobile trunk at a trunk-or-treat event at St. John Lutheran
Church and Early Learning Center in Darien, Illinois
The thousands of
Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the
20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but not
Trick-or-treating does not seem to have become
a widespread practice until the 1930s, with the first U.S. appearances
of the term in 1934, and the first use in a national publication
occurring in 1939.
A popular variant of trick-or-treating, known as trunk-or-treating (or
Halloween tailgaiting), occurs when "children are offered treats from
the trunks of cars parked in a church parking lot", or sometimes, a
school parking lot. In a trunk-or-treat event, the trunk
(boot) of each automobile is decorated with a certain theme, such
as those of children's literature, movies, scripture, and job
roles. Trunk-or-treating has grown in popularity due to its
perception as being more safe than going door to door, a point that
resonates well with parents, as well as the fact that it "solves the
rural conundrum in which homes [are] built a half-mile
Halloween costumes are traditionally modeled after supernatural
figures such as vampires, monsters, ghosts, skeletons, witches, and
devils. Over time, in the United States, the costume selection
extended to include popular characters from fiction, celebrities, and
generic archetypes such as ninjas and princesses.
Dressing up in costumes and going "guising" was prevalent in Ireland
Halloween by the late 19th century. Costuming
became popular for
Halloween parties in the US in the early 20th
century, as often for adults as for children. The first mass-produced
Halloween costumes appeared in stores in the 1930s when
trick-or-treating was becoming popular in the United States.
The yearly New York
Halloween Parade, begun in 1974 by puppeteer and
mask maker Ralph Lee of Greenwich Village, is a large
and one of America's only major nighttime parades (along with
Portland's Starlight Parade), attracting more than 60,000 costumed
participants, two million spectators, and a worldwide television
audience of over 100 million. The largest
in the world takes place in
Derry in Northern Ireland, which was named
Halloween destination in the world" having been voted number
one in a
USA Today readers' poll in 2015.
Eddie J. Smith, in his book Halloween,
Hallowed is Thy Name, offers a
religious perspective to the wearing of costumes on All Hallows' Eve,
suggesting that by dressing up as creatures "who at one time caused us
to fear and tremble", people are able to poke fun at
kingdom has been plundered by our Saviour". Images of skeletons and
the dead are traditional decorations used as memento mori.
"Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" is a fundraising program to support
UNICEF, a United Nations Programme that provides humanitarian aid
to children in developing countries. Started as a local event in a
Northeast Philadelphia neighborhood in 1950 and expanded nationally in
1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools
(or in modern times, corporate sponsors like Hallmark, at their
licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit
small-change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated
that children have collected more than $118 million for UNICEF
since its inception. In Canada, in 2006, UNICEF decided to discontinue
Halloween collection boxes, citing safety and administrative
concerns; after consultation with schools, they instead redesigned the
Games and other activities
In this 1904
Halloween greeting card, divination is depicted: the
young woman looking into a mirror in a darkened room hopes to catch a
glimpse of her future husband.
There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween. Some
of these games originated as divination rituals or ways of foretelling
one's future, especially regarding death, marriage and children.
During the Middle Ages, these rituals were done by a "rare few" in
rural communities as they were considered to be "deadly serious"
practices. In recent centuries, these divination games have been
"a common feature of the household festivities" in Ireland and
Britain. They often involve apples and hazelnuts. In Celtic
mythology, apples were strongly associated with the Otherworld and
immortality, while hazelnuts were associated with divine wisdom.
Some also suggest that they derive from Roman practices in celebration
Children bobbing for apples at Hallowe'en
The following activities were a common feature of
Halloween in Ireland
and Britain during the 17th–20th centuries. Some have become more
widespread and continue to be popular today. One common game is apple
bobbing or dunking (which may be called "dooking" in Scotland) in
which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water and the
participants must use only their teeth to remove an apple from the
basin. A variant of dunking involves kneeling on a chair, holding a
fork between the teeth and trying to drive the fork into an apple.
Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones
by strings; these must be eaten without using hands while they remain
attached to the string, an activity that inevitably leads to a sticky
face. Another once-popular game involves hanging a small wooden rod
from the ceiling at head height, with a lit candle on one end and an
apple hanging from the other. The rod is spun round and everyone takes
turns to try to catch the apple with their teeth.
Image from the Book of Hallowe'en (1919) showing several Halloween
activities, such as nut roasting
Several of the traditional activities from Ireland and Britain involve
foretelling one's future partner or spouse. An apple would be peeled
in one long strip, then the peel tossed over the shoulder. The peel is
believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future
spouse's name. Two hazelnuts would be roasted near a fire;
one named for the person roasting them and the other for the person
they desire. If the nuts jump away from the heat, it is a bad sign,
but if the nuts roast quietly it foretells a good match. A
salty oatmeal bannock would be baked; the person would eat it in three
bites and then go to bed in silence without anything to drink. This is
said to result in a dream in which their future spouse offers them a
drink to quench their thirst. Unmarried women were told that if
they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween
night, the face of their future husband would appear in the
mirror. However, if they were destined to die before marriage, a
skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be
commemorated on greeting cards from the late 19th century and
early 20th century.
In Ireland and Scotland, items would be hidden in food—usually a
cake, barmbrack, cranachan, champ or colcannon—and portions of it
served out at random. A person's future would be foretold by the item
they happened to find; for example, a ring meant marriage and a coin
Up until the 19th century, the
Halloween bonfires were also used for
divination in parts of Scotland, Wales and Brittany. When the fire
died down, a ring of stones would be laid in the ashes, one for each
person. In the morning, if any stone was mislaid it was said that the
person it represented would not live out the year.
Telling ghost stories and watching horror films are common fixtures of
Halloween parties. Episodes of television series and Halloween-themed
specials (with the specials usually aimed at children) are commonly
aired on or before Halloween, while new horror films are often
Halloween to take advantage of the holiday.
Humorous tombstones in front of a house in California
Main article: Haunted attraction (simulated)
Haunted attractions are entertainment venues designed to thrill and
scare patrons. Most attractions are seasonal
Halloween businesses that
may include haunted houses, corn mazes, and hayrides, and the
level of sophistication of the effects has risen as the industry has
The first recorded purpose-built haunted attraction was the Orton and
Ghost House, which opened in 1915 in Liphook, England. This
attraction actually most closely resembles a carnival fun house,
powered by steam. The House still exists, in the Hollycombe
It was during the 1930s, about the same time as trick-or-treating,
that Halloween-themed haunted houses first began to appear in America.
It was in the late 1950s that haunted houses as a major attraction
began to appear, focusing first on California. Sponsored by the
Children's Health Home Junior Auxiliary, the San Mateo Haunted House
opened in 1957. The San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House
opened in 1958. Home haunts began appearing across the country during
1962 and 1963. In 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened, as well
as the Children's Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis.
The haunted house as an American cultural icon can be attributed to
the opening of the
Haunted Mansion in
Disneyland on 12 August
Knott's Berry Farm
Knott's Berry Farm began hosting its own
attraction, Knott's Scary Farm, which opened in 1973. Evangelical
Christians adopted a form of these attractions by opening one of the
first "hell houses" in 1972.
Halloween haunted house run by a nonprofit organization was
produced in 1970 by the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in Clifton, Ohio.
It was cosponsored by WSAI, an AM radio station broadcasting out of
Cincinnati, Ohio. It was last produced in 1982. Other Jaycees
followed suit with their own versions after the success of the Ohio
house. The March of Dimes copyrighted a "Mini haunted house for the
March of Dimes" in 1976 and began fundraising through their local
chapters by conducting haunted houses soon after. Although they
apparently quit supporting this type of event nationally sometime in
the 1980s, some March of Dimes haunted houses have persisted until
On the evening of 11 May 1984, in Jackson Township, New Jersey, the
Haunted Castle (Six Flags Great Adventure)
Haunted Castle (Six Flags Great Adventure) caught fire. As a result of
the fire, eight teenagers perished. The backlash to the tragedy
was a tightening of regulations relating to safety, building codes and
the frequency of inspections of attractions nationwide. The smaller
venues, especially the nonprofit attractions, were unable to compete
financially, and the better funded commercial enterprises filled the
vacuum. Facilities that were once able to avoid regulation
because they were considered to be temporary installations now had to
adhere to the stricter codes required of permanent
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, theme parks entered the business
Six Flags Fright Fest
Six Flags Fright Fest began in 1986 and Universal Studios
Halloween Horror Nights
Halloween Horror Nights in 1991. Knott's Scary Farm
experienced a surge in attendance in the 1990s as a result of
America's obsession with
Halloween as a cultural event. Theme parks
have played a major role in globalizing the holiday. Universal Studios
Universal Studios Japan
Universal Studios Japan both participate, while Disney
Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party
Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party events at its parks
in Paris, Hong Kong and Tokyo, as well as in the United States.
The theme park haunts are by far the largest, both in scale and
Pumpkins for sale during Halloween
On All Hallows' Eve, many
Western Christian denominations encourage
abstinence from meat, giving rise to a variety of vegetarian foods
associated with this day.
A candy apple
Because in the
Halloween comes in the wake of the
yearly apple harvest, candy apples (known as toffee apples outside
North America), caramel or taffy apples are common
made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, sometimes
followed by rolling them in nuts.
At one time, candy apples were commonly given to trick-or-treating
children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread
rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor
blades in the apples in the United States. While there is
evidence of such incidents, relative to the degree of reporting
of such cases, actual cases involving malicious acts are extremely
rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many
parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of
the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered
free X-rays of children's
Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of
tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents
involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy.
One custom that persists in modern-day Ireland is the baking (or more
often nowadays, the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish: báirín breac),
which is a light fruitcake, into which a plain ring, a coin, and other
charms are placed before baking. It is said that those who get a ring
will find their true love in the ensuing year. This is similar to the
tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany.
Halloween cake with a witches hat
List of foods associated with Halloween:
Bonfire toffee (Great Britain)
Candy apples/toffee apples (Great Britain and Ireland)
Candy apples, candy corn, candy pumpkins (North America)
Monkey nuts (peanuts in their shells) (Ireland and Scotland)
Colcannon (Ireland; see below)
Novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc.
Roasted pumpkin seeds
Roasted sweet corn
Christian religious observances
Vigil of All Hallows' is being celebrated at an Episcopal
Christian church on Hallowe'en.
On Hallowe'en (All Hallows' Eve), in Poland, believers were once
taught to pray out loud as they walk through the forests in order that
the souls of the dead might find comfort; in Spain, Christian priests
in tiny villages toll their church bells in order to remind their
congregants to remember the dead on All Hallows' Eve. In Ireland,
and among immigrants in Canada, a custom includes the Christian
practice of abstinence, keeping All Hallows' Eve as a meat-free day,
and serving pancakes or colcannon instead. In
make an altar to invite the return of the spirits of dead children
Christian Church traditionally observed Hallowe'en through a
vigil. Worshippers prepared themselves for feasting on the following
All Saints' Day
All Saints' Day with prayers and fasting. This church service is
known as the
Vigil of All Hallows or the
Vigil of All
Saints; an initiative known as Night of Light seeks to
further spread the
Vigil of All Hallows throughout
Christendom. After the service, "suitable festivities and
entertainments" often follow, as well as a visit to the graveyard or
cemetery, where flowers and candles are often placed in preparation
for All Hallows' Day. In Finland, because so many people
visit the cemeteries on All Hallows' Eve to light votive candles
there, they "are known as valomeri, or seas of light".
Halloween Scripture Candy with gospel tract
Today, Christian attitudes towards
Halloween are diverse. In the
Anglican Church, some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian
traditions associated with All Hallow's Eve. Some of these
practices include praying, fasting and attending worship
O LORD our God, increase, we pray thee, and multiply upon us the gifts
of thy grace: that we, who do prevent the glorious festival of all thy
Saints, may of thee be enabled joyfully to follow them in all virtuous
and godly living. Through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, who liveth and
reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God,
world without end. Amen. —
Collect of the
Vigil of All Saints, The
Votive candles in the
Halloween section of Walmart
Protestant Christians also celebrate All Hallows' Eve as
Reformation Day, a day to remember the
alongside All Hallow's Eve or independently from it. This is
Martin Luther is said to have nailed his
Ninety-Five Theses to
All Saints' Church in Wittenberg on All Hallows' Eve. Often,
Harvest Festivals" or "Reformation Festivals" are held on All
Hallows' Eve, in which children dress up as
Bible characters or
Reformers. In addition to distributing candy to children who are
trick-or-treating on Hallowe'en, many Christians also provide gospel
tracts to them. One organization, the American Tract Society, stated
that around 3 million gospel tracts are ordered from them alone for
Hallowe'en celebrations. Others order Halloween-themed Scripture
Candy to pass out to children on this day.
Belizean children dressed up as Biblical figures and Christian saints
Some Christians feel concerned about the modern celebration of
Halloween because they feel it trivializes – or
celebrates – paganism, the occult, or other practices and
cultural phenomena deemed incompatible with their beliefs. Father
Gabriele Amorth, an exorcist in Rome, has said, "if English and
American children like to dress up as witches and devils on one night
of the year that is not a problem. If it is just a game, there is no
harm in that." In more recent years, the Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Boston has organized a "
Saint Fest" on Halloween.
Similarly, many contemporary
Protestant churches view
Halloween as a
fun event for children, holding events in their churches where
children and their parents can dress up, play games, and get candy for
free. To these Christians,
Halloween holds no threat to the spiritual
lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the
ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and
a part of many of their parishioners' heritage. Christian
minister Sam Portaro wrote that
Halloween is about using "humor and
ridicule to confront the power of death".
In the Roman
Catholic Church, Halloween's Christian connection is
Halloween celebrations are common in
schools throughout North America and in
Ireland.[better source needed] Many fundamentalist and
evangelical churches use "Hell houses" and comic-style tracts in order
to make use of Halloween's popularity as an opportunity for
evangelism. Others consider
Halloween to be completely
incompatible with the Christian faith due to its putative origins in
Festival of the Dead
Festival of the Dead celebration. Indeed, even though Eastern
Orthodox Christians observe All Hallows' Day on the First Sunday after
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church recommends the observance of
Vespers or a
Paraklesis on the Western observance of All Hallows' Eve,
out of the pastoral need to provide an alternative to popular
Analogous celebrations and perspectives
Alfred J. Kolatch in the Second Jewish Book of Why, in
Halloween is not permitted by Jewish
Halakha because it
violates Leviticus 18:3, which forbids Jews from partaking in gentile
customs. Many Jews observe Yizkor, which is equivalent to the
Allhallowtide in Christianity, as prayers are said for
both "martyrs and for one's own family". Nevertheless, many
American Jews celebrate Halloween, disconnected from its Christian
Rabbi Jeffrey Goldwasser has said that "There is
no religious reason why contemporary Jews should not celebrate
Halloween" while Orthodox
Rabbi Michael Broyde has argued against Jews
observing the holiday. Jews do have the
Purim holiday, where the
children dress up in costumes to celebrate.
Sheikh Idris Palmer, author of A Brief Illustrated Guide to
Understanding Islam, has argued that Muslims should not participate in
Halloween, stating that "participation in
Halloween is worse than
participation in Christmas, Easter, ... it is more sinful than
congratulating the Christians for their prostration to the
crucifix". Javed Memon, a
Muslim writer, has disagreed, saying
that his "daughter dressing up like a British telephone booth will not
destroy her faith as a Muslim".
Most Hindus do not observe All Hallows' Eve, instead they remember the
dead during the festival of Pitru Paksha, during which Hindus pay
homage to and perform a ceremony "to keep the souls of their ancestors
at rest". It is celebrated in the
Hindu month of Bhadrapada, usually
in mid-September. The celebration of the
Hindu festival Diwali
sometimes conflicts with the date of Halloween; but some Hindus choose
to participate in the popular customs of Halloween. Other Hindus,
such as Soumya Dasgupta, have opposed the celebration on the grounds
that Western holidays like
Halloween have "begun to adversely affect
our indigenous festivals".
There is no consistent rule or view on
Halloween amongst those who
describe themselves as Neopagans or Wiccans. Some Neopagans do not
observe Halloween, but instead observe
Samhain on 1 November,
some neopagans do enjoy
Halloween festivities, stating that one can
observe both "the solemnity of
Samhain in addition to the fun of
Halloween". Some neopagans are opposed to the celebration of
Hallowe'en, stating that it "trivializes Samhain", and "avoid
Halloween, because of the interruptions from trick or treaters".
The Manitoban writes that "
Wiccans don't officially celebrate
Halloween, despite the fact that 31 Oct. will still have a star beside
it in any good Wiccan's day planner. Starting at sundown, Wiccans
celebrate a holiday known as Samhain.
Samhain actually comes from old
Celtic traditions and is not exclusive to
Neopagan religions like
Wicca. While the traditions of this holiday originate in Celtic
countries, modern day
Wiccans don't try to historically replicate
Samhain celebrations. Some traditional
Samhain rituals are still
practised, but at its core, the period is treated as a time to
celebrate darkness and the dead – a possible reason why
be confused with
Around the world
Halloween display in Saitama, Japan
Main article: Geography of Halloween
The traditions and importance of
Halloween vary greatly among
countries that observe it. In
Scotland and Ireland, traditional
Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going
"guising", holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include
lighting bonfires, and having firework displays. In Brittany
children would play practical jokes by setting candles inside skulls
in graveyards to frighten visitors. Mass transatlantic
immigration in the 19th century popularized
Halloween in North
America, and celebration in the United States and Canada has had a
significant impact on how the event is observed in other nations. This
larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial
elements, has extended to places such as Ecuador, Chile,
Australia, New Zealand, (most) continental Europe, Japan,
and other parts of East Asia. In the Philippines, during
Halloween, Filipinos return to their hometowns and purchase candles
and flowers, in preparation for the following All Saints Day
(Araw ng mga Patay) on 1 November and
All Souls Day
All Souls Day —though it falls
on 2 November, most of them observe it on the day before. In
Mexico and Latin American in general, it is referred to as " Día de
los Muertos " which translates in English to "Day of the dead". Most
of the people from Latin America construct altars in their homes to
honor their deceased relatives and they decorate them with flowers and
candies and other offerings.
All Saints Day
Day of the Dead
List of fiction works about Halloween
List of films set around Halloween
Halloween television specials
St. John's Eve
^ a b c d e "
BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve".
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the
original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. It is widely
believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient
Celtic festival called
Samhain which was Christianised by the early
Church.... All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is
the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as
All Saints' Day
All Saints' Day in the
Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All
Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers
and fasting prior to the feast day itself. The name derives from the
Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually
contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en. ...However, there are
supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day,
originated entirely independently of
^ a b The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Church Publishing, Inc.
31 October 2011. Service for All Hallows' Eve: This
service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All
Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place
before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or
^ a b Anne E. Kitch (2004). The
Anglican Family Prayer Book. Church
Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017.
31 October 2011. All Hallow's Eve, which later became known
as Halloween, is celebrated on the night before All Saints' Day,
November 1. Use this simple prayer service in conjunction with
Halloween festivities to mark the Christian roots of this
^ The Paulist Liturgy Planning Guide. Paulist Press. 2006. Archived
from the original on
31 October 2017. Retrieved
31 October 2011.
Rather than compete, liturgy planners would do well to consider ways
of including children in the celebration of these vigil Masses. For
example, children might be encouraged to wear
representing their patron saint or their favorite saint, clearly
adding a new level of meaning to the
Halloween celebrations and the
celebration of All Saints' Day.
^ Thomson, Thomas; Annandale, Charles (1896). A History of the
Scottish People from the Earliest Times: From the Union of the
kingdoms, 1706, to the present time. Blackie. Archived from the
original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved
31 October 2011. Of the stated
rustic festivals peculiar to
Scotland the most important was
Hallowe'en, a contraction for All-hallow Evening, or the evening of
All-Saints Day, the annual return of which was a season for joy and
^ Palmer, Abram Smythe (1882). Folk-etymology. Johnson Reprint.
^ a b Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions.
Merriam-Webster. 1999. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013.
31 October 2011. Halloween, also called All Hallows' Eve,
holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31, the eve of All
Saints' Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the
Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same
^ "NEDCO Producers' Guide". 31–33. Northeast Dairy Cooperative
Federation. 1973. Originally celebrated as the night before All
Saints' Day, Christians chose November first to honor their many
saints. The night before was called All Saints' Eve or hallowed eve
meaning holy evening.
^ "Tudor Hallowtide". National Trust for Places of Historic Interest
or Natural Beauty. 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
Hallowtide covers the three days –
31 October (All-Hallows Eve or
Hallowe'en), 1 November (All Saints) and 2 November (All Souls).
^ Hughes, Rebekkah (29 October 2014). "Happy Hallowe'en Surrey!"
(PDF). The Stag. University of Surrey. p. 1. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 19 November 2015. Retrieved
31 October 2015.
Halloween or Hallowe'en, is the yearly celebration on October 31st
that signifies the first day of Allhallowtide, being the time to
remember the dead, including martyrs, saints and all faithful departed
^ Don't Know Much About Mythology: Everything You Need to Know About
the Greatest Stories in Human History but Never Learned (Davis),
HarperCollins, page 231
^ Roberts, Brian K. (1987). The Making of the English Village: A Study
in Historical Geography. Longman Scientific & Technical.
ISBN 9780582301436. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
Retrieved 14 December 2015. Time out of time', when the barriers
between this world and the next were down, the dead returned from the
grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked abroad was a
twice- yearly reality, on dates Christianised as All Hallows' Eve and
All Hallows' Day.
^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women's History in Global Perspective.
University of Illinois Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780252029318.
Retrieved 14 December 2015. The pre-Christian observance obviously
influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the
Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival.
Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came
to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of
the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved
ones, older notions never disappeared.
^ Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night.
Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 31 December
31 October 2011.
Halloween and the Day of the Dead
share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on
All Saints' and All Souls' Day. But both are thought to embody strong
pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic
Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that
has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and
the evangelical Right.
^ Austrian information. 1965. Archived from the original on 21 June
31 October 2011. The feasts of Hallowe'en, or All
Hallows Eve and the devotions to the dead on All Saints' and All
Souls' Day are both mixtures of old Celtic, Druid and other pagan
customs intertwined with Christian practice.
^ Moser, Stefan (29 October 2010). "Kein 'Trick or Treat' bei
Salzburgs Kelten" (in German). Salzburger Nachrichten. Archived from
the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017. Die Kelten
haben gar nichts mit
Halloween zu tun", entkräftet Stefan Moser,
Direktor des Keltenmuseums Hallein, einen weit verbreiteten Mythos.
Moser sieht die Ursprünge von
Halloween insgesamt in einem
christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen.
^ Döring, Alois; Bolinius, Erich (
31 October 2006),
Halloween – Allerheiligen (in German), FDP Emden, Die lückenhaften
religionsgeschichtlichen Überlieferungen, die auf die Neuzeit
begrenzte historische Dimension der Halloween-Kultausprägung, vor
allem auch die Halloween-Metaphorik legen nahe, daß wir umdenken
Halloween geht nicht auf das heidnische
sondern steht in Bezug zum christlichen Totengedenkfest Allerheiligen/
^ Hörandner, Editha (2005).
Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo
(in German). LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 8, 12, 30.
ISBN 9783825888893. Der Wunsch nach einer Tradition, deren
Anfänge sich in grauer Vorzeit verlieren, ist bei Dachleuten wie
laien gleichmäßig verbreitet. ... Abgesehen von Irrtümern wie die
Herleitung des Fests in ungebrochener Tradition ("seit 2000 Jahren")
ist eine mangelnde vertrautheit mit der heimischen Folklore
festzustellen. Allerheiligen war lange vor der
Halloween invasion ein
wichtiger Brauchtermin und ist das ncoh heute. ... So wie viele
heimische Bräuche generell als fruchtbarkeitsbringend und
dämonenaustreibend interpretiert werden, was trottz aller
Aufklärungsarbeit nicht auszurotten ist, begegnet uns
...heidnisches Fest. Aber es wird nicht als solches inszeniert.
^ Döring, Dr. Volkskundler Alois (2011). "Süßes, Saures – olle
Halloween schon wieder out?" (in German). Westdeutscher
Rundfunk. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 12
November 2015. Dr. Alois Döring ist wissenschaftlicher Referent für
Volkskunde beim LVR-Institut für Landeskunde und Regionalgeschichte
Bonn. Er schrieb zahlreiche Bücher über Bräuche im Rheinland,
darunter das Nachschlagewerk "Rheinische Bräuche durch das Jahr".
Darin widerspricht Döring der These,
Halloween sei ursprünglich ein
keltisch-heidnisches Totenfest. Vielmehr stamme
Halloween von den
britischen Inseln, der Begriff leite sich ab von "All Hallows eve",
Abend vor Allerheiligen. Irische Einwanderer hätten das Fest nach
Amerika gebracht, so Döring, von wo aus es als "amerikanischer"
Brauch nach Europa zurückkehrte.
^ Skog, Jason (2008). Teens in Finland. Capstone. p. 31.
ISBN 9780756534059. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98
percent of all funerals take place in a church. It is customary to
take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is a
part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion
worth remembering. In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and
cemeteries are known as valomeri, or seas of light. Finns visit
cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased.
^ "All Hallows Eve Service" (PDF). Duke University.
31 October 2012.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May
2014. About All Hallows Eve: Tonight is the eve of All Saints Day, the
festival in the Church that recalls the faith and witness of the men
and women who have come before us. The service celebrates our
continuing communion with them, and memorializes the recently
deceased. The early church followed the Jewish custom that a new day
began at sundown; thus, feasts and festivals in the church were
observed beginning on the night before.
^ "The Christian Observances of Halloween". National Republic. Indiana
University Press. 15: 33. 5 May 2009. Among the European nations the
beautiful custom of lighting candles for the dead was always a part of
the "All Hallow's Eve" festival.
^ Hynes, Mary Ellen (1993). Companion to the Calendar. Liturgy
Training Publications. p. 160. ISBN 9781568540115. In most
Halloween is strictly a religious event. Sometimes in North
America the church's traditions are lost or confused.
^ Kernan, Joe (30 October 2013). "Not so spooky after all: The roots
Halloween are tamer than you think". Cranston Herald. Archived from
the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved
31 October 2015. By the
early 20th century, Halloween, like Christmas, was commercialized.
Pre-made costumes, decorations and special candy all became available.
The Christian origins of the holiday were downplayed.
^ Braden, Donna R.; Village, Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield (1988).
Leisure and entertainment in America. Henry Ford Museum &
Greenfield Village. ISBN 9780933728325. Archived from the
original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Halloween, a holiday
with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in
America, came to assume major proportions as a children's
^ Santino, p.85
^ All Hallows' Eve (Diana Swift),
^ Mahon, Bríd (1991). Land of Milk and Honey: The Story of
Traditional Irish Food & Drink. Poolbeg Press. p. 138.
ISBN 9781853711428. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the
night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked
into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained. Up to
recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church
ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm
brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.
^ Fieldhouse, Paul (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An
Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO.
p. 254. ISBN 9781610694124. Archived from the original on 31
October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. In Ireland, dishes based on
potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat
was forbidden during the
Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: Halloween". Etymonline.com. Archived
from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
^ The A to Z of Anglicanism (Colin Buchanan),
Scarecrow Press, page 8
^ The American Desk Encyclopedia (Steve Luck), Oxford University
Press, page 365
^ a b The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ.
Press. 1989. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
^ "DOST: Hallow Evin". Dsl.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 29
April 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
^ a b Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "
Samhain and the Celtic Origins of
Halloween". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 11–21.
New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.
^ Anglo-Saxon Spirituality: Selected Writings (Robert Boenig), Paulist
Press, page 7
^ Santino, Jack. The
Hallowed Eve: Dimensions of Culture in a Calendar
Festival of Northern Ireland. University Press of Kentucky, p.95
^ A Pocket Guide To Superstitions of the British Isles (Publisher:
Penguin Books Ltd; Reprint edition: 4 November 2004)
^ All Hallows' Eve Archived 3 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
31 October 2011.
^ Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia
of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.402
^ a b c d Hutton, Ronald. The Stations of the Sun: A History of the
Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press, 1996. pp.365–369
^ a b Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and
Folklore. Infobase Publishing, 2004. p.407
^ Hutton, p.361
^ Monaghan, p.41
^ O'Halpin, Andy. Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford
University Press, 2006. p.236
^ Monaghan, Patricia (1 January 2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic
Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. p. 167.
ISBN 9781438110370. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
Retrieved 19 October 2015. They were both respected and feared. "Their
backs towards us, their faces away from us, and may God and Mary save
us from harm," was a prayer spoken whenever one ventured near their
^ Santino, p.105
^ Danaher, Kevin (1972). The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs.
^ Evans-Wentz, Walter (1911). The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries.
^ McNeill, F. Marian (1961). The Silver Bough, Volume 3. p.34.
^ "Halloween". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopædia
Britannica, 2009. Credo Reference. Web. 21 September 2012.
^ a b McNeill, The Silver Bough, Volume 3, pp.11–46
^ a b c Miles, Clement A. (1912).
Christmas in Ritual and Tradition.
Chapter 7: All Hallow Tide to Martinmas Archived 4 November 2013 at
the Wayback Machine..
^ Hutton, p.379
^ a b Hutton, p.380
^ Danaher, Kevin. "Irish Folk Tradition and the Celtic Calendar". In
The Celtic Consciousness, ed. Robert O'Driscoll. New York: Braziller,
1981. pp. 218–227
^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and
Religion. Chapter 63, Part 1: On the Fire-festivals in general
Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine..
^ MacCulloch, John Arnott (1911). The Religion of the Ancient Celts.
Chapter 18: Festivals Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback
^ Hutton, pp.366, 380
Halloween traditions". Welsh Government. 2016. Archived from the
original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
^ Rosinsky, Natalie M. (1 July 2002). Halloween. Capstone. p. 8.
ISBN 9780756503925. Christian leaders made old Celtic and Roman
customs into new Christian ones. Bonfires were once lighted against
evil spirits. Now, they kept away the devil.
^ a b McNeill, F. Marian. Hallowe'en: its origin, rites and ceremonies
in the Scottish tradition. Albyn Press, 1970. pp.29–31
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hutton, pp.379–383
^ Hole, Christina. British Folk Customs. Hutchinson, 1976. p.91
^ Peddle, S. V. (2007). Pagan Channel Islands: Europe's Hidden
^ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 2.
^ Palmer, Kingsley. Oral folk-tales of Wessex. David & Charles,
^ Wilson, David Scofield. Rooted in America: Foodlore of Popular
Fruits and Vegetables. Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1999. p.154
^ a b Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party
Night, pp. 22, 27. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
^ New Proclamation Commentary on Feasts, Holy Days, and Other
Celebrations (Bill Doggett, Gordon W. Lathrop), Fortress Press, page
^ Hallowe'en, A Christian Name with Blended Christian & Folk
Traditions (Thomas L. Weitzel), Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America
^ Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints. Church Publishing,
Inc. 2010. p. 662. ISBN 9780898696783.
^ Saunders, William. "All Saints and All Souls".
catholiceducation.org. Archived from the original on 18 September
2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "All Saints, Festival of".
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ "All Saints' Day", The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church,
3rd edition, ed. E. A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1997), 41–42; The New
Catholic Encyclopedia, eo.loc.
^ a b c Hutton, p.364
^ a b MacCulloch, John Arnott (1911). The Religion of the Ancient
Celts. Chapter 10: The Cult of the Dead Archived 29 October 2015 at
the Wayback Machine..
Saint for the Day (Paul Burns), Liturgical Press, page 516
^ Arising from Bondage: A History of the Indo-Caribbean People (Ron
Ramdin), New York University Press, page 241
^ The World Review – Volume 4, University of Minnesota, page 255
^ Rogers, Nicholas (2001). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party
Night. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–30.
^ a b c d e "Halloween". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the
original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
^ a b Hutton, pp.374–375
^ a b Mary Mapes Dodge, ed. (1883). St. Nicholas Magazine. Scribner
& Company. p. 93. 'Soul-cakes,' which the rich gave to the
poor at the
Halloween season, in return for which the recipients
prayed for the souls of the givers and their friends. And this custom
became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a
regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies
to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the
windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray
you good mistress, a soul-cake!'
^ DeMello, Margo (2012). A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face.
ABC-CLIO. p. 167. ISBN 9781598846171. Trick-or-treating
began as souling an English and Irish tradition in which the poor,
wearing masks, would go door to door and beg for soul cakes in
exchange for people's dead relatives.
^ Cleene, Marcel. Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe.
Man & Culture, 2002. p.108. Quote: "Soul cakes were small cakes
baked as food for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their
souls. They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead,
laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead.
The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice".
^ Levene, Alysa (15 March 2016). Cake: A Slice of History. Pegasus
Books. p. 44. ISBN 9781681771083. Like the perennial
favourites, hot cross buns; they were often marked with a cross to
indicate that they were baked as alms.
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Two Gentlemen of Verona Act 2, Scene 1.
^ Prince Sorie Conteh (2009). Traditionalists, Muslims, and Christians
in Africa: Interreligious Encounters and Dialogue. Cambria Press.
Archived from the original on
31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October
^ Bannatyne, Lesley (31 August 1998). HALLOWEEN. Pelican Publishing
Company. p. 19. ISBN 9781455605538. Villagers were also
encouraged to masquerade on this day, not to frighten unwelcome
spirits, but to honor Christian saints. Poor churches could not afford
genuine relics and instead had processions in which parishioners
dressed as saints, angels and devils. It served the new church by
giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on
^ a b Morrow, Ed (2001). The
Halloween Handbook. Kensington Publishing
Corporation. p. 19. ISBN 9780806522272. Another contributor
to the custom of dressing up at
Halloween was the old Irish practice
of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted
biblical events. These were common during the
Middle Ages all across
Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there
were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering,
acting devilish, and playing to the crows. The pageant began inside
the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it
continued long into the night.
^ "Eve of All Saints", Using Common Worship: Times and Seasons – All
Candlemas (David Kennedy), Church House Publishing, page 42
^ Bannatyne, Lesley. Halloween: An American Holiday, an American
History. Pelican Publishing, 1998. p.9
^ a b Pulliam, June; Fonseca, Anthony J. (26 September 2016). Ghosts
in Popular Culture and Legend. ABC-CLIO. p. 145.
ISBN 9781440834912. Since the 16th century, costumes have become
a central part of
Halloween traditions. Perhaps the most common
Halloween costume is that of the ghost. This is likely
because ... when
Halloween customs began to be influenced by
Catholicism, the incorporation of the themes of All Hallows' and All
Souls' Day would have emphasized visitations from the spirit world
over the motifs of spirites and fairies. ... The baking and sharing of
souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: in some cultures,
the poor would go door to door to collect them in exchange for praying
for the dead (a practice called souling), often carrying lanterns made
of hollowed-out turnips. Around the 16th century, the practice of
going house to house in disguise (a practice called guising) to ask
for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional
verses (a practice called mumming). Wearing costumes, another
tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to
confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from
local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre,
basically a large party among the dead.
^ a b Rogers, p.57
^ Carter, Albert Howard; Petro, Jane Arbuckle (1998). Rising from the
Flames: The Experience of the Severely Burned. University of
Pennsylvania Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780812215175. Halloween,
incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day,
marked the return of the souls of the departed and the release of
devils who could move freely on that night. Fires lit on that night
served to prevent the influence of such spirits and to provide omens
for the future. Modern children go from house to house at Halloween
with flashlights powered by electric batteries, while jack o'lanterns
(perhaps with an actual candle, but often with a lught bulb) glow from
windows and porches.
Catholic World, Vol. 138: A Monthly Magazine of General
Literature and Science. 138. Paulist Press. 1934. And even then, the
educated folk of the districts concerned, declared that these fires
were a relic of papistical days, when they were lit at night to guide
the poor souls back to earth.
^ a b Think, Volume 20, International Business Machines Corp., page 15
^ a b Santino, p.95
^ Encyclopedia of Observances, Holidays and Celebrations,
^ Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works; For the Use of Teachers,
Players, and Music Clubs (Edward Baxter Perry), Theodore Presser
Company, page 276
^ Allmand, Christopher (18 June 1998). The New Cambridge Medieval
History: Volume 7, C.1415-c.1500. Cambridge University Press.
p. 210. ISBN 9780521382960. Archived from the original on 23
April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
^ Books & Culture: A Christian Review. Christianity Today. 1999.
p. 12. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Sometimes
enacted as at village pageants, the danse macabre was also performed
as court masques, the courtiers dressing up as corpses from various
strata of society...both the name and the observance began
liturgically as All Hallows' Eve.
^ Hörandner, Editha (2005).
Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo.
LIT Verlag Münster. p. 99. ISBN 9783825888893. On the other
hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in
Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many
Halloween – like the medieval danse macabre – is closely
connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with
death in a playful way.
^ The Episcopal Church, its teaching and worship (Latta Griswold),
E.S. Gorham, page 110
^ a b Mosteller, Angie (2 July 2014). Christian Origins of Halloween.
Rose Publishing. ISBN 1596365358. In
Protestant regions souling
remained an important occasion for soliciting food and money from rich
neighbors in preparation for the coming cold and dark months.
^ Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting
Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs (Daniel
Diehl, Mark Donnelly), Stackpole Books, page 17
^ Hutton, Ronald (15 February 2001). Stations of the Sun: A History of
the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 369,
373. ISBN 9780191578427. Fires were indeed lit in England on All
Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have
descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a
Christian ceremony ... families still assembled at the midnight before
All Saints' Day
All Saints' Day in the early nineteenth century. Each did so on a hill
near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw
on the end of a fork. The rest in a circle around and prayed for the
souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out. The author
who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the
latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common
and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the
horizon at Hallowe'en. He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory
Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider
distribution, and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.
^ a b Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party
Night, pp. 37–38. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
^ Trick or Treat: A History of
Halloween (Lisa Morton), Reaktion
Books, Page 129
^ a b The
Halloween Encyclopedia (Lisa Morton), McFarland, page 9
^ Pumpkin: The Curious History of an American Icon (Cindy Ott),
University of Washington Press, page 42
^ Halloween: An American Holiday, an American History (Lesley Pratt
Bannatyne), Pelican Publishing, page 45
^ Encyclopaedia Londinensis, or, Universal dictionary of arts,
sciences, and literature, Volume 21 (John Wilkes), R. G. Gunnell and
Co., page 544
^ a b Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party
Night, pp. 49–50. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party
Night, p. 74. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.
^ Morton, Lisa (1 August 2003). The
Halloween Encyclopedia. McFarland.
^ The Encyclopedia of Witches, Witchcraft and Wicca, Infobase
Publishing, page 183
^ Dante's "Commedia" and the Poetics of Christian Catabasis (Lee
Foust), ProQuest, page 15
^ The Guinness Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits (Rosemary Guiley),
Guinness World Records Limited, page 178
^ Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (Glennys Howarth, Oliver Leaman),
Taylor & Francis, page 320
^ a b The Oxford companion to American food and drink Archived 11 May
2011 at the Wayback Machine. p.269. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Retrieved 17 February 2011
^ a b c Frank Leslie's popular monthly, Volume 40, November 1895, p.
540-543. Books.google.com. 5 February 2009. Archived from the original
on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
^ Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The Great Carbuncle", in Twice-Told Tales,
1837: Hide it [the great carbuncle] under thy cloak, say'st thou? Why,
it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a
^ As late as 1900, an article on Thanksgiving entertaining recommended
a lit jack-o'-lantern as part of the festivities. "The Day We
Celebrate: Thanksgiving Treated Gastronomically and Socially" Archived
5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 24 November
1895, p. 27. "Odd Ornaments for Table" Archived 5 August 2016 at the
Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 21 October 1900, p. 12.
^ The Rhetoric of Vision: Essays on Charles Williams (Charles Adolph
Huttar, Peter J. Schakel), Bucknell University Press, page 155
^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "
Halloween Goes to Hollywood". Halloween:
From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 103–124. New York: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.
^ A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art (Gertrude Grace Sill), Simon
and Schuster, page 64
^ In flagrante collecto (Marilynn Gelfman Karp), Abrams, page 299
^ School Year, Church Year (Peter Mazar), Liturgy Training
Publications, page 115
^ Thomas Crawford Burns: a study of the poems and songs Archived 23
April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Stanford University Press, 1960
^ Simpson, Jacqueline "All Saints' Day" in Encyclopedia of Death and
Dying, Howarth, G. and Leeman, O. (2001)London Routledge
ISBN 0-415-18825-3, p.14 "
Halloween is closely associated in
folklore with death and the supernatural".
^ Faces Around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face
(Margo DeMello), ABC-CLIO, page 225
^ A Student's Guide to A2 Performance Studies for the OCR
Specification (John Pymm), Rhinegold Publishing Ltd, page 28
^ Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music, and
Art, Volume 1 (Thomas Green),
ABC-CLIO page 566
^ Interacting communities: studies on some aspects of migration and
urban ethnology (Zsuzsa Szarvas), Hungarian Ethnographic Society, page
^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature (David Scott Kastan),
Oxford University Press, page 47
Mumming Play", Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Carmichael, Sherman (2012). Legends and Lore of South Carolina. The
History Press. p. 70. ISBN 9781609497484. The practice of
dressing up and going door to door for treats dates back to the middle
ages and the practice of souling.
^ Hood, Karen Jean Matsko (1 January 2014).
Whispering Pine Press International. p. 33.
ISBN 9781594341816. The tradition continued in some areas of
northern England as late as the 1930s, with children going from door
to door "souling" for cakes or money by singing a song.
^ Rogers, Nicholas. (2002) "Coming Over:
Halloween in North America".
Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. p.76. Oxford University
Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-514691-3
^ Kelley, Ruth Edna. The Book of Hallowe'en, Boston: Lothrop, Lee and
Shepard Co., 1919, chapter 15, p.127. "Hallowe'en in America" Archived
23 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine..
^ Kelley, Ruth Edna. "Hallowe'en in America". Archived from the
original on 14 October 2013.
^ Theo. E. Wright, "A
Halloween Story", St. Nicholas, October 1915, p.
1144. Mae McGuire Telford, "What Shall We Do Halloween?" Ladies Home
Journal, October 1920, p. 135.
^ "'Trick or Treat' Is Demand", Herald (Lethbridge, Alberta), 4
November 1927, p. 5, dateline Blackie, Alberta, 3 November
^ For examples, see the websites Postcard & Greeting Card Museum:
Halloween Gallery Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine.,
Antique Hallowe'en Postcards Archived 19 July 2006 at the Wayback
Halloween Postcards Archived 23 July 2008 at the
Halloween Pranks Keep Police on Hop",
Oregon Journal (Portland,
Oregon), 1 November 1934; and "The Gangsters of Tomorrow", The Helena
Independent (Helena, Montana), 2 November 1934, p. 4. The Chicago
Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in
Aurora, Illinois on
Halloween in 1934, although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'.
"Front Views and Profiles" (column), Chicago Tribune, 3 November 1934,
^ Moss, Doris Hudson. "A Victim of the Window-Soaping Brigade?" The
American Home, November 1939, p. 48.
^ Bluff Park (Heather Jones Skaggs), Arcadia Publishing, page 117
^ "Trunk-or-Treat", The Chicago Tribune
^ Suggested Themes for "Trunks" for Trunk or Treat (Dail R.
Faircloth), First Baptist Church of Royal Palm Beach
^ "Trunk or Treat focuses on fun, children's safety", Desert Valley
^ "Trunk or Treat!
Halloween Tailgating Grows" (Fernanda Santos), The
New York Times
Halloween Parade. "History of the Parade". Archived from the
original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
^ "Londonderry hosts 'record-breaking
Halloween party'". BBC. 19
October 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016.
^ School Year, Church Year (Peter Mazar), Liturgy Training
Publications, page 114
^ Memento Mori, Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Missouri
^ Beauchemin, Genevieve; CTV.ca News Staff (31 May 2006). "UNICEF to
Halloween 'orange box' program". CTV. Archived from the original
on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2006.
^ "History of the
Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF
Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF Campaign". UNICEF Canada.
2008. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 25 October
^ Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark P. (13 April 2011). Medieval
Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts,
Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs. Stackpole Books. p. 17.
ISBN 9780811744300. All Hallows' Eve. A time of spiritual unrest,
when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were
believed to walk the land. Church bells were run and fires lit to
guide these souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest
Christian folk. Barns and homes were blessed to protect people and
livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany
the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth. Although a rare few
continued to divine the future, cast spells, and tell ghost stories in
rural communities, woe to anyone who was denounced to the church for
engaging in such activities. These may seem like innocent fun today,
but it was deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages.
^ MacLeod, Sharon. Celtic Myth and Religion. McFarland, 2011. pp.61,
^ "Apple dookers make record attempt" Archived 28 May 2012 at the
BBC News, 2 October 2008
^ Danaher, Kevin. The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs. Mercier
Press, 1972. pp.202–205
^ Danaher (1972), p.223
^ McNeill, F. Marian (1961, 1990) The Silver Bough, Volume III.
William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-948474-04-1 pp.11–46
^ Danaher (1972), p.219
^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough, Volume III, pp.33–34
^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough, Volume III, p.34
^ Hollister, Helen (1917). "
Halloween Frolics". Parlor Games for the
Wise and Otherwise. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company. p. 98.
Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
Halloween Cards". Vintage Holiday Crafts. Archived from the
original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough Volume III, p.34
^ Greg Ryan (17 September 2008). "A Model of Mayhem". Hudson Valley
Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 6
^ Warner, Adam (27 October 2014). "The History of Haunted Houses: A
Fight for Frights as Tastes Change". NBC Bay Area. Archived from the
original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
^ McKendry, Bekah (March 2014). "The History of Haunted Houses!".
America Haunts. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved
21 July 2014.
^ Morton, Lisa (28 September 2012). Trick or Treat: A History of
Halloween (paperback)format= requires url= (help). United Kingdom:
Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781780230474.
^ Surrell, Jason (11 August 2009). Haunted Mansion: From The Magic
Kingdom To The Movies (paperback)format= requires url= (help).
Disney Editions. ISBN 9781423118954.
^ Celestino, Mike (28 September 2016). "REVIEW: Knott's Scary Farm
remains the ideal Southern California
Halloween theme park event for
the 2016 season". Inside The Magic. Distant Creations Group, LLC.
Archived from the original on 30 September 2016. Retrieved 22 July
^ Lum, Kathryn Gin (30 October 2014). "These evangelical haunted
houses are designed to show sinners that they're going to hell". The
Washington Post. Archived from the original on
31 October 2014.
Retrieved 22 July 2017.
^ "Classic Haunts From Cincinnati's Past". House of Doom. 2012.
Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 8 August
^ "A757914". Catalog of Copyright Entries: Third Series. 30: xliii.
July–December 1976. ISSN 0041-7815. Retrieved 22 July
^ Gruson, Lindsey (19 May 1984). "Blaze Fatal to 8 Linked to Lighter".
The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009.
Retrieved 20 November 2006.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 March 2017.
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Post. 12 May 1984. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017.
^ "The Haunted Castle, Revisited – NFPA Journal". nfpa.org. Archived
from the original on 13 August 2017.
^ "Spooky and Safe". nfpa.org. Archived from the original on 13 August
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15
February 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
^ Barnes, Brooks (25 October 2011). "The Real Scare Is Not Being
Scary". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 July
2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
^ Munarriz, Rick Aristotle (23 October 2014). "
Halloween Is Raking in
Scary Profits for Theme Parks". AOL.com/Finance. Retrieved 3 November
^ Mader, Isabel (30 September 2014). "
Halloween Colcannon". Simmer
Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 October 2014. Retrieved 3
October 2014. All Hallow's Eve was a Western (Anglo) Christian holiday
that revolved around commemorating the dead using humor to intimidate
death itself. Like all holidays, All Hallow's Eve involved traditional
treats. The church encouraged an abstinence from meat, which created
many vegetarian dishes.
^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "Razor in the Apple: Struggle for Safe and
Sane Halloween, c. 1920–1990", Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party
Night, pp. 78–102. New York: Oxford University Press.
^ "Urban Legends Reference Pages: Pins and Needles in Halloween
Candy". Snopes.com. Retrieved
31 October 2008.
^ Nixon, Robin (27 October 2010). "Poisoned
Halloween Candy: Trick,
Treat or Myth? – LiveScience". LiveScience.com. Archived from the
original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
^ Bannatyne, Lesley Pratt (1 August 1998). Halloween: An American
Holiday, an American History. Pelican Publishing. p. 12.
ISBN 1565543467. Archived from the original on
31 October 2017.
Retrieved 1 November 2012. Polish Catholics taught their children to
pray out loud as they walked through the woods so that the souls of
the dead could hear them and be comforted. Priests in tiny Spanish
villages still ring their church bells to remind parishioners to honor
the dead on All Hallows Eve.
^ Feasting and Fasting: Canada's Heritage Celebrations (Dorothy
Duncan), Dundurn, page 249
^ Latina and Latino Voices in Literature (Frances Ann Day), Greenwood
Publishing Group, page 72
BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3
November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. All Hallows' Eve falls on
31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also
All Saints' Day
All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church
traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would
prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day
^ Dr. Andrew James Harvey (
31 October 2012). "'All Hallows' Eve'". The
Patriot Post. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved
1 November 2011. "The vigil of the hallows" refers to the prayer
service the evening before the celebration of All Hallows or Saints
Day. Or "Halloween" for short – a fixture on the liturgical calendar
of the Christian West since the seventh century.
Vigil of All Saints".
Catholic News Agency.
31 October 2012.
Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
Vigil is based on the monastic office of
Vigils (or Matins), when
the monks would arise in the middle of the night to pray. On major
feast days, they would have an extended service of readings
(scriptural, patristic, and from lives of the saints) in addition to
chanting the psalms. This all would be done in the dark, of course,
and was an opportunity to listen carefully to the Word of God as well
as the words of the Church Fathers and great saints. The
Vigil of All
Saints is an adaptation of this ancient practice, using the canonical
office of Compline at the end.
^ "Night of Light Beginnings". Cor et Lumen Christi Community.
Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November
2012. In its first year – 2000 AD – over 1000 people participated
from several countries. This included special All Saints
extended periods of Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and parties for
children. In our second year 10,000 participated. Since these modest
beginnings, the Night of Light has been adopted in many countries
around the world with vast numbers involved each year from a Cathedral
in India to a convent in New Zealand; from Churches in the USA and
Europe to Africa; in Schools, churches, homes and church halls all
ages have got involved. Although it began in the
Catholic Church it
has been taken up be other Christians who while keeping its essentials
have adapted it to suit their own traditions.
^ "Here's to the Soulcakers going about their mysterious mummery". The
Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 6
November 2012. One that has grown over the past decade is the
so-called Night of Light, on All Hallows' Eve, October 31. It was
invented in 2000, in leafy Chertsey, Surrey, when perhaps 1,000 people
took part. Now it is a worldwide movement, popular in Africa and the
The heart of the Night of Light is an all-night vigil of prayer, but
there is room for children's fun too: sweets, perhaps a bonfire and
dressing up as St George or St Lucy. The minimum gesture is to put a
lighted candle in the window, which is in itself too exciting for some
proponents of health and safety. The inventor of the Night of Light is
Damian Stayne, the founder of a year-round religious community called
Cor et Lumen Christi – heart and light of Christ. This new movement
is Catholic, orthodox and charismatic – emphasising the work of the
^ Armentrout, Donald S.; Slocum, Robert Boak (1999). An Episcopal
Dictionary of the Church. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 7.
ISBN 0898692113. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016.
Retrieved 1 November 2012. The BOS notes that "suitable festivities
and entertainments" may precede of follow the service, and there may
be a visit to a cemetery or burial place.
^ Infeld, Joanna (1 December 2008). In-Formation. D & J Holdings
LLC. p. 150. ISBN 0976051249. Archived from the original on
21 June 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2012. My folks are Polish and they
Halloween in a different way. It is time to remember your
dead and visit the cemetery and graves of your loved ones.
^ Teens in
Finland (Jason Skog), Capstone, page 61
^ "Bishop Challenges Supermarkets to Lighten up Halloween". The Church
of England. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 28
October 2009. Christianity needs to make clear its positive message
for young people. It's high time we reclaimed the Christian aspects of
Halloween," says the Bishop, explaining the background to his
Halloween and All Saints Day". newadvent.org. n.d. Archived from
the original on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
Anglican Breviary. Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation. 1955.
pp. 1514 (E494). Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
Retrieved 12 November 2015.
^ "Reformation Day". Archived from the original on 19 December 2009.
Retrieved 22 October 2009.
^ "Reformation Day: What, Why, and Resources for Worship". The General
Board of Discipleship of The United Methodist Church. 21 October 2005.
Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 22 October
Hallowed Is Thy Name (Smith), page 29
^ Allen, Travis (2011). "Christians and Halloween". Church Publishing,
Inc. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 31
October 2011. Other Christians will opt for
Harvest Festivals', 'Hallelujah Night' or 'Reformation
Festivals'--the kids dress up as farmers,
Bible characters, or
Halloween tracts serve as tool to spread gospel to children (Curry),
^ Woods, Robert (2013). Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture.
ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 9780313386541. Evangelicals have
found opportunities with both
Easter to use Christian
candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian
holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own. They have increasingly
begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an
opportunity for evangelism. Contained in small packages featuring
Bible verses, Scripture Candy's "
Harvest Seeds"--candy corn in
everything but name—are among many candies created for this
^ D'Augostine, Lori. "Suffer Not the Trick-or-Treaters". CBN. Archived
from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ Halloween: What's a Christian to Do? (1998) by Steve Russo.
^ Gyles Brandreth, "The Devil is gaining ground" The Sunday Telegraph
(London), 11 March 2000.
^ "Salem '
Saint Fest' restores Christian message to Halloween".
rcab.org. n.d. Archived from the original on 29 September 2006.
Retrieved 22 October 2006.
^ "Feast of Samhain/Celtic New Year/Celebration of All Celtic Saints 1
November". All Saints Parish. n.d. Archived from the original on 20
November 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
^ Portaro, Sam (25 January 1998). A Companion to the Lesser Feasts and
Fasts. Cowley Publications. p. 199. ISBN 1461660513. All
Saints' Day is the centerpiece of an autumn triduum. In the carnival
celebrations of All Hallows' Eve our ancestors used the most powerful
weapon in the human arsenal, the power of humor and ridicule to
confront the power of death. The following day, in the commemoration
of All Saints, we gave witness to the victory of incarnate goodness
embodied in remarkable deeds and doers triumphing over the misanthropy
of darkness and devils. And in the commemoration of All Souls we
proclaimed the hope of common mortality expressed in our aspirations
and expectations of a shared eternity.
^ "Halloween's Christian Roots" AmericanCatholic.org. Retrieved 24
^ Suarez, Essdras (29 October 2007). "Some Christians use 'Hell
Houses' to reach out on Halloween". USA Today. Retrieved 7 November
2015. While some Christians aren't certain what to make of Halloween
– unsure whether to embrace or ignore all the goblins and
ghoulishness – some evangelical churches use Oct. 31 as a day to
evangelize. ...Some use trick-or-treating as an evangelistic
opportunity, giving out
Bible tracts with candy.
^ "'Trick?' or 'Treat?' – Unmasking Halloween". The Restored
Church of God. n.d. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012.
Retrieved 21 September 2007.
^ Do Orthodox Christians Observe Halloween? by
Saint Spyridon Greek
^ The Jewish Life Cycle: rites of passage from biblical to modern
times (Ivan G. Marcus), University of Washington Press, page 232
^ "Jews and Halloween". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Archived from the
original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
^ A Jewish exploration of halloween Archived
31 October 2016 at the
Wayback Machine. The Jewish Journal
^ Reformjudaism.org Archived
31 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ A. Idris Palmer, Halloween: Through
Muslim Eyes (PDF), Al Huda
Institute Canada, archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2009,
retrieved 11 November 2015
^ Why Can't Muslims Enjoy Halloween?, Patheos, 28 October 2011,
archived from the original on 2 November 2015
^ Lauren Stengele (25 October 2012),
Halloween in India?, Vision
Nationals, archived from the original on 8 December 2015
^ Vineet Chander, Trick or Treat? Not quite sure., Beliefnet, archived
from the original on 8 December 2015, retrieved 11 November 2015
^ Soumya Dasgupta (5 November 2009), "Should Indians Celebrate Foreign
Festivals Like Halloween?", The Wall Street Journal, archived from the
original on 9 July 2017
^ a b George, Stephanie (25 October 2010). "Real-life witches that
don't celebrate Halloween". The Manitoban. Archived from the original
on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
^ Should Pagans Celebrate Halloween? (Wicasta Lovelace), Pagan Centric
^ Halloween, From a Wiccan/
Neopagan perspective (B.A. Robinson),
Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Halloween fire calls 'every 90 seconds' Archived 2 November 2010 at
the Wayback Machine. UTV News Retrieved 22 November 2010
^ McCann, Chris (28 October 2010). "
Halloween firework injuries are on
the increase". The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 22 November
^ "Kalan -Goañv ha Marv". Tartanplace.com. 12 July 2001. Archived
from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
^ noticias.universia.cl. "¿Cómo se introduce la fiesta de Halloween
en Chile?". Archived from the original on 12 October 2016.
^ Paul Kent (27 October 2010). "Calls for
Halloween holiday in
Australia". Herald Sun. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
^ Denton, Hannah (30 October 2010). "Safe treats for kids on year's
scariest night". The
New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 November
^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party
Night, p.164. New York: Oxford University Press.
^ How do Filipinos Celebrate the Halloween? (Emie), Hubpages
^ Trinidad, Karen. "Tagalog festivals – Araw ng Patay". The
government of Camarines Sur. Archived from the original on 31 October
2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
Halloween Around The World – Halloween". HISTORY.com. Archived
from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
See also: Bibliography of Halloween
Diane C. Arkins, Halloween: Romantic Art and Customs of Yesteryear,
Pelican Publishing Company
Pelican Publishing Company (2000). 96 pages. ISBN 1-56554-712-8
Diane C. Arkins,
Halloween Merrymaking: An Illustrated Celebration Of
Fun, Food, And Frolics From Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing
Company (2004). 112 pages. ISBN 1-58980-113-X
Lesley Bannatyne, Halloween: An American Holiday, An American History,
File (1990, Pelican Publishing Company, 1998). 180 pages.
Lesley Bannatyne, A
Halloween Reader. Stories, Poems and Plays from
Pelican Publishing Company
Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 272 pages.
Phyllis Galembo, Dressed for Thrills: 100 Years of
Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (2002). 128 pages.
Editha Hörandner (ed.),
Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo,
Volkskunde (Münster in Westfalen), LIT Verlag Münster (2005). 308
pages. ISBN 3-8258-8889-4
Lisa Morton, Trick or Treat A history of Halloween, Reaktion Books
(2012). 229 pages. ISBN 978-1-78023-187-7
Lisa Morton, The
Halloween Encyclopedia, McFarland & Company
(2003). 240 pages. ISBN 0-7864-1524-X
Nicholas Rogers, Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, Oxford
University Press, USA (2002). ISBN 0-19-514691-3
Jack Santino (ed.),
Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life,
University of Tennessee Press (1994). 280 pages.
David J. Skal, Death Makes a Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween,
Bloomsbury USA (2003). 224 pages. ISBN 1-58234-305-5
James Tipper, Gods of The Nowhere: A Novel of Halloween, Waxlight
Press (2013). 294 pages. ISBN 978-0988243316
Find more aboutHalloweenat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Halloween at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
"A brief history of Halloween" by the BBC
"The History of Halloween" by the History Channel
Halloween in the Castro
Headless Horseman Hayride
New York's Village
State Street Halloween Party
State Street Halloween Party (Madison)
Terror Behind the Walls
At theme parks
California's Great America
Halloween Horror Nights
Busch Gardens Tampa Bay
Busch Gardens Williamsburg
SeaWorld San Antonio
Knott's Scary Farm
Samhain • Allhallowtide
Abstinence from meat
Lighting candles on graves
Prayer for the dead
Festival of the Dead
Día de Muertos
Zhōng yuán jié
Veneration of the dead
All Hallows' Eve
All Saints' Day
All Souls' Day
Liturgical year of the
Based on the
General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar (1969)
Christmas (Nativity of Jesus)^
Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God^
Baptism of the Lord
Ordinary Time I
Presentation of Jesus at the Temple
Presentation of Jesus at the Temple (Candlemas)
Feast of the Annunciation
Saint Joseph's Day^
Holy Week: Palm Sunday, Holy Wednesday,
Maundy Thursday (Mass of the
Maundy Thursday (Mass of the Lord's Supper)
Liturgy of the Word, Adoration of the Cross, Holy Communion
Easter Sunday: Resurrection of Jesus
Easter (Divine Mercy Sunday)
Feast of the Ascension^
Ordinary Time II
Visitation of Mary
Saint John the Baptist
Feast of Saints Peter and Paul^
Transfiguration of Jesus
Assumption of Mary^
Nativity of Mary
Feast of the Cross
All Saints' Day^
All Souls' Day
Presentation of Mary
Feast of Christ the King
^ = Holy days of obligation (10)
See also: Computus
General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar of 1960
General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII of 1950
General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar of 1954
Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria
New Year's Day
New Year's Day (1)
Valentine's Day (14)
International Women's Day
International Women's Day (8)
Victory Day (19)
World Water Day
World Water Day (22)
Maghrebi Blood Donation Day (30)
Spring vacation (2 last weeks)
April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day (1)
Knowledge Day (16)
Berber Spring (20)
Earth Day (22)
Election Day (Thursday)
International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day (1)
World Press Freedom Day (3)
Mother's Day (last Sunday)
Summer vacation (varies)
Children's Day (1)
Father's Day (21)
Independence Day (5)
International Day of Peace
International Day of Peace (21)
International Day of Non-Violence
International Day of Non-Violence (2)
Revolution Day (1)
Christmas Eve (24)
New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve (31)
Winter vacation (2 last weeks)
Varies (year round)
New Year's Day
New Year's Day (Muharram 1)
Ashura (Muharram 10)
Mawlid (Rabi' al-Awwal 12)
Laylat al-Qadr (
Eid al-Fitr (Shawwal 1)
Day of Arafah
Day of Arafah (Dhu al-Hijjah 9)
Eid al-Adha (Dhu al-Hijjah 10)
Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which
often represent the major celebrations of the month.
See also: Lists of holidays.