HOME
The Info List - Halaf Culture


--- Advertisement ---



farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion

↓ Chalcolithic

The Halaf culture
Halaf culture
is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 BCE and 5100 BCE.[1] The period is a continuous development out of the earlier Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
and is located primarily in south-eastern Turkey, Syria, and northern Iraq, although Halaf-influenced material is found throughout Greater Mesopotamia. While the period is named after the site of Tell Halaf
Tell Halaf
in north Syria, excavated by Max von Oppenheim
Max von Oppenheim
between 1911 and 1927, the earliest Halaf period material was excavated by John Garstang
John Garstang
in 1908 at the site of Sakce Gözü, then in Syria
Syria
but now part of Turkey.[2] Small amounts of Halaf material were also excavated in 1913 by Leonard Woolley at Carchemish, on the Turkish/Syrian border.[3] However, the most important site for the Halaf tradition was the site of Tell Arpachiyah, now located in the suburbs of Mosul, Iraq.[4] The Halaf period was succeeded by the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period which comprised the late Halaf (c. 5400-5000 BC), and then by the Ubaid period.

Contents

1 Origin 2 Culture

2.1 Architecture 2.2 Halaf pottery

3 Economy 4 Halaf's end (Northern Ubaid) 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Bibliography

7 External links

Origin[edit] Previously, the Syrian plains were not considered as the homeland of Halaf culture, and the Halafians were seen either as hill people who descended from the nearby mountains of southeastern Anatolia, or herdsmen from northern Iraq.[5] However, those views changed with the recent archaeology conducted since 1986 by Peter Akkermans, which have produced new insights and perspectives about the rise of Halaf culture.[6] A formerly unknown transitional culture between the pre-Halaf Neolithic's era and Halaf's era was uncovered in the Balikh valley, at Tell Sabi Abyad
Tell Sabi Abyad
(the Mound of the White Boy). Currently, eleven occupational layers have been unearthed in Sabi Abyad. Levels from 11 to 7 are considered pre-Halaf; from 6 to 4, transitional; and from 3 to 1, early Halaf. No hiatus in occupation is observed except between levels 11 and 10.[5] The new archaeology demonstrated that Halaf culture
Halaf culture
was not sudden and was not the result of foreign people, but rather a continuous process of indigenous cultural changes in northern Syria,[7] that spread to the other regions.[1] Culture[edit] Architecture[edit]

A reconstruction of a Halaf temple, now the facade of the National Museum of Aleppo

Although no Halaf settlement has been extensively excavated some buildings have been excavated: the tholoi of Tell Arpachiyah, circular domed structures approached through long rectangular anterooms. Only a few of these structures were ever excavated. They were constructed of mud-brick sometimes on stone foundations and may have been for ritual use (one contained a large number of female figurines). Other circular buildings were probably just houses. Halaf pottery[edit]

Halafian ware

The best known, most characteristic pottery of Tell Halaf, called Halaf ware, produced by specialist potters, can be painted, sometimes using more than two colors (called polychrome) with geometric and animal motifs. Other types of Halaf pottery are known, including unpainted, cooking ware and ware with burnished surfaces. There are many theories about why the distinctive pottery style developed. The theory is that the pottery came about due to regional copying and that it was exchanged as a prestige item between local elites is now disputed. The polychrome painted Halaf pottery has been proposed to be a "trade pottery"—pottery produced for export—however, the predominance of locally produced painted pottery in all areas of Halaf sites including potters settlement questions that theory. Halaf pottery has been found in other parts of northern Mesopotamia, such as at Nineveh
Nineveh
and Tepe Gawra, Chagar Bazar
Chagar Bazar
and at many sites in Anatolia
Anatolia
(Turkey) suggesting that it was widely used in the region. In addition, the Halaf communities made female figurines of partially baked clay and stone and stamp seals of stone, (see also Impression seal). The seals are thought to mark the development of concepts of personal property, as similar seals were used for this purpose in later times. The Halaf people used tools made of stone and clay. Copper was also known, but was not used for tools. Economy[edit]

Tel Halaf terracotta fertility figurine, 5000-4000 BC. Walters Museum

Dryland farming
Dryland farming
was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi
Hopi
people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats. Halaf's end (Northern Ubaid)[edit] Halaf culture
Halaf culture
ended by 5000 BC after entering the so-called Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period.[8] Many Halafians settlements were abandoned, and the remaining ones showed Ubaidian characters.[9] The new period is named Northern Ubaid to distinguish it from the proper Ubaid in southern Mesopotamia,[10] and two explanations were presented for the transformation. The first maintain an invasion and a replacement of the Halafians by the Ubaidians, however, there is no hiatus between the Halaf and northern Ubaid which exclude the invasion theory.[9][11] The most plausible theory is a Halafian adoption of the Ubaid culture,[9] which is supported by most scholars including Oates, Breniquet and Akkermans.[10][11][12] See also[edit]

Samarra culture

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b Mario Liverani (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 48.  ^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. "A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition" in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 780 ^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. "A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition" in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 781 ^ Campbell, S. 2000. "The Burnt House at Arpachiyah: A Reexamination" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research no. 318. pp. 1 ^ a b Maria Grazia Masetti-Rouault; Olivier Rouault; M. Wafler (2000). La Djéziré et l'Euphrate syriens de la protohistoire à la fin du second millénaire av. J.C, Tendances dans l'interprétation historique des données nouvelles, (Subartu) - Chapter : Old and New Perspectives on the Origins of the Halaf Culture by Peter Akkermans. pp. 43–44.  ^ Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 101.  ^ Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 116.  ^ John L. Brooke (2014). Climate Change and the Course of Global History: A Rough Journey. p. 204.  ^ a b c Georges Roux (1992). Ancient Iraq. p. 101.  ^ a b Susan Pollock; Reinhard Bernbeck (2009). Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives. p. 190.  ^ a b Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 157.  ^ Robert J. Speakman; Hector Neff (2005). Laser Ablation ICP-MS in Archaeological Research. p. 128. 

Bibliography[edit]

Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; Schwartz, Glenn M. (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52179-666-8.  Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-75091-7.  Masetti-Rouault, Maria Grazia; Rouault, Olivier; Wafler, Markus (2000). La Djéziré et l'Euphrate syriens de la protohistoire à la fin du second millénaire av. J.C, Tendances dans l'interprétation historique des données nouvelles, (Subartu). Brepols. ISBN 978-2-50351-063-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Halaf culture.

Halaf culture
Halaf culture
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Halaf Bowl from Arpachiyah - British Museum

v t e

Ancient Mesopotamia

Geography

Modern

Euphrates Upper Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Marshes Persian Gulf Syrian Desert Taurus Mountains Tigris Zagros Mountains

Ancient

Akkad Assyria Babylonia Chaldea Elam Hittites Media Mitanni Sumer Urartu Cities

History

Pre- / Protohistory

Acheulean Mousterian Trialetian Zarzian Natufian Nemrikian Khiamian Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
A (PPNA) Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(PPNB) Hassuna/Samarra Halaf Ubaid Uruk Jemdet Nasr Kish civilization

History

Early Dynastic Akkadian Ur III Old Babylonian Kassite Neo-Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Achaemenid Seleucid Parthian Roman Sasanian Muslim conquest Timeline of the Assyrian Empire

Languages

Akkadian Amorite Aramaic Eblaite Elamite Gutian Hittite Hurrian Luwian Middle Persian Old Persian Parthian Proto-Armenian Sumerian Urartian

Culture / Society

Architecture Art Cuneiform script Akkadian
Akkadian
literature Sumerian literature Music Religion

Archaeology

Looting Destruction by ISIL Tell

Portal

v t e

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Asia

Paleolithic

Homo erectus georgicus Japanese Paleolithic Java Man List of Paleolithic
Paleolithic
sites in China Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Mesopotamia Natufian culture Peking Man Riwat Soanian Sangiran South Asian Stone Age Ubeidiya Xiaochangliang

Neolithic

Fertile Crescent Early Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements Khiamian
Khiamian
culture Trialetian
Trialetian
culture Nemrikian culture Zarzian culture Neolithic
Neolithic
China Neolithic
Neolithic
Tibet Neolithic
Neolithic
Korea Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution Neolithic
Neolithic
South Asia Ohalo Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
A (Mesopotamia) Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(Mesopotamia)

Chalcolithic

Daimabad Halaf culture Uruk period

Bronze Age

Andronovo culture Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Anatolia Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Caucasus Bronze Age
Bronze Age
China Bronze Age
Bronze Age
India Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Korea Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Levant List of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
sites in China Seima-Turbino phenomenon

List of archaeological periods Li

.