The Hakkas (/ˈhækə/; Chinese: 客家), sometimes Hakka
Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in
the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi,
Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang,
Hainan and Guizhou. The Chinese
characters for Hakka (客家) literally mean "guest families".
Han Chinese groups, the Hakkas are not named after a
geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city. The modern day
Hakkas are usually identified with people who either speak the Hakka
language or share at least some Hakka ancestry.
The Hakkas are thought to have originated from the lands bordering the
Yellow River (the modern northern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Henan,
and Hubei). In a series of migrations, the Hakkas moved and settled
in their present areas in Southern China, and from there, substantial
numbers migrated overseas to various countries throughout the
world. As the most diasporic among the Chinese community groups,
the worldwide population of Hakkas is about 80 million.
Hakka people have had significant influence on the course modern
Chinese, overseas Chinese history; in particular, they have been a
source of many revolutionary, government and military leaders.
1 Origins, migrations and group identification
3.3.1 Hakka hill song
3.5 Food culture
4 Hakkas in China
4.2 Hong Kong
5 Hakkas worldwide
5.7.2 West Kalimantan
5.8 East Timor
5.10 South Africa
5.13 United States
8 Revolutionary, political and military leadership
8.1 Prominent political leaders
9 Quotes on the Hakkas
11 In popular culture
12 See also
13 Further reading
13.1 People and identity
13.6 Family stories
14 External links
Origins, migrations and group identification
Hakka distribution in
China and Taiwan.
Migrants were referred to as Hakka and no specific people were
referred to as Hakka at first. Northern China's
Yellow River area was
the homeland of the Hakka.
Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), the ancestors of the Hakka
people have migrated southwards several times because of social
unrest, upheaval and invasions. Subsequent migrations also occurred
at the end of the
Tang dynasty in the 10th century and during the end
of the Northern
Song dynasty in the 1120s, the last of which saw a
massive flood of refugees fleeing southward when the
the northern Song capital of Bianliang (modern-day Kaifeng) in the
Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song Wars. The precise movements of the
Hakka people remain unclear during the 14th century when the Ming
dynasty overthrew the
Yuan dynasty and subsequently fell to the
Manchus who formed the
Qing dynasty in the 17th century.
During the 16th century, in response to an economic boom, the Hakka
moved into hilly areas to mine for zinc and lead, and also moved into
the coastal plains to cultivate cash crops. After an economic
downturn, many of these ventures failed and many people had to turn to
pillaging to make ends meet.
During the reign of the
Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722) in the Qing
Dynasty, the coastal regions were evacuated by imperial edict for
almost a decade, due to the dangers posed by the remnants of the Ming
court who had fled to the island of Taiwan. When the threat was
Kangxi Emperor issued an edict to re-populate the coastal
regions. To aid the move, each family was given monetary incentives to
begin their new lives; newcomers were registered as "Guest Households"
Although different in some social customs and culture (e.g. linguistic
differences) from the surrounding population, they belong to the Han
Chinese majority. Historical sources shown in census statistics relate
only to the general population, irrespective of particular districts,
provinces, or regions. These census counts were made during imperial
times. They did not distinguish what Chinese variety the population
spoke. Therefore, they do not directly document Hakka migrations. The
study by Lo Hsiang-lin, K'o-chia Yen-chiu Tao-Liu / An Introduction to
the Study of the Hakkas (Hsin-Ning & Singapore, 1933) used
genealogical sources of family clans from various southern counties.
According to the 2009 studies published in the American Journal of
Human Genetics, Hakka genes are slightly tilted[clarify] towards
northern Han people compared with other southern Han people.
Nevertheless, the study has also shown a strong common genetic
relationship between all
Han Chinese with only a small difference of
Lingnan Hakka place names indicate a long history of the
Hakka being culturally Han Chinese.
Han Chinese groups, the Hakkas are not named after a
geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city. The Hakka people
have a distinct identity from the
Cantonese people. As 60% of the
China reside in
Guangdong province, and 95% of overseas
Hakkas ancestral homes are in Guangdong. Hakkas from Chaozhou, Hainan
Fujian are also mistaken to be Chaoshanese, Hainanese and
As Hakkas tend to be very clannish, strangers who found out that the
other party is a Hakka will affectionately acknowledge each other as
"zi-jia-ren" (自家人) meaning "all's in the same (Hakka) family".
It is commonly held that the Hakkas are a subgroup of the Han Chinese
that originated in Northern China. To trace their origins,
three accepted theories so far have been brought forth among
anthropologists, linguists, and historians:
The Hakkas are
Han Chinese originating solely from the Central Plain
The Hakkas are
Han Chinese from the Central Plain, with some inflow of
those already in the south;
The majority of the Hakkas are
Han Chinese from the south, with
portions coming from those in the north.
The latter two theories are the most likely and are together supported
by multiple scientific studies. Clyde Kiang stated that
the Hakkas' origins may also be linked with the Han's ancient
Xiongnu people. However, this is
disputed by many scholars and Kiang's theories are considered to be
Hakka–Chinese scientist and researcher Dr. Siu-Leung Lee stated in
the book by Chung Yoon-Ngan, The Hakka Chinese: Their Origin, Folk
Songs And Nursery Rhymes, that the potential Hakka origins from the
northern Han and Xiongnu, and that of the indigenous southern She
(畬族) and Yue (越族) tribes, "are all correct, yet none alone
explain the origin of the Hakka", pointing out that the problem with
"DNA typing" on limited numbers of people within population pools
cannot correctly ascertain who are really the southern Chinese,
because many southern Chinese are also from northern Asia; Hakka or
non-Hakka. It is known that the earliest major waves of Hakka
migration began due to the attacks of the two afore-mentioned tribes
during the Jin dynasty (265–420).
Main article: Hakka culture
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hakka culture.
Hakka culture have been largely shaped by the new environment which
they had to alter many aspects their culture to adapt, which helped
influence their architecture and cuisine. When the Hakka expanded into
areas with pre-existing populations in the South, there was often
little agricultural land left for them to farm. As a result, many
Hakka men turned towards careers in the military or in public service.
Consequently, the Hakka culturally emphasized education, however this
is by no means unique to the Hakkas as most of the other Han Chinese
also culturally emphasized education.
Main article: Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese is the native Chinese variety of the Hakka people. In
Taiwan, the Ministry of Education named "Taiwanese Hakka Chinese" as
one of the languages of Taiwan.
A linguistic study in the 19th century reported that the Hakka
language had much in common with Mandarin than the native languages of
shantou or guangzhou do.
Tulou cluster. Hukeng Town, Yongding County, Fujian.
Main article: Hakka architecture
Hakka people built several types of tulou and fortified villages in
Fujian and adjacent areas of
Jiangxi and Guangdong. A
representative sample of
Tulou (consisting of 10 buildings or
building groups) in
Fujian were inscribed in 2008 as a
Hakka hill song
Main article: Hakka hill song.
Hakka hill song is traditionally used by hillside farmers in parts of
Taiwan and China, mainly for entertainment in the farming fields and
courting practices. The Hakka hill song is characterized by the
strong, resonating melody and voice, which would echo around hills and
can be heard for up to a mile around the area. Hill song could be
considered a form of communication, as its participants often use it
to communicate love songs or news.
Hakkapop is a genre of Hakka pop music made primarily in Taiwan,
Indonesia and Malaysia.
China National Radio's Easy radio (神州之声) has a Hakka
Chinese radio break. In Taiwan, there are seven
Hakka Chinese radio
Hakka TV was the first
Hakka Chinese TV channel in the world. Meizhou
TV-2 was the first
Hakka Chinese TV channel in China.
Main article: Hakka cuisine
Hakka cuisine is known for the use of preserved meats and tofu as well
as stewed and braised dishes. A popular dish known as
Yong Tau Foo
Yong Tau Foo is
Hakka Chinese food consisting primarily of tofu that has been filled
with either a ground meat mixture or fish paste (surimi).
Historically, Hakka women did not bind their feet when the practice
was commonplace in China.
Typical traditional hillside tombs. Hukeng Town, Yongding County,
See also: Religion in China
The religious practices of
Hakka people are largely similar to those
of other Han Chinese. Ancestor veneration is the primary form of
religious expression. One distinctively Hakka religious practice
involves the worship of dragon deities.
Hakkas in China
Meizhou Prefecture (in yellow) in
Guangdong Province, where Xingning
Meixian are located.
Hakka populations are found in 13 out of the 27 provinces and
autonomous regions of mainland China.
Christian missionaries with Hakka students of a girls' school in
Waichow, Guangdong, 1921.
Hakkas who live in
Guangdong comprise about 60% of the total Hakka
population. Worldwide, over 95% of the overseas-descended Hakkas came
Guangdong region, usually from
Meizhou and Heyuan. Hakkas
live mostly in the northeast part of the province, particularly in the
so-called Xing-Mei (Xingning-Meixian) area. Unlike their kin in
Fujian, Hakka in the Xingning and
Meixian area developed a
non-fortress-like unique architectural style, most notably the
weilongwu (Chinese: 圍龍屋, wéilóngwū or Hakka: Wui Lung Wuk)
and sijiaolou (Chinese: 四角樓, sìjǐaolóu or Hakka: Si Kok Liu).
During the late Ming and Qing dynasties,
Hong Kong was in the imperial
district of Xin-An (now Shenzhen) County. The 1819 gazetteer lists
Punti and 270 Hakka contemporary settlements in the whole
district. However, the area covered by Xin-An county is greater
than what was to become the British imperial enclave of
Hong Kong by
1899. Although there had been settlers originating from the mainland
proper even before the Tang dynasty, historical records of those
people are non-extant, only evidence of settlement from archaeological
sources can be found. The
New Territories lowland areas had been
settled originally by several clan lineages in Kam Tin, Sheung Shui,
Fanling, Yuen Long,
Lin Ma Hang
Lin Ma Hang and Tai Po, and hence termed the Punti
before the arrival of the Hakka, and fishing families of the Tanka and
Hoklo groups to the area. Since the prime farming land had already
been farmed, the Hakka land dwellers settled in the less accessible
and more hilly areas. Hakka settlements can be found widely
distributed around the
Punti areas, but in smaller communities. Many
are found on coastal areas in inlets and bays surrounded by hills.
Hakka-speaking communities are thought to have arrived in the Hong
Kong area after the rescinding of the coastal evacuation order in
1688, such as the Hakka speaking Lee clan lineage of Wo Hang, one
of whose ancestors is recorded as arriving in the area in 1688.
As the strong
Punti lineages dominated most of the north western New
Territories, Hakka communities began to organise local alliances of
lineage communities such as the
Sha Tau Kok
Sha Tau Kok Alliance of Ten or Shap
Yeuk as Patrick Hase writes. Hakka villages from Wo Hang to the
west and Yantian to the east of
Sha Tau Kok
Sha Tau Kok came to use it as a local
market town and it became the center of Hakka dominance. Further, the
Shap Yeuk's land reclamation project transforming marshland to arable
farmland with the creation of dykes and levees to prevent storm
flooding during the early 19th century shows an example of how local
cooperation and the growing affluence of the landed lineages in the
Alliance of Ten provided the strong cultural, socioeconomic Hakka
influence on the area.
Farming and cultivation has been the traditional occupations of Hakka
families from imperial times up until the 1970s. Farming was mostly
done by Hakka women while their menfolk sought labouring jobs in the
towns and cities. Many men entered indentured labour abroad as was
common from the end of the 19th century to the Second World War. Post
war, males took the opportunity to seek work in Britain and other
countries later to send for their families to join them once they sent
enough money back to cover travel costs.
As post war education became available to all children in Hong Kong, a
new educated class of Hakka became more mobile in their careers. Many
moved to the government planned new towns which sprung up from the
1960s. The rural Hakka population began to decline as people moved
abroad, and away to work in the urban areas. By the end of the 1970s,
agriculture was firmly in the decline in Hakka villages. Today,
there are still Hakka villages around Hong Kong, but being remote,
many of their inhabitants have moved to the post war new towns like
Sheung Shui, Tai Po,
Sha Tin and further afield.
See also: Firearm ownership law in China
Gun port of Chengqilou in a Hakka
A firearm for defence against enemies in a Hakka
Tradition states that the early Hakka ancestors traveling from north
Fujian first, then by way of the
Ting River they
Guangdong and other parts of China, as well as overseas.
Thus, the Tingjiang River is also regarded as the Hakka Mother River.
The Hakkas who settled in the mountainous region of south-western
Fujian province developed a unique form of architecture known as the
tulou (土樓), literally meaning earthen structures. The tulou are
round or square and were designed as a combined large fortress and
multi-apartment building complex. The structures typically had only
one entrance-way, with no windows at ground level. Each floor served a
different function: the first floor contained a well and livestock,
the second food storage, and the third and higher floors living
Tulou were built to withstand attack from bandits and
Fujian is inhabited by 3 million Hakkas, scattered
around 10 counties (county-level cities and districts) in Longyan and
Sanming cities, 98% of whom are Hakkas living in Changting, Liancheng,
Shanghang, Wuping, Yongding, Ninghua, Qingliu and Mingxi counties.
Jiangxi contains the second largest Hakka community. Nearly all of
Jiangxi province is Hakka, especially in Ganzhou. In the Song
Dynasty, a large number of
Han Chinese migrated to the delta area as
the Court moved southward because invasion of northern minority. They
Jiangxi and intermixed with the She and Yao minorities.
Ganzhou was the place that the Hakka have settled before migrating to
Fujian and eastern Guangdong. During the early Qing Dynasty,
there was a massive depopulation in Gannan due to the ravage of
pestilence and war. However, western
Fujian and eastern Guangdong
suffered population explosion at the same time. Some edicts were
issued to block the coastal areas, ordering coastal residents to move
to the inland. The population pressure and the sharp contradiction of
the land redistribution drove some residents to leave. Some of them
moved back to Gannan, integrating with other
Hakka people who lived
there already for generations. Thus, the modern Gannan Hakka community
was finally formed.
Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662-1722), after a tour of the land, decided
the province of
Sichuan had to be repopulated after the devastation
caused by Zhang Xianzhong. Seeing the Hakka were living in poverty in
the coastal regions in
Guangdong province, the emperor encouraged the
Hakkas in the south to migrate to
Sichuan province. He offered
financial assistance to those willing to resettle in Sichuan: eight
ounces of silver per man and four ounces per woman or child.
Sichuan was originally the origin of the Deng lineage until one of
them was hired as an official in
Guangdong during the
Ming dynasty but
during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to
Deng Xiaoping was born in Sichuan.
Hakka people are mainly concentrated in the eastern part of Hunan.
As with those in Sichuan, many Hakka emigrated to
Henan province), where
Li Zicheng carried out a massacre
in Guangzhou (now in Huangchuan) on Jan. 17th, 1636.
There is a Hakka saying, “有陽光的地方就有華人,
有華人的地方就有客家人”, which literally means "Wherever
there is sunshine, there are Chinese; wherever there are Chinese,
there are Hakka."[original research?]
The Hakka have emigrated to many regions worldwide, notably Taiwan,
Suriname, India, Bangladesh,
Vietnam (known as Ngai people), Thailand,
Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia,
Timor-Leste and Burma.
Hakka people also emigrated to many countries in Europe, including
Great Britain, Italy, France, Portugal, Spain, Germany, Austria,
Belgium and Netherlands. They also are found in South
Mauritius, on the islands of the
Jamaica and Trinidad and
Tobago), in the Americas, particularly in the United States, Canada,
Argentina and Brazil, as well as in Australia. Most expatriate
Great Britain have ties to
Hong Kong as many migrated there
Hong Kong still was a British colony during a period coinciding
Cultural Revolution of
China and a minor economic depression
in Hong Kong.
See also: Han Taiwanese
Hakka women in traditional attire in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, pre-1945.
The Hakka population in
Taiwan is around 4.6 million people today.
Hakka people comprise about 15 to 20% of the population of
form the second-largest ethnic group on the island. They are descended
largely from Hakka who migrated from southern and northern Guangdong
Taiwan around the end of the
Ming dynasty and the beginning of the
Qing dynasty (ca. 1644). The early Hakka immigrants were the
island's first agriculturalists and formed the nucleus of the Chinese
population, numbering tens of thousands at the time. They resided
in "savage border districts, where land could be had for the taking,
and where a certain freedom from official oppression was ensured."
During the Qing era, the Hakka on
Taiwan had gained a reputation with
the authorities of being turbulent and lawless.
Taiwan under Qing rule the Hakka on
Taiwan owned matchlock muskets.
Han people traded and sold matchlock muskets to the Taiwanese
aborigines. The Aboriginals used their matchlock muskets to defeat the
Americans in the Formosa Expedition. During the
Sino-French War the
Hakka and Aboriginals used their matchlock muskets against the French
Keelung Campaign and Battle of Tamsui.
Liu Mingchuan took measures to reinforce Tamsui, in the river nine
torpedo mines were planted and the entrance was blocked with ballast
boats filled with stone which were sunk on September 3, matchlock
armed "Hakka hill people" were used to reinforce the mainland Chinese
battalion, and around the British Consulate and Customs House at the
Red Fort hilltop, Shanghai Arsenal manufactured Krupp guns were used
to form an additional battery.
Hakka Round House
Hakka Round House in
Lin Ch'ao-tung (林朝棟) was the leader of the Hakka militia
recruited by Liu Ming-ch'uan.
The Hakka used their matchlock muskets to resist the Japanese invasion
Taiwan (1895) and
Han Taiwanese and Aboriginals conducted an
insurgency against Japanese rule. The Hakka rose up against the
Japanese in the Beipu uprising
Taiwan's Hakka population concentrates in
Miaoli County, and around
Zhongli District in Taoyuan City, and
Meinong District in Kaohsiung, and in Pingtung County, with smaller
Hualien County and Taitung County. In recent
decades,[when?] many Hakka have moved to the largest metropolitan
Taipei and Taichung.
On 28 December 1988, 14,000 Hakka protestors took to the streets in
Taipei to demand the Nationalist government to "return our mother
tongue", carrying portraits of "Sun Yat-sen". The movement was later
termed "1228 Return Our Mother Tongue Movement".
Hakka-related affairs in
Taiwan is regulated by the Hakka Affairs
Council. Hakka-related tourist attractions in
Taiwan are Dongshih
Hakka Cultural Park, Hakka Round House,
Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural
Museum, Meinong Hakka Culture Museum, New
Taipei City Hakka Museum,
Taipei Hakka Culture Hall and Taoyuan Hakka Culture Hall.
Hakka people are known as
Người Hẹ and were made up
largely by the 唐 (Mandarin: Tang; Vietnamese: Đường) families
located around the
Sài Gòn and
Vũng Tàu areas.
About 65% of the Hakka trace their roots back to
Meizhou and Heyuan
Guangdong province. About 70% of the Hakkas are found
in Phnom Penh where they dominate professions in the field of
Traditional Chinese Medicine, and shoemaking. Hakkas are also found in
Stung Treng and
Rattanakiri who consist of vegetable
growers and rubber plantation workers. Hakka communities in the
provinces migrated to Cambodia through Tonkin and Cochinchina in the
18th and 19th centuries.
There are no records as to when Hakka descendants arrived in Thailand.
In 1901, Yu Cipeng, a Hakka member of The League Society of
Thailand and found that the establishment of many varied
organizations among the Hakka was not good for unity. He tried to
bring the two parties together and persuaded them to dissolve the
associations in order to set up a new united one. In 1909 The Hakka
Society of Siam was established, and Chao Phraya Yommarat, then
Interior Minister, was invited to preside over the opening ceremony
for the establishment of the society's nameplate, located in front of
the Chinese shrine "Lee Tee Biao". Yang Liqing was its first
Further information: Chinese Singaporeans
In 2010, 232,914 people in
Singapore reported Hakka ancestry.
Hakka people form the second largest subgroup of the ethnic Chinese
population of Malaysia, particularly in the peninsula, with several
prominent Hakka figures emerging during colonial British rule. There
are 1,729,000 people of Hakka ancestry in
Malaysia as of 2016.
Chung Keng Quee, "Captain China" of
Perak and Penang, was the founder
of the mining town of Taiping, the leader of the Hai San, a
millionaire philanthropist, and an innovator in the mining of tin,
having been respected by both Chinese and European communities in the
early colonial settlement. Another notable Hakka was Yap Ah Loy, who
Kuala Lumpur and was a
Kapitan Cina of the settlement from
1868 to 1885, bringing significant economic contributions, and was
also an influential figure among the ethnic Chinese.
In the district of Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan,
Hakka people make up more
than 90% of the Chinese subgroup with dialect itself acting as a
lingua franca there. This has contributed greatly to the fact that the
place is commonly known among
Hakka Chinese as "Hakka Village". The
greatest concentration of Hakkas in northern peninsular
Malaysia is in
Perak and in
Kuala Lumpur and its satellite cities in Selangor.
Hakka people in
Ipoh and surrounding areas are
particularly high. The Hakkas in the
Kinta Valley came mainly from the
Jiaying Prefecture or Meixian, while those in
Kuala Lumpur are mainly
A large number of
Hakka people are also found in Sarawak, particularly
in the city of Kuching and Miri, where there is a notable population
Hakka people who speak the "Ho Poh"[clarification needed] variant
In Sabah, most of the ethnic Chinese are of Hakka descent. In the
1990s, the Hakkas formed around 57% of the total ethnic Chinese
population in Sabah. Hakka is the lingua franca among the Chinese
Sabah to such an extent that Chinese of other subgroups who migrate
Sabah from other states in
Malaysia and elsewhere usually learn the
Hakka dialect, with varying degrees of fluency.
In 1882 the
North Borneo Chartered Company
North Borneo Chartered Company opted to bring in Hakka
labourers from Longchuan County, Guangdong. The first batch of 96
Hakkas brought to
Sabah landed in
Kudat on April 4, 1883 under the
leadership of Luo Daifeng (Hakka: Lo Tai Fung). In the following
decades Hakka immigrants settled throughout the state, with their main
population centres in
Kota Kinabalu (then known as Jesselton) and its
surroundings (in the districts of Tuaran, Penampang, Ranau, Papar,
Kota Belud as well as a lesser extent to Kota Marudu), with a
significant miniority residing in
Sandakan (mainly ex-Taiping
revolutionists), and other large populations in other towns and
districts, most notably in Tawau, Tenom, Kuala Penyu, Tambunan,
Keningau and Kudat. The British felt the
development of North
Borneo was too slow and in 1920 they decided to
encourage Hakka immigration into Sabah. In 1901, the total Chinese
Sabah was 13897; by 1911, it had risen 100% to
27801. Hakka immigration began to taper off during World War 2 and
declined to a negligible level in the late 1940s.
Indonesian Hakka Museum
Indonesian Hakka Museum in Jakarta.
Hakka people to
Indonesia happened in several waves. The
first wave landed in
Riau Islands such as in
Bangka Island and
Belitung as tin miners in the 18th century. The second group of
colonies were established along the
Kapuas River in
Borneo in the 19th
century, predecessor to early
Singapore residents. In the early 20th
century, new arrivals joined their compatriots as traders, merchants
and labourers in major cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung,
Malaysia and Singapore,
Hakka people are sometimes known
as Khek, from the
Hokkien (Southern Min) pronunciation kheh of 客
(Hakka: hak). However, the use of the word 'Khek' is limited mainly to
areas where the local Chinese population is mainly of
In places where other Chinese subgroups predominate, the term 'Hakka'
is still the more commonly used.
Hakka also live in Indonesia's largest tin producer islands of Bangka
Belitung province. They are the second majority ethnic group after
Malays. The Hakka population in the province is also the second
Indonesia after West Kalimantan's and one of the highest
percentages of Chinese living in Indonesia.
The first group of Hakka in Bangka and Belitung reached the islands in
the 18th century from Guangdong. Many of them worked as tin mining
labourers. Since then, they have remained on the island along with the
native Malay. Their situation was much different from those of Chinese
and native populations of other regions, where legal cultural
conflicts were prevalent since the 1960s until 1999, by which
Indonesian Chinese had finally regained their cultural freedoms. Here
they lived together peacefully and still practiced their customs and
cultural festivals, while in other regions they were strictly banned
by government legislation prior to 1999. Hakka on the island of
Bangka spoke Hopo dialect mixed with Malay, especially in younger
generations. Hakka spoken in Belinyu area in Bangka is considered to
Hakka people in Pontianak live alongside Teochew speaking Chinese.
While the Teochews are dominant in the centre of Pontianak, the Hakka
are more dominant in small towns along the
Kapuas River in the
regencies of Sanggau, Sekadau and Sintang. Their Hakka dialect is
originally Hopo which influenced by Teochew dialect and also has
vocabulary from the local Malay and Dayak tribes. The Hakka were
instrumental in the Lanfang Republic.
The Hakka in this region are descendants of gold prospectors who
China in the late 19th century.
The Hakka in
Singkawang and the surrounding regencies of Sambas,
Ketapang and Landak speak a different standard of Hakka
dialect to the Hakkas along the Kapuas River. Originally West Borneo
has diverse Hakka origin but during the 19th century, a large people
came from Jiexi so more Hakkas in the region speak Hopo mixed with
Wuhua and Huilai accents that eventually formed the dialect of
Hakka people in
Jakarta mainly have roots from Meizhou, who came in
the 19th century. Secondary migration of the Hakkas from other
provinces like Bangka Belitung and West
Borneo came later. Mostly
Hakka people in
Jakarta resided along Kelapa Gading, Pluit,
Penjaringan and surrounding areas, while other Chinese in Glodok,
Taman Sari are
Chinese people in East Timor
A mix wedding of East Timorese and Hakka in East Timor, where the four
flower girls and the mother of the bride on the far right are of Hakka
There was already a relatively large and vibrant Hakka community in
East Timor before the 1975 Indonesian invasion. According to an
estimate by the local Chinese Timorese association, the Hakka
Portuguese Timor in 1975 was estimated to be around
25,000 (including a small minority of other Chinese ethnicities from
Macau, which like
East Timor was a Portuguese colony). According to a
book source, an estimated 700 Hakka were killed within the first week
of invasion in
Dili alone. No clear numbers had been recorded since
many Hakka had already escaped to neighbouring Australia. The recent
re-establishment of Hakka associations in the country registered
approximately 2,400 Hakka remaining, organised into some 400 families,
including part-Timorese ones.
The Timorese Hakka diaspora can currently be found in Darwin,
Melbourne in Australia; in Portugal; in Macau;
and in other parts of the world in smaller numbers. They often are
highly educated, and many continue their education in either
the People's Republic of China, while a majority of the younger
generation prefer to study in Australia. The Australian government
took some years to assess their claims to be genuine refugees and not
illegal immigrants, as partially related to the political situation in
East Timor at the time. As Asian countries were neither willing to
accept them as residents nor grant them political asylum to the
Timorese in general, they were forced to live as stateless persons for
some time. Despite this condition, many Hakka had become successful,
establishing restaurant chains, shops, supermarkets, and import
operations in Australia. Since the independence of
East Timor in 2000,
some Hakka families had returned and invested in businesses in the
Chinese people in India
There used to be sizable Hakka communities at Tangra in Kolkata, the
capital of West Bengal, and
Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay).
However, from the 1960s, when the
Vietnam War broke out, there has
been a steady migration to other countries, which accelerated in the
succeeding decades. The majority moved to Canada, while others went to
the United States, Australia, Taiwan,
Austria and Sweden. The
predominant dialect of Hakka in these communities is Meixian.
It should be noted that during the time he held office in Kolkata
until the late 2000s, Yap Kon Chung, an ambassador for The Republic of
China (Taiwan), protected and helped the Chinese residents in India.
Specifically, during the Indo-Chinese war of 1962, oppression of
Sino-Indian residents was escalated. Yap then made appeals to Prime
Minister Nehru to bridge a bond between the Indian and Chinese people.
During his office, he was also the principal at a highly regarded
school as well as a political facilitator who helped many families
migrate to other countries such as Canada, the
United States and parts
Europe until he himself migrated to Toronto,
Canada to join his
family. Yap died surrounded by family on April 18, 2014, at the age of
Further information: Chinese South Africans
Some Hakka people, notably from Taiwan, migrated to South Africa.
The vast majority of Mauritian Chinese are Hakkas. Most of the
Mauritian Hakkas emigrated to
Mauritius in the mid-1940s came from
northeastern Guangdong, especially from the
As of 2008, the total population of Sino-Mauritian, consisting of
Hakka and Hokkien, is around 35,000.
Main article: Chinois (Réunion)
Chinese people in
Réunion are of Hakka origin. They either
Réunion as indentured workers or as voluntary migrants.
Hakka from all over the world have also migrated to the USA. One group
is the New England Hakka Association, which reminds its members not to
forget their roots. One example is a blog by Ying Han Brach called
"Searching for My Hakka Roots". Another group is the Hakka
Association of New York, which aims to promote
Hakka culture across
the five boroughs of New York City. In the mid 1970s, the Hakka
Benevolent Association in
San Francisco was founded by Tu Chung. The
association has strong ties with the
San Francisco community and
offers scholarships to their young members. There are significant
Hakka communities in San Francisco, San Jose,
Seattle and Los Angeles.
There are around 20,000 Taiwanese Hakkas in the United States.
There are several Hakka communities across Canada. One group that
Hakka culture in this diverse country is the Hakka
Chinese Jamaicans are Hakka; they have a long history in Jamaica.
Between 1845 and 1884, nearly 5000 Hakkas arrived in
Jamaica in three
major voyages. The Hakkas seized the opportunity to venture into a new
land, embracing the local language, customs and culture. During the
1960s and 1970s, substantial migration of Jamaican Hakkas to the USA
Canada have occurred. The Hakkas in
Jamaica came mainly from
Huiyang and Bao'an counties of
The Chinese in
Suriname are homogeneous as a group and the great
majority can trace their roots to Huidong'an in Guangdong.
At a 1994 seminar of the World Hakka Association held in Meixian,
statistics showed that there were 6,562,429 Hakkas living abroad.
In 2000, the worldwide population of Hakka was estimated at 36,059,500
and in 2010 it was estimated at 40,745,200.
Another estimate is that approximately 36 million
Hakka people are
scattered throughout the world. More than 31 million lives in over 200
cities and counties spread throughout seven provinces of China:
Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Fujian, Hong Kong, Hunan.
Hakka Affairs Council, Taiwan, 2014
Prof Lau Yee Cheung, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2010 
Singapore Census, 2010
Malaysia Census, 2015
The World Factbook, 2012
Hakkaology (客家學) is the academic study of the
Hakka people and
their culture. It encompasses their origins, identity, language,
traits, architecture, customs, food, literature, history, politics,
economics, diaspora and genealogical records.
The study of the
Hakka people first drew attention to Chinese and
foreign scholars, missionaries, travellers and writers during the
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom era in the middle of the nineteen century.
Many wanted to know more about the
Hakka people who had started the
Taiping Rebellion which almost overthrew the Qing Dynasty. Ernest John
Eitel, a prominent German missionary, was one of those who took a
great interest in this area.
Many foreign scholars were full of admiration of the Hakka people.
According to prominent sinologist Victor Purcell, the Hakkas "have a
stubbornness of disposition that distinguishes them from their fellow
Revolutionary, political and military leadership
See also: List of notable Hakkas
The Hakkas have had a significant influence, disproportionate to their
smaller total numbers, on the course of modern Chinese and overseas
Chinese history, particularly as a source of revolutionary, political
and military leaders.
Hakkas started and formed the backbone of the Taiping Rebellion,
the largest uprising in the modern history of China. The uprising,
also known as
Jintian Uprising (金田起義), originated at the Hakka
village of Jintian in Guiping,
Guangxi province. It was led by the
failed Qing scholar, Hong Xiuquan, who was influenced by Protestant
missionaries. Hong's charisma tapped into a consciousness of national
dissent which identified with his personal interpretations of the
Christian message. His following, who were initially Hakka peasants
from Guangxi, grew across the southern provinces.
The hugely disciplined Taiping army, which included women in their
ranks, captured stoutly defended towns and cities from the Qing
defenders. Four of the six top Taiping leaders are Hakkas: Hong
Xiuquan, Feng Yunshan,
Yang Xiuqing and Shi Dakai. In 1851, less than
a year after the uprising, the
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天國)
was established. It had, at one stage, occupied one-third of
almost toppled the Qing Dynasty. Hong Rengan, the Premier of the
Kingdom, was the first person in
China to advocate modern-style
government and opening up reforms. The kingdom lasted for thirteen
years, from 1851 to 1864.
Hakkas continued to play leading roles during the Xinhai Revolution
that overthrew the
Qing Dynasty and the republican years of China.
Sun Yat-sen was small, together with other children in his
village, he used to listen to an old Taiping soldier telling them
stories about the heroics of the Taipings. This influenced Sun and
he proclaimed that he shall be the second Hong Xiuquan. Sun was to
become the Father of modern
China and many of his contemporaries were
his fellow Hakkas.
Zheng Shiliang, a medical student and classmate of Sun, led the
Huizhou Uprising (惠州起義) in 1900.
Huizhou is an area in
Guangdong province where most of the population are Hakkas. Deng Zhiyu
Huizhou Qinuhu Uprising (惠州七女湖起義) in 1907. All
of the Four Martyrs of Honghuagang (紅花崗四烈士) are Hakkas -
one of which was Wen Shengcai who assassinated the Manchu general, Fu
Qi, in 1911.
Brothers Hsieh Yi-qiao and Hsieh Liang-mu raised the 100,000 Chinese
Yuan needed for the
Huanghuagang Uprising (黄花崗起義) from the
overseas Chinese community in Nanyang (Southeast Asia) in 1911. At
least 27 of the 85 (initially 72 because only 72 bodies could be
identified) martyrs of Huanghuagang (黄花崗七十二烈士) are
Hakkas. Yao Yuping led the
Guangdong Northern Expeditionary Force
(廣東北伐軍) to successive victories against the Qing Army which
were vital in the successful defence of the Provisional Government in
Nanjing and the early abdication of Xuan Tong Emperor.
Liao Zhongkai and Deng Keng were Sun Yat-sen's main advisors on
financial and military matters respectively. A big majority of the
soldiers in the
Guangdong Army (粤軍) were Hakkas. Eugene Chen,
whose father was a former Taiping, was an outstanding foreign minister
in the 1920s. Some of the best of Nationalist
China generals: Chen
Mingshu, Chen Jitang, Xue Yue and
Zhang Fakui amongst many others
are Hakka as well.
The Communist Party of
China already have many Hakkas in its ranks
before the outbreak of the Civil War.
Li Lisan was the top leader of
the party from 1928 to 1930. The Jiangxi-
Fujian Soviet was the largest
component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic
(中華蘇維埃共和國) which was founded in 1931. It reached a
peak of more than 30,000 square kilometres and a population that
numbered more than three million, covering mostly Hakka areas of two
Jiangxi and Fujian. The Hakka city of
Ruijin was the
capital of the republic.
When it was overrun in 1934 by the Nationalist army in the Fifth of
its Encirclement Campaigns, the Communists began their famous Long
March with 86,000 soldiers, of which more than 70% were Hakkas. The
Fifth Encirclement Campaign was led by Nationalist Hakka general, Xue
Yue. During the retreat, the Communists managed to strike a deal with
the Hakka warlord controlling
Guangdong province, Chen Jitang, to let
them pass through
Guangdong without a fight. When the People's
Liberation Army (人民解放軍) had its rank structure from 1955 to
1964, the highest number of generals, totalling 54, came from the
small Hakka county of Xingguo in
Jiangxi province. The county had also
previously produced 27 Nationalist generals. Xingguo county is thus
known as the Generals' County (將軍縣) in China.
During the same period, there were 132 Hakkas out of 325 generals in
Jiangxi, 63 Hakkas out of 83 generals in Fujian, and 8 Hakkas out of
12 generals in
Guangdong respectively, not mentioning those from
Sichuan and Hunan. The number could have been significantly
higher if the majority of the personnel who started the
Long March had
not perished before reaching its destination. Only less than 7,000 of
the original 86,000 personnel had survived it.
Prominent Hakka communist leaders include: Marshal Zhu De, the founder
of the Red Army (紅軍), later known as the People's Liberation Army;
Ye Ting, Commander-in-chief, New Fourth Army, one of the two main
Chinese communist forces fighting the
Japanese Imperial Army
Japanese Imperial Army during
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War (the other main communist force, Eighth
Route Army, was commanded by Zhu De); Marshal Ye Jianying, who led the
overthrow of the
Gang of Four
Gang of Four in 1976, which marked the end of the
Cultural Revolution; and Hu Yaobang, where the memorial service for
his death sparked off a pro-democracy movement which led to the
Tiananmen Square protests in 1989. In Guangdong, China's most
prosperous province, the "Hakka clique" (客家幫) has consistently
dominated the provincial government. Guangdong's Hakka governors
include Ye Jianying, Ding Sheng,
Ye Xuanping and Huang Huahua.
Besides playing leading roles in all the three major revolutions of
China, Hakkas had also been prominently involved in many of the wars
against foreign intrusion of China. During the First Opium War, Lai
Enjue led the Qing navy against the British at the Battle of Kowloon
in 1839 and Yan Botao commanded the coastal defence at the Battle of
Amoy in 1841.
Feng Zicai and
Liu Yongfu were instrumental in the
defeat of the French at the
Battle of Bang Bo
Battle of Bang Bo which led to the French
Retreat from Lang Son
Retreat from Lang Son and the conclusion of the war in 1885. During
the Japanese invasion of
Taiwan in 1895, the Taiwanese militia forces
Qiu Fengjia and formed mainly by Hakkas, were able to put up a
stiff resistance to the Japanese when the Qing army could not. During
Battle of Shanghai
Battle of Shanghai in the
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the
Xie Jinyuan and his troops, known as the "Eight Hundred
Warriors" (八百壯士) in Chinese history, gained international
attention and lifted flagging Chinese morale in their successful
Defence of Sihang Warehouse
Defence of Sihang Warehouse against the more superior Japanese
Imperial Army. However, in the ensuing Battle of Nanjing, seventeen
Nationalist generals were killed in action, of which six were
During the war against the Japanese, both the commander-in-chiefs of
the two main Chinese communist forces,
Eighth Route Army
Eighth Route Army and New
Fourth Army, are Hakkas:
Zhu De and Ye Ting. On the Nationalist side,
Xue Yue and
Zhang Fakui were commander-in-chiefs for the 9th and 4th
War Zones respectively. Called the "
Patton of Asia" by the West and
the "God of War" (戰神) by the Chinese, Xue was
outstanding general during the war, having won several major battles
which killed hundreds of thousands of Japanese troops. Luo Zhuoying
was the commander-in-chief for the 1st Route Expeditionary Forces,
Burma (China's first participation of a war overseas), 1942.
During the Japanese occupation of
Hong Kong from 1941-1945, the Dong
River Column guerilla force (東江縱隊) was a constant harassment
to the Japanese troops. The force, whose members were mostly Hakkas
and led by its legendary commander, Zeng Sheng, was highly successful
due to its strong Hakka network. Noteworthy accomplishments of the
guerilla force included the aiding of British and Commonwealth
prisoners of war to escape successfully from Japanese internment camps
and the rescuing of twenty American pilots who parachuted into Hong
Kong when they were shot down. Since the Xinhai Revolution,
Meizhou alone which consisted of 7 Hakka counties has produced 474
generals (there are more than 200 Hakka or partial-Hakka counties in
According to some books, the Soong family from which the Soong Sisters
had been influential figures during the Republican period, has been
cited to have Hakka ancestors. In the book, "My father Deng
Xiaoping" (我的父親鄧小平), by
China paramount leader Deng
Xiaoping's daughter, Deng Rong, she had mentioned that the Deng
family's ancestry is possibly Hakka, but not definitely.
Overseas Hakkas have also been prominent politically in the countries
they had migrated to, many of which are leading political figures of
the countries or the Chinese communities there. Since the 20th
century, there have been twenty Hakkas who had become heads of state
or heads of government in different countries.
Prominent political leaders
Hong Xiuquan, founder and Heavenly King, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom,
Hong Rengan, Premier, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, 1860-1864; first
China to advocate modern-style government and opening up
Sun Yat-sen, founding father of modern China; first President,
Provisional Government of the Republic of China, 1912
Chen Mingshu, Acting Premier of the Republic of China, 1931-1932
Sun Ke, Premier of the Republic of China, 1932, 1948-1949
Chen Jitang, warlord who wielded absolute control of the government
and army of autonomous Guangdong, 1929-1936
Li Lisan, top leader, Communist Party of China, 1928-1930
Chairman of the National People's Congress
Chairman of the National People's Congress (Head of
State), People's Republic of China, 1975-1976; Founder, People's
Chairman of the National People's Congress
Chairman of the National People's Congress (Head of
State), People's Republic of China, 1978-1983
Hu Yaobang, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, 1981-1982;
General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, 1982-1987 (both
positions during these periods made Hu the highest-ranked in the
Communist Party of
China and the second most powerful person in China
after Deng Xiaoping)
Liao Chengzhi, died four days after he was nominated to be the
Vice-President of the People's Republic of China, 1983
Liu Yongfu, President,
Republic of Formosa
Republic of Formosa (Taiwan), 1895
Qiu Fengjia, Vice-President,
Republic of Formosa
Republic of Formosa (Taiwan), 1895
Lee Teng-hui, President, Taiwan, 1988-2000; first popularly
elected President in Chinese history
Ma Ying-jeou, President, Taiwan, 2008–2016; the first Republic of
China leader to meet with People's Republic of
Tsai Ing-wen, President, Taiwan, 2016–present; first and only
popularly elected female President in Chinese history
Li Yuan-tsu, Vice-President, Taiwan, 1990–1996
Annette Lu, Vice-President, Taiwan, 2000-2008
Wang Sheng, second most powerful person in
Taiwan after President
Chiang Ching-kuo as he led the "Liu Shaokang Office" which was
described as the inner court of the
Kuomintang party headquarters,
Yu Shyi-kun, Premier, Taiwan, 2002-2005
Jiang Yi-huah, Premier, Taiwan, 2013-2014
Martin Lee, leading figure of Pan-democracy camp, Hong Kong; hailed as
the father of democracy of Hong Kong
Lau Wong-fat, political kingpin in the New Territories, Hong Kong
Lee Kuan Yew, founding father of modern Singapore; first Prime
Minister of Singapore, 1959-1990
Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore, 2004–present
Yap Ah Loy, founder, modern Kuala Lumpur, capital of Malaysia, 1860s
Leong Fee, first Chinese member, Federal Legislative Council,
Low Fang Pak, founder and President, Hakka Republic of Lanfang in West
Kalimantan, Indonesia, 1777–1795; the republic lasted for 107 years
from 1777 to 1884 and had twelve presidents who are all
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Chung Ban Hok), first ethnic Chinese Governor
of Jakarta, capital of Indonesia, which is considered to be the third
most powerful position in
Indonesia serving from 2014–2017 (after he
was charged for blasphemy and his defeat in the gubernatorial
Hasan Karman, first Chinese Mayor in Indonesia, 2007-2012
Sok An, Deputy Prime Minister, Cambodia, 2004–present
Ne Win, paramount leader of
Myanmar for three decades, 1958–60;
San Yu, President of Myanmar, 1981-1988
Khin Nyunt, Prime Minister of Myanmar, 2003–2004
Pedro Lay, first Chinese Cabinet Minister, Timor-Leste, 2007-2015
Francisco Kalbuadi Lay, first Chinese to be elected to National
Parliament, Timor-Leste, 2002-2005
Penny Wong, first Chinese and first Asian Cabinet Minister,
Helen Sham-Ho, first Chinese to be elected to an Australian
Gaston Tong Sang, President, French Polynesia, 2006-2007, 2008-2011
Moilin Jean Ah-Chuen, first Chinese Cabinet Minister, Mauritius,
Li Huarong, Deputy Minister, Seychelles
Nat Wei, Baron Wei, youngest member at the age of 34 and
first British-born person of Chinese origin in the House of Lords,
United Kingdom, 2011–present
André Thien Ah Koon, first and only Chinese elected to the
French National Assembly and the first Chinese elected to a parliament
in Europe, 1986-2006
Varina Tjon-A-Ten, first Chinese elected to the House of
Representatives, Netherlands, 2003-2006
Roy Ho Ten Soeng, first Chinese Mayor in
Netherlands and Europe,
Arthur Chung, first President, Guyana, 1970–1980
Solomon Hochoy, last British Governor, 1960–1962, Trinidad and
Tobago; first non-white Governor in the whole of the British Empire,
1960; first Governor-General, 1962–1972, when Trinidad and Tobago
obtained independence in 1962; first Chinese head of state in a
Hendrick Chin A Sen, President and Prime Minister of Suriname,
Rose Leon, first Chinese and first female Cabinet Minister, Jamaica,
William Boss Wu, first and only Chinese elected to the
National Congress of Brazil, 2006–present
Quotes on the Hakkas
"The Hakkas are able to mould outstanding military men, their
hardworking conduct having been developed through years of ardous
livelihood in the mountainous regions. Praises of the
by the Japanese actually refer to the Hakka spirit. A big majority of
the officers and soldiers in the
Guangdong army are Hakkas, the
distinguished successes of Hakka military men have been attested by
the modern history of China." - Zhang Fakui, Commander-in-Chief,
China Army (1980)
"Fortunately for me, I have a very high threshold for pain. I am a
Hakka. Hakkas can take a lot of pain. So, I survived." - Lee Kuan Yew,
founding father of modern
"All of you should know that I, Lee Teng-hui, am a Hakka. Many of
mainland China's leaders are also Hakkas.
Hakka people are brilliant,
isn't it?" - Lee Teng-hui, President of
"My grandfather is Hakka. The origin of Hakka is at the Central
Plains. A Hakka cultural centre is opening in Zhengdong economic
centre. I will be unveiling a statue of my grandfather in the cultural
centre, to promote the Hakka spirit." - Sun Huifang, granddaughter of
Sun Yat-sen, founding father of modern
"There is a piece of important experience not found in books, that is
Hakka people fine moral qualities in doing business based on
integrity. This is the most precious legacy left behind by my Hakka
forefathers." - Thaksin Shinawatra, Prime Minister of Thailand
"The Hakka spirit in my blood has been calling me to take the
challenge and shoulder the responsibility of being president like
numerous Hakka women have done for the past hundreds of years." - Tsai
Ing-wen, President of
"And I nearly broke down, but I won't break down. I am a Hakka woman.
So farewell, Papa. I will miss you. Rest in peace. And...be as tough
as Hakkas come." - Lee Wei Ling, daughter of
Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew (2015)
Hakka clique is a political group that has dominated the provincial
government of Guangdong, China, since the founding of the People's
China in 1949
Hakka Fashion is an Asian ‘street style’ clothing label started by
two Hakka sisters from Newcastle,
United Kingdom in 2014
Indonesia is a property located in the busy commercial
center of Medan, Indonesia
Malaysia or Hakka Road is a road in Lahad Datu, Sabah,
Malaysia, named in honour in 2015 for the contribution of the Hakka
Kampung Hakka or Hakka Village is a village settlement in Mantin,
Malaysia founded by
Huizhou Hakka immigrants in
Meizhou Hakka Football Club is a professional football club founded in
2013 that participates in the
China League One division; the team is
based in Wuhua County, Meizhou, Guangdong, China
Hakka Party is a Taiwanese political party founded in 2006 to
Hakka people and their interests in Taiwan
In popular culture
The Guest People (Chinese: 客家之歌), a 1997 30-episode Singapore
television drama about four young Hakka men who migrated from
Singapore in the 1950s and were caught in the tumultuous anti-colonial
period of the country's history. The
Hakka language version of the
drama was broadcast in Taiwan. The drama was nominated for the Best
Drama Series awards in the
Asian Television Awards and the New York
Television Festival, 1998.
1895 or Blue Brave: The Legend of Formosa 1895 (Chinese: 1895乙未),
Hakka language film about the Hakka militias fighting
the Japanese during the Japanese invasion of
Taiwan in 1895. The
edited version for television won the Best Drama Series award in the
Asian Television Awards, 2009.
(Chinese: 滚滚血脉 or 填四川), a 2009 29-episode China-Taiwan
television drama about a Hakka family spanning 300 years, with the
Hakkas' migration from
Sichuan during the Great Migration
Sichuan (湖广填四川) as backdrop. The Hakka language
version of the drama, titled One Hundred Thousand Miles Away from Home
(Chinese: 离家十万里), was broadcast in Taiwan.
Source (Chinese: 源), a 2010 20-episode
Taiwan Hakka language
television drama about Hakka settlers in Miaoli, Taiwan, who founded
Asia's first oil well in 1861. A-wei Chang won the Best Drama
Performance by An Actor in a Leading Role (Highly Commended) award in
the Asian Television Awards, 2010
Down To Nanyang (Chinese: 下南洋), a 2011 40-episode China
television drama about
Fujian Yongding Hakkas' migration to Nanyang
(Southeast Asia) during the late
Qing Dynasty and early Republican
era, and their involvement as overseas Chinese in the revolution to
overthrow the Qing government. The theme song of the drama is in the
The Great Southern Migration (Chinese: 大南迁 or 葛藤凹), a 2012
China television drama about the Hakkas' migration to
Southern China during the late
Tang Dynasty in the 9th century.
Hakka Women (Chinese: 客家女人) or To Be or Not to Be (Chinese:
来生不做香港人), a 2014 25-episode
Hong Kong television drama
about the lives of two Hakka sisters separated when young, one in Hong
Kong and the other in China.
Hakka hill songs
Han opera (Hakka opera)
Punti-Hakka Clan Wars
Japanese invasion of Taiwan
People and identity
Char, Tin-yuke (1969). The
Hakka Chinese - Their Origin & Folk
Songs. Jade Mountain Press.
Eberhard, Wolfram (1974). Studies in Hakka Folktales. Taipei: Chinese
Association for Folklore.
Kiang, Clyde (July 1991). The Hakka Search for a Homeland. Alleghemy
Press. ISBN 9780910042611.
Constable, Nicole, ed. (1996). Guest People: Hakka Identity in China
and Abroad. University of Washington Press.
Leong, Sow-Theng (1997). Wright, Tim, ed. Migration and Ethnicity in
Chinese History: Hakkas, Pengmin and Their Neighbors. Stanford
University Press. ISBN 9780804728577.
Chung, Yoon-Ngan (2005). The Hakka Chinese: Their Origin, Folk Songs
and Nursery Rhymes. Poseidon Books. ISBN 1921005505.
Leo, Jessieca (September 2015). Global Hakka: Hakka Identity in the
Remaking. BRILL. ISBN 9789004300262.
Erbaugh, Mary S. (December 1992). "The Secret History of the Hakkas:
The Chinese Revolution as a Hakka Enterprise". The
Cambridge University Press (132): 937–968. JSTOR 654189.
Spence, Jonathan D. (December 1996). God's Chinese Son: The Taiping
Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan. W. W. Norton & Company.
Zhang, Delai (2002). The Hakkas of Sabah: A Survey of Their Impact on
the Modernization of the Bornean Malaysian State.
Seminary. ISBN 9789834084004.
Yong, Kee Howe (July 2013). The Hakkas of Sarawak: Sacrificial Gifts
in Cold War Era Malaysia. University of Toronto Press.
Lee, Wei Ling (January 2015). Yap, Koon Hong, ed. A Hakka Woman's
Singapore Stories: My Life as a Daughter, Doctor and Diehard
Singaporean. Straits Times Press. ISBN 9789814642477.
Liu, L. Larry (January 2015). Hakkas in Power: A Study of Chinese
Political Leadership in East and Southeast Asia, and South America.
Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.
Lee, T.H. (1955). Hakka Lessons for Malayan Students. Government
Federation of Malaya.
Tsang, Joseph Mang Kin (January 2003). The Hakka Epic. President's
Fund for Creative Writing in English. ISBN 9789990397406.
Chen, Matthew Y.; Lian, Hee Wee; Yan, Xiuhong (2004). The Paradox of
Hakka Tone Sandhi. Dept of Chinese Studies, National University of
Singapore. ISBN 9789810519438.
Hashimoto, Mantaro J. (June 2010). The Hakka Dialect: A Linguistic
Study of its Phonology, Syntax and Lexicon. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 9780521133678.
Constable, Nicole (August 1994).
Christian Souls and Chinese Spirits:
A Hakka Community in Hong Kong. University of California Press.
Lutz, Jessie G.; Lutz, Rolland Ray (January 1998). Hakka Chinese
Confront Protestant Christianity, 1850-1900: With the Autobiographies
of Eight Hakka Christians, and Commentary . Routledge.
Christofferson, Ethan (September 2012). Negotiating Identity:
Exploring Tensions between Being Hakka and Being
Northwestern Taiwan. Wipf & Stock Publishers.
Anusasananan, Linda Lau (October 2012). The Hakka Cookbook: Chinese
Soul Food from around the World. University of California Press.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hakka.
Toronto Hakka Conference 多伦多客家恳亲会, Canada
Hakka Affairs Council
Hakka Affairs Council 客家委员会, Taiwan
Hong Kong Hakka Association 香港客属总会, Hong Kong
Nanyang Khek Community Guild 南洋客属总会, Singapore
Federation of Hakka Associations of Malaysia
The Hakka Association of
Thailand 泰国客家总会, Thailand
Hakka Association of Western
Australia 西澳客家公会, Australia
Toronto Hakka Heritage Alliance 多伦多客家联谊会, Canada
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Han Chinese subgroups
Cantonese (incl. Taishanese)
Fujianese (Min) (incl. Fuzhounese, Putianese, Hoklo, Hui'an maidens,
Taiwanese, Teochew, Hainanese)
Hakka (Ngái people)
Tanka (incl. Fuzhou Tanka)
Wu (incl. Shanghainese, Ningbo, Wenzhou)
By migration history
Refugees and asylum seekers
By Chinese dialect group
By nationality or ethnicity
BNF: cb12479603f (d