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The HAKKAS (Chinese : 客家), sometimes HAKKA HAN, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly from the Hakka -speaking provincial areas of Guangdong
Guangdong
, Fujian
Fujian
, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
, Guangxi
Guangxi
, Sichuan
Sichuan
, Hunan
Hunan
, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, Hainan
Hainan
and Guizhou
Guizhou
. The Chinese characters for Hakka (客家) literally mean "guest families". Unlike other Han Chinese groups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city. The Hakkas are usually identified with people who speak the Hakka language or share at least some Hakka ancestry.

The Hakkas are thought to have originated from the lands bordering the Yellow River
Yellow River
(the modern northern Chinese provinces of Shanxi
Shanxi
, Henan
Henan
, and Hubei
Hubei
). In a series of migrations, the Hakkas moved and settled in their present areas in Southern China , and from there, substantial numbers migrated overseas to various countries throughout the world. As the most diasporic among the Chinese community groups, the worldwide population of Hakkas is about 80 million.

The Hakka people
Hakka people
have had some influence on the course of modern Chinese and overseas Chinese history; in particular, they have been a source of many revolutionary, political and military leaders.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins, migrations and group identification

* 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Migrations * 1.3 Identity

* 2 History

* 2.1 Song era * 2.2 Qing era * 2.3 Republican era

* 3 Culture

* 3.1 Language * 3.2 Architecture * 3.3 Cuisine * 3.4 Women * 3.5 Hakka spirit * 3.6 Martial arts * 3.7 Hakka hill songs * 3.8 Hakkapop * 3.9 Media * 3.10 Religion

* 4 Hakkas in China
China

* 4.1 Guangdong
Guangdong
* 4.2 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* 4.3 Fujian
Fujian
* 4.4 Jiangxi
Jiangxi
* 4.5 Sichuan
Sichuan
* 4.6 Hunan
Hunan
* 4.7 Henan
Henan

* 5 Hakkas worldwide

* 5.1 Taiwan
Taiwan
* 5.2 Vietnam
Vietnam
* 5.3 Cambodia * 5.4 Thailand
Thailand
* 5.5 Singapore
Singapore

* 5.6 Malaysia
Malaysia

* 5.6.1 Sabah
Sabah

* 5.7 Indonesia
Indonesia

* 5.7.1 Bangka * 5.7.2 West Kalimantan * 5.7.3 Jakarta
Jakarta

* 5.8 East Timor
East Timor
* 5.9 India
India
* 5.10 South Africa
Africa
* 5.11 Mauritius
Mauritius
* 5.12 Réunion
Réunion
* 5.13 United States
United States
* 5.14 Canada
Canada
* 5.15 Jamaica
Jamaica
* 5.16 Suriname
Suriname

* 6 Population * 7 Hakkaology * 8 Anti-Hakka sentiment
Anti-Hakka sentiment

* 9 World Hakka Conference

* 9.1 List of World Hakka Conferences host countries and cities

* 10 Revolutionary, political and military leadership

* 10.1 Prominent political leaders

* 11 Quotes * 12 Trivia * 13 In popular culture * 14 See also

* 15 Further reading

* 15.1 People and identity * 15.2 Politics * 15.3 Language * 15.4 Religion * 15.5 Food * 15.6 Family stories

* 16 External links * 17 References

ORIGINS, MIGRATIONS AND GROUP IDENTIFICATION

ORIGINS

Hakka distribution in China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
.

It is commonly held that the Hakkas are a subgroup of the Han Chinese that originated in Northern China
China
. To trace their origins, three accepted theories so far have been brought forth among anthropologists, linguists, and historians:

* The Hakkas are Han Chinese
Han Chinese
originating solely from the Central Plain in China
China
(present Shanxi
Shanxi
and Henan
Henan
provinces); * The Hakkas are Han Chinese
Han Chinese
from the Central Plain, with some inflow of those already in the south; * The majority of the Hakkas are Han Chinese
Han Chinese
from the south, with portions coming from those in the north.

The latter two theories are the most likely and are together supported by multiple scientific studies. Clyde Kiang stated that the Hakkas' origins may also be linked with the Han's ancient neighbors, the Dongyi
Dongyi
and Xiongnu
Xiongnu
people. However, this is disputed by many scholars and Kiang's theories are considered to be controversial.

Hakka–Chinese scientist and researcher Dr. Siu-Leung Lee stated in the book by Chung Yoon-Ngan, The Hakka Chinese: Their Origin, Folk Songs And Nursery Rhymes, that the potential Hakka origins from the northern Han and Xiongnu
Xiongnu
, and that of the indigenous southern She (畬族) and Yue (越族) tribes, "are all correct, yet none alone explain the origin of the Hakka", pointing out that the problem with "DNA typing " on limited numbers of people within population pools cannot correctly ascertain who are really the southern Chinese, because many southern Chinese are also from northern Asia; Hakka or non-Hakka. It is known that the earliest major waves of Hakka migration began due to the attacks of the two afore-mentioned tribes during the Jin dynasty (265–420)
Jin dynasty (265–420)
.

MIGRATIONS

Migrants were referred to as Hakka and no specific people were referred to as Hakka at first. Northern China's Yellow River
Yellow River
area was the homeland of the Hakka.

Since the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(221–206 BC), the ancestors of the Hakka people have migrated southwards several times because of social unrest, upheaval and invasions. Subsequent migrations also occurred at the end of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
in the 10th century and during the end of the Northern Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in the 1120s, the last of which saw a massive flood of refugees fleeing southward when the Jurchens captured the northern Song capital of Bianliang (modern-day Kaifeng) in the Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
of the Jin–Song Wars
Jin–Song Wars
. The precise movements of the Hakka people
Hakka people
remain unclear during the 14th century when the Ming dynasty overthrew the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and subsequently fell to the Manchus who formed the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in the 17th century.

During the 16th century, in response to an economic boom, the Hakka moved into hilly areas to mine for zinc and lead , and also moved into the coastal plains to cultivate cash crops. After an economic downturn, many of these ventures failed and many people had to turn to pillaging to make ends meet.

During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
(1661–1722) in the Qing Dynasty, the coastal regions were evacuated by imperial edict for almost a decade, due to the dangers posed by the remnants of the Ming court who had fled to the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
. When the threat was eliminated, Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
issued an edict to re-populate the coastal regions. To aid the move, each family was given monetary incentives to begin their new lives; newcomers were registered as "Guest Households" (客戶, kèhù).

IDENTITY

Although different in some social customs and culture (e.g. linguistic differences ) from the surrounding population, they belong to the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
majority. Historical sources shown in census statistics relate only to the general population, irrespective of particular districts, provinces, or regions. These census counts were made during imperial times. They did not distinguish what Chinese variety the population spoke. Therefore, they do not directly document Hakka migrations. The study by Lo Hsiang-lin , K'o-chia Yen-chiu Tao-Liu / An Introduction to the Study of the Hakkas (Hsin-Ning padding-right:0.1em; color:#595959; border:1px solid #DDD;">tilted towards northern Han people compared with other southern Han people. Nevertheless, the study has also shown a strong common genetic relationship between all Han Chinese
Han Chinese
with only a small difference of 0.32%. Lingnan Hakka place names indicate a long history of the Hakka being culturally Han Chinese.

Unlike other Han Chinese
Han Chinese
groups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city. The Hakka people have a distinct identity from the Cantonese
Cantonese
people . As 60% of the Hakkas in China
China
reside in Guangdong
Guangdong
province, and 95% of overseas Hakkas ancestral homes are in Guangdong. Hakkas from Chaozhou , Hainan and Fujian
Fujian
are also mistaken to be Chaoshanese, Hainanese and Hokkiens.

As Hakkas tend to be very clannish, strangers who found out that the other party is a Hakka will affectionately acknowledge each other as "zi-jia-ren" (自家人) meaning "all's in the same (Hakka) family".

HISTORY

Hakka history has been a history of violence, suffering and an enormous loss of Hakka life in rebellions and massacres.

SONG ERA

After a massive outbreak of famine in Northern China
China
, starved out Northern Chinese marched out of most parts of modern-day Henan
Henan
into Southern China for refuge. These groups of peoples would later be known as "Hakkas".

QING ERA

After the collapse of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
, whose ruling government members were mostly Hakkas, the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
forces exterminated Hakkas at a rate of killing 30,000 Hakkas per day. Hakkas again suffered another massive loss of life as a result of being numerically overwhelmed by the opposing Punti
Punti
combatants fighting against them during the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars . Therefore, Hakkas were the vast majority of the 1,000,000+ people killed throughout that war.

During the clan war, Anti-Hakka slogans were commonly used by Cantonese
Cantonese
people against the Hakkas while engaging in combat such as "Hate the Hakkas and differentiate the province"(仇客分省).

REPUBLICAN ERA

From 1931 to 1935, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
launched a mass killing campaign, killing 700,000 Hakkas in the process within the borders of the territories under the control of the Jiangxi- Fujian
Fujian
Soviet (southern Jiangxi
Jiangxi
and Tingzhou of Fujian) since almost all of the residents living in these areas were Hakkas. About 20% of the Hakka population was massacred and wiped out in Southern Jiangxi
Jiangxi
within just a few short years of this communist purge. Despite this, Hakkas remained heavily involved in the Communist movement in China.

CULTURE

Main article: Hakka culture

Hakka culture have been largely shaped by the new environment which they had to alter many aspects their culture to adapt, which helped influence their architecture and cuisine. When the Hakka expanded into areas with pre-existing populations in the South, there was often little agricultural land left for them to farm. As a result, many Hakka men turned towards careers in the military or in public service. Consequently, the Hakka culturally emphasized education, however this is by no means unique to the Hakkas as most of the other Han Chinese also culturally emphasized education.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese

Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
is the native Chinese variety of the Hakka people. In Taiwan, the Ministry of Education named "Taiwanese Hakka Chinese" as one of the languages of Taiwan
Taiwan
.

ARCHITECTURE

Tianluokeng Tulou cluster . Hukeng Town, Yongding County , Fujian. Main article: Hakka architecture
Hakka architecture

Hakka people
Hakka people
built several types of tulou and fortified villages in the southwestern Fujian
Fujian
and adjacent areas of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
and Guangdong. A representative sample of Fujian
Fujian
Tulou (consisting of 10 buildings or building groups) in Fujian
Fujian
were inscribed in 2008 as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site .

CUISINE

Main article: Hakka cuisine
Hakka cuisine

Hakka cuisine
Hakka cuisine
is known for the use of preserved meats and tofu as well as stewed and braised dishes. A popular dish known as Yong Tau Foo is a Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
food consisting primarily of tofu that has been filled with either a ground meat mixture or fish paste (surimi).

WOMEN

Historically, Hakka women did not bind their feet when the practice was commonplace in China.

HAKKA SPIRIT

MARTIAL ARTS

The Hakka community is a source for a variety of martial arts including Southern Praying Mantis , Bak Mei and Southern Dragon Kung Fu .

HAKKA HILL SONGS

Main article: Hakka hill songs

HAKKAPOP

Hakkapop is a genre of Hakka pop music made primarily in Taiwan, China, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia.

MEDIA

In China, China
China
National Radio 's Easy radio (神州之声) has a Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
radio break. In Taiwan, there are seven Hakka Chinese radio channels.

Hakka TV was the first Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
TV channel in the world. Meizhou TV-2 was the first Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
TV channel in China.

RELIGION

Typical traditional hillside tombs. Hukeng Town, Yongding County , Fujian. See also: Religion in China
China

The religious practices of Hakka people
Hakka people
are almost identical to those of other Han Chinese. Ancestor veneration is the primary form of religious expression.

HAKKAS IN CHINA

Meizhou Prefecture (in yellow) in Guangdong
Guangdong
Province, where Xingning and Meixian are located.

Hakka populations are found in 13 out of the 27 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland China.

GUANGDONG

Christian
Christian
missionaries with Hakka students of a girls' school in Waichow , Guangdong
Guangdong
, 1921.

Hakkas who live in Guangdong
Guangdong
comprise about 60% of the total Hakka population. Worldwide, over 95% of the overseas-descended Hakkas came from this Guangdong
Guangdong
region, usually from Meizhou and Heyuan
Heyuan
. Hakkas live mostly in the northeast part of the province, particularly in the so-called Xing-Mei (Xingning - Meixian ) area. Unlike their kin in Fujian, Hakka in the Xingning and Meixian area developed a non-fortress-like unique architectural style, most notably the weilongwu (Chinese: 圍龍屋, wéilóngwū or Hakka: Wui Lung Wuk) and sijiaolou (Chinese: 四角樓, sìjǐaolóu or Hakka: Si Kok Liu).

HONG KONG

During the late Ming and Qing dynasties, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
was in the imperial district of Xin-An (now Shenzhen
Shenzhen
) County. The 1819 gazetteer lists 570 Punti
Punti
and 270 Hakka contemporary settlements in the whole district. However, the area covered by Xin-An county is greater than what was to become the British imperial enclave of Hong Kong by 1899. Although there had been settlers originating from the mainland proper even before the Tang dynasty, historical records of those people are non-extant, only evidence of settlement from archaeological sources can be found. The New Territories lowland areas had been settled originally by several clan lineages in Kam Tin , Sheung Shui , Fanling , Yuen Long , Lin Ma Hang and Tai Po , and hence termed the Punti
Punti
before the arrival of the Hakka, and fishing families of the Tanka and Hoklo groups to the area. Since the prime farming land had already been farmed, the Hakka land dwellers settled in the less accessible and more hilly areas. Hakka settlements can be found widely distributed around the Punti
Punti
areas, but in smaller communities. Many are found on coastal areas in inlets and bays surrounded by hills.

Hakka-speaking communities are thought to have arrived in the Hong Kong area after the rescinding of the coastal evacuation order in 1688, such as the Hakka speaking Lee clan lineage of Wo Hang , one of whose ancestors is recorded as arriving in the area in 1688.

As the strong Punti
Punti
lineages dominated most of the north western New Territories, Hakka communities began to organise local alliances of lineage communities such as the Sha Tau Kok
Sha Tau Kok
Alliance of Ten or Shap Yeuk as Patrick Hase writes. Hakka villages from Wo Hang to the west and Yantian to the east of Sha Tau Kok
Sha Tau Kok
came to use it as a local market town and it became the center of Hakka dominance. Further, the Shap Yeuk's land reclamation project transforming marshland to arable farmland with the creation of dykes and levees to prevent storm flooding during the early 19th century shows an example of how local cooperation and the growing affluence of the landed lineages in the Alliance of Ten provided the strong cultural, socioeconomic Hakka influence on the area.

Farming and cultivation has been the traditional occupations of Hakka families from imperial times up until the 1970s. Farming was mostly done by Hakka women while their menfolk sought labouring jobs in the towns and cities. Many men entered indentured labour abroad as was common from the end of the 19th century to the Second World War. Post war, males took the opportunity to seek work in Britain and other countries later to send for their families to join them once they sent enough money back to cover travel costs.

As post war education became available to all children in Hong Kong, a new educated class of Hakka became more mobile in their careers. Many moved to the government planned new towns which sprung up from the 1960s. The rural Hakka population began to decline as people moved abroad, and away to work in the urban areas. By the end of the 1970s, agriculture was firmly in the decline in Hakka villages. Today, there are still Hakka villages around Hong Kong, but being remote, many of their inhabitants have moved to the post war new towns like Sheung Shui , Tai Po , Sha Tin and further afield.

FUJIAN

See also: Firearm ownership law in China
China
Gun port of Chengqilou in a Hakka Fujian
Fujian
Tulou . A firearm for defence against enemies in a Hakka Fujian
Fujian
Tulou .

Tradition states that the early Hakka ancestors traveling from north China
China
entered Fujian
Fujian
first, then by way of the Ting River they traveled to Guangdong
Guangdong
and other parts of China, as well as overseas. Thus, the Tingjiang River is also regarded as the Hakka Mother River.

The Hakkas who settled in the mountainous region of south-western Fujian
Fujian
province developed a unique form of architecture known as the tulou (土樓), literally meaning earthen structures. The tulou are round or square and were designed as a combined large fortress and multi-apartment building complex. The structures typically had only one entrance-way, with no windows at ground level. Each floor served a different function: the first floor contained a well and livestock, the second food storage, and the third and higher floors living spaces. Tulou were built to withstand attack from bandits and marauders.

Today, western Fujian
Fujian
is inhabited by 3 million Hakkas, scattered around 10 counties (county-level cities and districts) in Longyan
Longyan
and Sanming
Sanming
cities, 98% of whom are Hakkas living in Changting, Liancheng, Shanghang, Wuping, Yongding, Ninghua, Qingliu and Mingxi counties.

JIANGXI

Jiangxi
Jiangxi
contains the second largest Hakka community. Nearly all of southern Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province is Hakka, especially in Ganzhou . In the Song Dynasty, a large number of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
migrated to the delta area as the Court moved southward because invasion of northern minority. They lived in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
and intermixed with the She and Yao minorities. Ganzhou was the place that the Hakka have settled before migrating to western Fujian
Fujian
and eastern Guangdong. During the early Qing Dynasty, there was a massive depopulation in Gannan due to the ravage of pestilence and war. However, western Fujian
Fujian
and eastern Guangdong suffered population explosion at the same time. Some edicts were issued to block the coastal areas, ordering coastal residents to move to the inland. The population pressure and the sharp contradiction of the land redistribution drove some residents to leave. Some of them moved back to Gannan, integrating with other Hakka people
Hakka people
who lived there already for generations. Thus, the modern Gannan Hakka community was finally formed.

SICHUAN

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
(r. 1662-1722), after a tour of the land, decided the province of Sichuan
Sichuan
had to be repopulated after the devastation caused by Zhang Xianzhong . Seeing the Hakka were living in poverty in the coastal regions in Guangdong
Guangdong
province, the emperor encouraged the Hakkas in the south to migrate to Sichuan
Sichuan
province. He offered financial assistance to those willing to resettle in Sichuan: eight ounces of silver per man and four ounces per woman or child.

Sichuan
Sichuan
was originally the origin of the Deng lineage until one of them was hired as an official in Guangdong
Guangdong
during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
but during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to Sichuan
Sichuan
again. Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
was born in Sichuan.

HUNAN

Hakka people
Hakka people
are mainly concentrated in the eastern part of Hunan
Hunan
.

HENAN

As with those in Sichuan, many Hakka emigrated to Xinyang
Xinyang
prefecture (in southern Henan
Henan
province), where Li Zicheng carried out a massacre in Guangzhou (now in Huangchuan ) on Jan. 17th, 1636.

HAKKAS WORLDWIDE

There is a Chinese saying, “有陽光的地方就有華人, 有華人的地方就有客家人”, which literally means "Wherever there is sunshine, there will be Chinese. Wherever there is Chinese, there will be Hakka."

The Hakka have emigrated to many regions worldwide, notably Taiwan
Taiwan
, Suriname
Suriname
, India
India
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Vietnam
Vietnam
(known as Ngai people ), Thailand
Thailand
, Singapore
Singapore
, Brunei
Brunei
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Timor-Leste and Burma
Burma
.

Hakka people
Hakka people
also emigrated to many countries in Europe
Europe
, including Great Britain
Great Britain
, Italy
Italy
, France
France
, Portugal
Portugal
, Spain
Spain
, Germany
Germany
, Austria , Belgium
Belgium
and Netherlands
Netherlands
. They also are found in South Africa
Africa
and Mauritius
Mauritius
, on the islands of the Caribbean
Caribbean
( Jamaica
Jamaica
and Trinidad and Tobago ), in the Americas
Americas
, particularly in the United States
United States
, Canada , Panama
Panama
, Argentina
Argentina
and Brazil
Brazil
, as well as in Australia
Australia
. Most expatriate Hakkas in Great Britain
Great Britain
have ties to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
as many migrated there when Hong Kong
Hong Kong
still was a British colony during a period coinciding with the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
of China
China
and a minor economic depression in Hong Kong.

TAIWAN

See also: Han Taiwanese Hakka women in traditional attire in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, pre-1945.

The Hakka population in Taiwan
Taiwan
is around 4.6 million people today. Hakka people
Hakka people
comprise about 15 to 20% of the population of Taiwan
Taiwan
and form the second-largest ethnic group on the island. They are descended largely from Hakka who migrated from southern and northern Guangdong to Taiwan
Taiwan
around the end of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and the beginning of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(ca. 1644). The early Hakka immigrants were the island's first agriculturalists and formed the nucleus of the Chinese population, numbering tens of thousands at the time. They resided in "savage border districts, where land could be had for the taking, and where a certain freedom from official oppression was ensured." During the Qing era , the Hakka on Taiwan
Taiwan
had gained a reputation with the authorities of being turbulent and lawless.

In Taiwan
Taiwan
under Qing rule the Hakka on Taiwan
Taiwan
owned matchlock muskets. Han people traded and sold matchlock muskets to the Taiwanese aborigines . The Aboriginals used their matchlock muskets to defeat the Americans in the Formosa Expedition . During the Sino-French War the Hakka and Aboriginals used their matchlock muskets against the French in the Keelung Campaign and Battle of Tamsui .

Liu Mingchuan took measures to reinforce Tamsui, in the river nine torpedo mines were planted and the entrance was blocked with ballast boats filled with stone which were sunk on September 3, matchlock armed "Hakka hill people" were used to reinforce the mainland Chinese battalion, and around the British Consulate and Customs House at the Red Fort hilltop, Shanghai Arsenal manufactured Krupp guns were used to form an additional battery.

At Tamsui, the entrance of the river had been closed by laying down six torpedoes in the shape of a semi-circle on the inside of the bar. The Douglas steamers Fokien and Hailoong running to the port, as well as the German steamer Welle, were, whenever necessary, piloted over the torpedoes by the Chinese who had laid them down. The mandarins engaged in planting the guns that had been brought to the island by the latter steamer.

Trade was resumed during the middle of the month at Twatutia, it being regarded for the time as safe, and the country thereabouts had quieted down to such an extent that a good deal of tea was brought in. Life for the foreigners was very much cramped. They were prohibited from making trips into the country; and even in the settlement, with religious processions, crackers, and, gongs going at all times of day, and the watchmen making a great noise with bamboos all night, rest was well nigh impossible except to the Chinese guards told off to protect foreign hongs, who after disappearing all day, except at meal times, "return at night, and instead of guarding the property, turn in early and sleep as soundly as Rip van Winkle did till morning."

Under the impression that the French would attempt to enter the Tamsui river, ballast boats and junks loaded with stones were sunk at the entrance. A number of Hakka hillpeople were added to the government force. They were armed with their own matchlocks, which in their ignc ranee they preferred to foreign rifles. Much was expected of them, as the life of warfare they had led on the savage border had trained them to be good shots and handy with their knives. By the end of August the French had succeeded in holding the shore line at Kelung, but were unable to advance beyond it; and as Chinese soldiers had for some days been erecting earthworks and digging entrenchments on the hills on the east side of the bay overlooking the shipping, the French sent word ashore for the Europeans to come on board the Bayard, as they intended opening fire on the earthworks which were now just visible.1 The firing was not successful either that day or the next, the nature of the country being in favor of the Chinese; and for many days the shelling was a regular event, the Chinese not apparently suffering much damage themselves, or being able to inflict any upon the French. This condition of affairs continued through September, the French having gained only the summits of the near hills surrounding the harbor.

General Liu Ming-chuan left Kelung on the 9th to visit Tamsui and Taipehfu. On his arrival at the latter place he was met at the wharf by some 200 soldiers, 5 buglers, and 2 or 3 drummers. The march up the street with the soldiers in front, the band next, and the general in the rear in his chair, made an imposing parade. His presence is also said to have had a most stimulating effect on the soldiers on guard in the foreign hongs. All appeared in full force with uniforms and rifles, although for several days the muster in one hong had produced only one soldier and a boy in a soldier's coat. — James Wheeler Davidson, "The island of Formosa, past and present: History, people, resources, and commercial prospects. Tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions, 1903, also published as "The Island of Formosa: Historical View from 1430 to 1900"

Liu Ming-chuan with some 6,000 men was stationed at Taipehfu in the Banka plain, while the forces at Hobe were daily strengthened, until, in the middle of October, there were assembled about 6,000 men in the neighborhood. Among these were new levies of Hakka hillmen. They were considered by the foreigners to be a dangerous lot to have in the neighborhood, and as they did not speak the same language as the general and other officers, it was feared that misunderstandings might arise with serious results. The other soldiers present were principally northern men, and were said to be well armed. The Hakkas, although armed with their primitive matchlocks, were considered to be brave men and were hardened to the privations of warfare. Their matchlocks are described as long-barrelled guns, fixed into semi-circular shaped stocks, with pans for priming powder, and armlets made of rattan, worn around the right wrist and containing pieces of bark-cord, which, when lighted, would keep alight for hours, if necessary. When in action the Hakka pours a charge of powder down the muzzle; on top of that are dropped two or three slug shot or long pieces of iron, withouL wadding. The trigger is made to receive the lighted piece of bark, and when powder covers the priming pan and all is ready, • the trigger is pulled and if,—if the weather is dry, off goes the gun. The ordinary method of handling these weapons is to place the lower end of the butt against the right breast, high enough to enable the curved end to rest against the cheek, and the eye to look down the large barrel, upon which there are ordinarily no sights. This method is sometimes varied by discharging the guns from the hip, and it is quite customary for the Hakka to lie flat on his back, place the muzzle between his toes, and, raising his head sufficiently to sight along the barrel, to take deliberate aim and fire. He is able to make good practice; while his presence, especially when surrounded by rank grass, is decidedly difficult to determine.

Rev. Dr. Mackay's Tamsui Mission Hospital, with Dr. Johansen in charge, which had rendered such great services to the Chinese wounded and had no doubt been the means of saving many lives, was visited on the 19th by General Sun, who thanked the doctor in charge as well as Dr. Browne of the Cockcliafer (who had given valuable assistance) for their attentions to the sick and wounded. The patients then numbered only a dozen, a good many of the wounded having left, fearing that the French might land again and kill them; others, seeing their wounds healing nicely, went away into the town. One man who had been shot through the left shoulder, in the region of the collar bone, after a week or ten days' treatment suddenly shouldered his rifle and left for the front, preferring life with his comrades to being confined in the hospital. It was supposed that the bullet had pierced the upper part of his lungs. Another instance occurred seven days after the French landing, when a Chinese walked into the hospital with his skull wounded and the brain visible. Several others, shot through the thighs and arms, bones being splintered in many pieces, bore their pain most heroically. Soon after the engagement, when there were seventy men in the hospital, some being badly wounded with as many as three shots apiece, there was scarcely a groan to be heard. One of the wounded came to the hospital after having had a bullet in his calf for nine or ten days. Dr. Browne extracted the bullet, and off the man went back to the front. Many other instances like the foregoing might be recorded, all of which indicated that the Chinese could recover in a few days from wounds, which, if not actually fatal, would have laid foreign soldiers up for months. — James Wheeler Davidson, "The island of Formosa, past and present: History, people, resources, and commercial prospects. Tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions, 1903, also published as "The Island of Formosa: Historical View from 1430 to 1900" Hakka Round House in Miaoli County .

Lin Ch'ao-tung (林朝棟) was the leader of the Hakka militia recruited by Liu Ming-ch'uan.

The Hakka used their matchlock muskets to resist the Japanese invasion of Taiwan
Taiwan
(1895) and Han Taiwanese and Aboriginals conducted an insurgency against Japanese rule. The Hakka rose up against the Japanese in the Beipu uprising

Taiwan's Hakka population concentrates in Hsinchu
Hsinchu
and Hsinchu
Hsinchu
County , Miaoli County , and around Zhongli District in Taoyuan City , and Meinong District in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
, and in Pingtung County
Pingtung County
, with smaller presences in Hualien County and Taitung County . In recent decades, many Hakka have moved to the largest metropolitan areas, including Taipei
Taipei
and Taichung .

On 28 December 1988, 14,000 Hakka protestors took to the streets in Taipei
Taipei
to demand the Nationalist government to "return our mother tongue", carrying portraits of "Sun Yat-sen". The movement was later termed "1228 Return Our Mother Tongue Movement".

Hakka-related affairs in Taiwan
Taiwan
is regulated by the Hakka Affairs Council . Hakka-related tourist attractions in Taiwan
Taiwan
are Dongshih Hakka Cultural Park , Hakka Round House , Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Hakka Cultural Museum , Meinong Hakka Culture Museum , New Taipei
Taipei
City Hakka Museum , Taipei
Taipei
Hakka Culture Hall and Taoyuan Hakka Culture Hall .

VIETNAM

In Vietnam, Hakka people
Hakka people
are known as Người Hẹ and were made up largely by the 唐 (Mandarin: Tang; Vietnamese: Đường) families located around the Sài Gòn and Vũng Tàu
Vũng Tàu
areas.

CAMBODIA

About 65% of the Hakka trace their roots back to Meizhou and Heyuan prefectures in Guangdong
Guangdong
province. About 70% of the Hakkas are found in Phnom Penh where they dominate professions in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine , and shoemaking. Hakkas are also found in Takeo province , Stung Treng and Rattanakiri who consist of vegetable growers and rubber plantation workers. Hakka communities in the provinces migrated to Cambodia through Tonkin and Cochinchina in the 18th and 19th centuries.

THAILAND

There are no records as to when Hakka descendants arrived in Thailand. In 1901, Yu Cipeng, a Hakka member of The League Society of China
China
came to visit Thailand
Thailand
and found that the establishment of many varied organizations among the Hakka was not good for unity. He tried to bring the two parties together and persuaded them to dissolve the associations in order to set up a new united one. In 1909 The Hakka Society of Siam was established, and Chao Phraya Yommarat, then Interior Minister, was invited to preside over the opening ceremony for the establishment of the society's nameplate, located in front of the Chinese shrine "Lee Tee Biao". Yang Liqing was its first President.

SINGAPORE

Further information: Chinese Singaporeans

In 2010, 232,914 people in Singapore
Singapore
reported Hakka ancestry.

MALAYSIA

Hakka people
Hakka people
form the second largest subgroup of the ethnic Chinese population of Malaysia
Malaysia
, particularly in the peninsula , with several prominent Hakka figures emerging during colonial British rule . There are 1,729,000 people of Hakka ancestry in Malaysia
Malaysia
as of 2016. Chung Keng Quee , "Captain China" of Perak
Perak
and Penang
Penang
, was the founder of the mining town of Taiping , the leader of the Hai San , a millionaire philanthropist, and an innovator in the mining of tin , having been respected by both Chinese and European communities in the early colonial settlement. Another notable Hakka was Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy
, who founded Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and was a Kapitan Cina
Kapitan Cina
of the settlement from 1868 to 1885, bringing significant economic contributions, and was also an influential figure among the ethnic Chinese.

In the district of Jelebu , Negeri Sembilan , Hakka people
Hakka people
make up more than 90% of the Chinese subgroup with dialect itself acting as a lingua franca there. This has contributed greatly to the fact that the place is commonly known among Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
as "Hakka Village". The greatest concentration of Hakkas in northern peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
is in Ipoh
Ipoh
, Perak
Perak
and in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and its satellite cities in Selangor . Concentrations of Hakka people
Hakka people
in Ipoh
Ipoh
and surrounding areas are particularly high. The Hakkas in the Kinta Valley came mainly from the Jiaying Prefecture or Meixian , while those in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
are mainly of Huizhou origin.

A smaller number of Hakka people
Hakka people
are also found in Sarawak
Sarawak
, particularly in the city of Kuching and Miri
Miri
, where there is a notable population of Hakka people
Hakka people
who speak the "Ho Poh " variant of Hakka.

Sabah

In Sabah
Sabah
, most of the ethnic Chinese are of Hakka descent. In the 1990s, the Hakkas formed around 57% of the total ethnic Chinese population in Sabah. Hakka is the lingua franca among the Chinese in Sabah
Sabah
to such an extent that Chinese of other subgroups who migrate to Sabah
Sabah
from other states in Malaysia
Malaysia
and elsewhere usually learn the Hakka dialect, with varying degrees of fluency.

In 1882 the North Borneo Chartered Company opted to bring in Hakka labourers from Longchuan County, Guangdong
Guangdong
. The first batch of 96 Hakkas brought to Sabah
Sabah
landed in Kudat on April 4, 1883 under the leadership of Luo Daifeng (Hakka: Lo Tai Fung). In the following decades Hakka immigrants settled throughout the state, with their main population centres in Kota Kinabalu (then known as Jesselton) and its surroundings (in the districts of Tuaran , Penampang , Ranau , Papar , Kota Belud as well as a lesser extent to Kota Marudu ), with a significant miniority residing in Sandakan
Sandakan
(mainly ex-Taiping revolutionists ), and other large populations in other towns and districts, most notably in Tawau
Tawau
, Tenom , Kuala Penyu , Tambunan
Tambunan
, Sipitang , Beaufort , Keningau and Kudat . The British felt the development of North Borneo was too slow and in 1920 they decided to encourage Hakka immigration into Sabah. In 1901, the total Chinese population in Sabah
Sabah
was 13897; by 1911, it had risen 100% to 27801. Hakka immigration began to taper off during World War 2 and declined to a negligible level in the late 1940s.

INDONESIA

Indonesian Hakka Museum in Jakarta
Jakarta
.

Migration of Hakka people
Hakka people
to Indonesia
Indonesia
happened in several waves. The first wave landed in Riau Islands such as in Bangka Island and Belitung as tin miners in the 18th century. The second group of colonies were established along the Kapuas River
Kapuas River
in Borneo in the 19th century, predecessor to early Singapore
Singapore
residents. In the early 20th century, new arrivals joined their compatriots as traders, merchants and labourers in major cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, etc.

In Indonesia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore, Hakka people
Hakka people
are sometimes known as Khek, from the Hokkien
Hokkien
(Southern Min) pronunciation kheh of 客 (Hakka: hak). However, the use of the word 'Khek' is limited mainly to areas where the local Chinese population is mainly of Hokkien
Hokkien
origin. In places where other Chinese subgroups predominate, the term 'Hakka' is still the more commonly used.

Bangka

Hakka also live in Indonesia's largest tin producer islands of Bangka Belitung province . They are the second majority ethnic group after Malays . The Hakka population in the province is also the second largest in Indonesia
Indonesia
after West Kalimantan 's and one of the highest percentages of Chinese living in Indonesia.

The first group of Hakka in Bangka and Belitung reached the islands in the 18th century from Guangdong. Many of them worked as tin mining labourers. Since then, they have remained on the island along with the native Malay. Their situation was much different from those of Chinese and native populations of other regions, where legal cultural conflicts were prevalent since the 1960s until 1999, by which Indonesian Chinese had finally regained their cultural freedoms. Here they lived together peacefully and still practiced their customs and cultural festivals, while in other regions they were strictly banned by government legislation prior to 1999. Hakka on the island of Bangka spoke Hopo dialect mixed with Malay, especially in younger generations. Hakka spoken in Belinyu area in Bangka is considered to be standard.

West Kalimantan

Hakka people
Hakka people
in Pontianak live alongside Teochew speaking Chinese. While the Teochews are dominant in the centre of Pontianak, the Hakka are more dominant in small towns along the Kapuas River
Kapuas River
in the regencies of Sanggau, Sekadau and Sintang. Their Hakka dialect is originally Hopo which influenced by Teochew dialect and also has vocabulary from the local Malay and Dayak tribes. The Hakka were instrumental in the Lanfang Republic .

The Hakka in this region are descendants of gold prospectors who migrated from China
China
in the late 19th century.

The Hakka in Singkawang and the surrounding regencies of Sambas , Bengkayang , Ketapang and Landak speak a different standard of Hakka dialect to the Hakkas along the Kapuas River. Originally West Borneo has diverse Hakka origin but during the 19th century, a large people came from Jiexi so more Hakkas in the region speak Hopo mixed with Wuhua and Huilai accents that eventually formed the dialect of Singkawang Hakka.

Jakarta

Hakka people
Hakka people
in Jakarta
Jakarta
mainly have roots from Meizhou , who came in the 19th century. Secondary migration of the Hakkas from other provinces like Bangka Belitung and West Borneo came later. Mostly Hakka people
Hakka people
in Jakarta
Jakarta
resided along Kelapa Gading , Pluit , Penjaringan
Penjaringan
and surrounding areas, while other Chinese in Glodok
Glodok
, Taman Sari are Hokkien
Hokkien
speakers.

EAST TIMOR

Main article: Chinese people
Chinese people
in East Timor
East Timor
A mix wedding of East Timorese and Hakka in East Timor
East Timor
, where the four flower girls and the mother of the bride on the far right are of Hakka descent.

There was already a relatively large and vibrant Hakka community in East Timor
East Timor
before the 1975 Indonesian invasion . According to an estimate by the local Chinese Timorese association, the Hakka population of Portuguese Timor in 1975 was estimated to be around 25,000 (including a small minority of other Chinese ethnicities from Macau
Macau
, which like East Timor
East Timor
was a Portuguese colony). According to a book source, an estimated 700 Hakka were killed within the first week of invasion in Dili
Dili
alone. No clear numbers had been recorded since many Hakka had already escaped to neighbouring Australia. The recent re-establishment of Hakka associations in the country registered approximately 2,400 Hakka remaining, organised into some 400 families, including part-Timorese ones.

The Timorese Hakka diaspora can currently be found in Darwin , Brisbane
Brisbane
, Sydney
Sydney
and Melbourne
Melbourne
in Australia; in Portugal
Portugal
; in Macau; and in other parts of the world in smaller numbers. They often are highly educated, and many continue their education in either Taiwan
Taiwan
or the People's Republic of China, while a majority of the younger generation prefer to study in Australia. The Australian government took some years to assess their claims to be genuine refugees and not illegal immigrants, as partially related to the political situation in East Timor
East Timor
at the time. As Asian countries were neither willing to accept them as residents nor grant them political asylum to the Timorese in general, they were forced to live as stateless persons for some time. Despite this condition, many Hakka had become successful, establishing restaurant chains, shops, supermarkets, and import operations in Australia. Since the independence of East Timor
East Timor
in 2000, some Hakka families had returned and invested in businesses in the newborn nation.

INDIA

Main article: Chinese people
Chinese people
in India
India

There used to be sizable Hakka communities at Tangra in Kolkata
Kolkata
, the capital of West Bengal
West Bengal
, and Mumbai
Mumbai
(formerly known as Bombay). However, from the 1960s, when the Vietnam
Vietnam
War broke out, there has been a steady migration to other countries, which accelerated in the succeeding decades. The majority moved to Canada, while others went to the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Austria
Austria
and Sweden
Sweden
. The predominant dialect of Hakka in these communities is Meixian.

It should be noted that during the time he held office in Kolkata until the late 2000s, Yap Kon Chung, an ambassador for The Republic of China
China
(Taiwan), protected and helped the Chinese residents in India. Specifically, during the Indo-Chinese war of 1962, oppression of Sino-Indian residents was escalated. Yap then made appeals to Prime Minister Nehru to bridge a bond between the Indian and Chinese people. During his office, he was also the principal at a highly regarded school as well as a political facilitator who helped many families migrate to other countries such as Canada, the United States
United States
and parts of Europe
Europe
until he himself migrated to Toronto, Canada
Canada
to join his family. Yap died surrounded by family on April 18, 2014, at the age of 98.

SOUTH AFRICA

Further information: Chinese South Africans

Some Hakka people, notably from Taiwan, migrated to South Africa.

MAURITIUS

The vast majority of Mauritian Chinese are Hakkas. Most of the Mauritian Hakkas emigrated to Mauritius
Mauritius
in the mid-1940s came from northeastern Guangdong, especially from the Meizhou or Meixian region.

As of 2008, the total population of Sino-Mauritian , consisting of Hakka and Hokkien, is around 35,000.

RéUNION

Main article: Chinois (Réunion)

Many Chinese people
Chinese people
in Réunion
Réunion
are of Hakka origin. They either came to Réunion
Réunion
as indentured workers or as voluntary migrants .

UNITED STATES

Hakka from all over the world have also migrated to the USA. One group is the New England Hakka Association, which reminds its members not to forget their roots. One example is a blog by Ying Han Brach called "Searching for My Hakka Roots". Another group is the Hakka Association of New York, which aims to promote Hakka culture across the five boroughs of New York City
New York City
. In the mid 1970s, the Hakka Benevolent Association in San Francisco
San Francisco
was founded by Tu Chung. The association has strong ties with the San Francisco
San Francisco
community and offers scholarships to their young members.

There are around 20,000 Taiwanese Hakkas in the United States.

CANADA

There are several Hakka communities across Canada. One group that embraces on Hakka culture in this diverse country is the Hakka Heritage Alliance.

JAMAICA

Most Chinese Jamaicans are Hakka; they have a long history in Jamaica . Between 1845 and 1884, nearly 5000 Hakkas arrived in Jamaica
Jamaica
in three major voyages. The Hakkas seized the opportunity to venture into a new land, embracing the local language, customs and culture. During the 1960s and 1970s, substantial migration of Jamaican Hakkas to the USA and Canada
Canada
have occurred. The Hakkas in Jamaica
Jamaica
came mainly from Dongguan
Dongguan
, Huiyang and Bao\'an counties of Guangdong
Guangdong
Province.

SURINAME

The Chinese in Suriname
Suriname
are homogeneous as a group and the great majority can trace their roots to Huidong'an in Guangdong.

POPULATION

At a 1994 seminar of the World Hakka Association held in Meixian , statistics showed that there were 6,562,429 Hakkas living abroad.

In 2000, the worldwide population of Hakka was estimated at 36,059,500 and in 2010 it was estimated at 40,745,200.

Another estimate is that approximately 36 million Hakka people
Hakka people
are scattered throughout the world. More than 31 million lives in over 200 cities and counties spread throughout seven provinces of China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Fujian, Hong Kong, Hunan.

COUNTRY Hakka population Chinese population Total population Percentage of Chinese population MAJORITY SOURCE

Taiwan
Taiwan
4,202,000 22,813,000 23,374,000 18.4% Second largest Hakka Affairs Council , Taiwan, 2014

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
1,250,000 est 6,643,000 7,300,000 18.8% Second largest Prof Lau Yee Cheung, Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, 2010

Singapore
Singapore
232,914 2,794,000 3,771,700 8.3% Fourth largest Singapore
Singapore
Census, 2010

Malaysia
Malaysia
1,650,000 6,550,000 30,116,000 25.2% Second largest Malaysia
Malaysia
Census, 2015

Thailand
Thailand
1,502,846 9,392,792 67,091,371 16.0% Second largest The World Factbook, 2012

HAKKAOLOGY

Hakkaology (客家學) is the academic study of the Hakka people
Hakka people
and their culture. It encompasses their origins, identity, language, traits, architecture, customs, food, literature, history, politics, economics, diaspora and genealogical records.

The study of the Hakka people
Hakka people
first drew attention to Chinese and foreign scholars, missionaries, travellers and writers during the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
era in the middle of the nineteen century. Many wanted to know more about the Hakka people
Hakka people
who had started the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
which almost overthrew the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
. Ernest John Eitel , a prominent German missionary, was one of those who took a great interest in this area.

Many foreign scholars were full of admiration of the Hakka people. According to prominent sinologist Victor Purcell , the Hakkas "have a stubbornness of disposition that distinguishes them from their fellow Chinese".

ANTI-HAKKA SENTIMENT

See also: Anti-Hakka sentiment
Anti-Hakka sentiment

Anti-Hakka sentiments traced it roots back when Hakkas moved into Southern China when Hakkas fought for land against the Southern Chinese locals which resulted in resentment and hatred of Hakkas by the Southern Chinese locals.

Hatred of Hakkas was especially prevalent amongst Cantonese
Cantonese
people .

Anti-Hakka sentiment
Anti-Hakka sentiment
among Cantonese
Cantonese
people intensified when Hakkas helped the Qing army to attack Cantonese
Cantonese
villages, sparking the largest clan war in China, the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars (1855-1867), where Cantonese
Cantonese
killed huge numbers of Hakkas. During the clan war, Anti-Hakka Slogans were commonly used by Cantonese
Cantonese
people against Hakkas such as "Hate the Hakkas and differentiate the province"(仇客分省). The Cantonese
Cantonese
massacred and killed Hakkas without pity and exterminated whole Hakka villages. By the time the clan war ended, one million people, most of them Hakkas, had been killed. Hatred of Hakkas was also prevalent amongst Hoklo people in Taiwan
Taiwan
due to land competition with Hakkas, resulting in clan fights against Hakkas. Hakkas were seen as barbarians and closely related to tribal people by the Cantonese.

Anti-Hakka sentiment
Anti-Hakka sentiment
was also found overseas outside China
China
as well. When Cantonese
Cantonese
people arrived in Madagascar they colluded to prevent any Hakkas from migrating to Madagascar.

WORLD HAKKA CONFERENCE

The World Hakka Conference (世界客属恳亲大会) is a global event where Hakkas from different parts of the world gather to celebrate and showcase the Hakka spirit and cultural legacy. It is also a venue to promote Hakka fellowship and where Hakkas strategise their economic resources.

The global conference was initiated by the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Tsung Tsin Association (香港崇正總會), the umbrella body for Hakkas in Hong Kong. The First World Hakka Conference was held in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in 1971. The conference is attended by more than six thousand delegates representing their associations from all over the world. The bidding to host the conference is similar to that of a major international sporting event. The Hakkas are the first Chinese community to hold a global conference and the event remains unsurpassed for grandeur and size.

LIST OF WORLD HAKKA CONFERENCES HOST COUNTRIES AND CITIES

NO YEAR CITY COUNTRY

1 1971 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong

2 1973 Taipei
Taipei
Taiwan
Taiwan

3 1976 Taipei
Taipei
Taiwan
Taiwan

4 1978 San Francisco
San Francisco
United States
United States
of America

5 1980 Tokyo
Tokyo
Japan
Japan

6 1982 Bangkok
Bangkok
Thailand
Thailand

7 1984 Taipei
Taipei
Taiwan
Taiwan

8 1986 Port Louis Mauritius
Mauritius

9 1988 San Francisco
San Francisco
United States
United States
of America

10 1990 Kota Kinabalu Malaysia
Malaysia

11 1992 Kaoshiung
Kaoshiung
Taiwan
Taiwan

12 1994 Meizhou , Guangdong
Guangdong
China
China

13 1996 Singapore
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore

14 1998 Miaoli Taiwan
Taiwan

15 1999 Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Malaysia

16 2000 Longyan
Longyan
, Fujian
Fujian
China
China

17 2001 Jakarta
Jakarta
Indonesia
Indonesia

18 2003 Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
, Henan
Henan
China
China

19 2004 Ganzhou , Jiangxi
Jiangxi
China
China

20 2005 Chengdu
Chengdu
, Sichuan
Sichuan
China
China

21 2006 Taipei
Taipei
Taiwan
Taiwan

22 2008 Xi\'an , Shanxi
Shanxi
China
China

23 2010 Heyuan
Heyuan
, Guangdong
Guangdong
China
China

24 2011 Beihai
Beihai
, Guangxi
Guangxi
China
China

25 2012 Sanming
Sanming
, Fujian
Fujian
China
China

26 2013 Bali
Bali
Indonesia
Indonesia

27 2014 Kaifeng
Kaifeng
, Henan
Henan
China
China

28 2015 Hsinchu
Hsinchu
Taiwan
Taiwan

29 2017 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
/ Meizhou China
China

29 2019 Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Malaysia

REVOLUTIONARY, POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERSHIP

See also: List of notable Hakkas

The Hakkas have had a significant influence, disproportionate to their smaller total numbers, on the course of modern Chinese and overseas Chinese history, particularly as a source of revolutionary, political and military leaders.

Hakkas started and formed the backbone of the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
, the largest uprising in the modern history of China. The uprising, also known as Jintian Uprising (金田起义), originated at the Hakka village of Jintian in Guiping, Guangxi
Guangxi
province. It was led by the failed Qing scholar, Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan
, who was influenced by Protestant missionaries. Hong's charisma tapped into a consciousness of national dissent which identified with his personal interpretations of the Christian
Christian
message. His following, who were initially Hakka peasants from Guangxi, grew across the southern provinces. The hugely disciplined Taiping army, which included women in their ranks, captured stoutly defended towns and cities from the Qing defenders. Four of the six top Taiping leaders are Hakkas: Hong Xiuquan, Feng Yunshan , Yang Xiuqing and Shi Dakai . In 1851, less than a year after the uprising, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
(太平天国) was established. It had, at one stage, occupied one-third of China
China
and almost toppled the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
. Hong Rengan , the Premier of the Kingdom, was the first person in China
China
to advocate modern-style government and opening up reforms. The kingdom lasted for thirteen years, from 1851 to 1864.

Hakkas continued to play leading roles during the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
and the republican years of China. When Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was small, together with other children in his village, he used to listen to an old Taiping soldier telling them stories about the heroics of the Taipings. This influenced Sun and he proclaimed that he shall be the second Hong Xiuquan. Sun was to become the Father of modern China
China
and many of his contemporaries were his fellow Hakkas. Zheng Shiliang, a medical student and classmate of Sun, led the Huizhou Uprising (惠州起义) in 1900. Huizhou is an area in Guangdong
Guangdong
province where most of the population are Hakkas. Deng Zhiyu led the Huizhou Qinuhu Uprising (惠州七女湖起义) in 1907. All of the Four Martyrs of Honghuagang (红花岗四烈士) are Hakkas - one of which was Wen Shengcai who assassinated the Manchu general, Fu Qi, in 1911. Brothers Hsieh Yi-qiao and Hsieh Liang-mu raised the 100,000 Chinese Yuan
Chinese Yuan
needed for the Huanghuagang Uprising (黄花岗起义) from the overseas Chinese community in Nanyang (Southeast Asia) in 1911. At least 27 of the 85 (initially 72 because only 72 bodies could be identified) martyrs of Huanghuagang (黄花岗七十二烈士) are Hakkas. Yao Yuping led the Guangdong Northern Expeditionary Force (广东北伐军) to successive victories against the Qing Army which were vital in the successful defence of the Provisional Government in Nanjing
Nanjing
and the early abdication of Xuan Tong Emperor . Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai
and Deng Keng were Sun Yat-sen's main advisors on financial and military matters respectively. A big majority of the soldiers in the Guangdong
Guangdong
Army (粤军) were Hakkas. Eugene Chen , whose father was a former Taiping, was an outstanding foreign minister in the 1920s. Some of the best of Nationalist China generals: Chen Mingshu
Chen Mingshu
, Chen Jitang , Xue Yue and Zhang Fakui amongst many others are Hakka as well.

The Communist Party of China
China
already have many Hakkas in its ranks before the outbreak of the Civil War . Li Lisan
Li Lisan
was the top leader of the party from 1928 to 1930. The Jiangxi- Fujian
Fujian
Soviet was the largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic (中华苏维埃共和国) which was founded in 1931. It reached a peak of more than 30,000 square kilometres and a population that numbered more than three million, covering mostly Hakka areas of two provinces: Jiangxi
Jiangxi
and Fujian. The Hakka city of Ruijin
Ruijin
was the capital of the republic. When it was finally overrun in 1934 by the Nationalist army in the Fifth of its Encirclement Campaigns , the Communists began their famous Long March
Long March
with 86,000 soldiers, of which more than 70% were Hakkas. Ironically, the Fifth Encirclement Campaign was led by Nationalist Hakka general, Xue Yue. During the retreat, the Communists managed to strike a deal with the Hakka warlord controlling Guangdong
Guangdong
province, Chen Jitang, to let them pass through Guangdong
Guangdong
without a fight. When the People\'s Liberation Army (人民解放军) had its rank structure from 1955 to 1964, the highest number of generals, totalling 54, came from the small Hakka county of Xingguo in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province. The county had also previously produced 27 Nationalist generals. Xingguo county is thus known as the Generals' County (将军县) in China. During the same period, there were 132 Hakkas out of 325 generals in Jiangxi, 63 Hakkas out of 83 generals in Fujian, and 8 Hakkas out of 12 generals in Guangdong respectively, not mentioning those from Guangxi, Sichuan
Sichuan
and Hunan. The number could have been significantly higher if the majority of the personnel who started the Long March
Long March
had not perished before reaching its destination. Only less than 7,000 of the original 86,000 personnel had survived it. Prominent Hakka communist leaders include: Marshal Zhu De
Zhu De
, the founder of the Red Army (红军), later known as the People's Liberation Army; Ye Ting , Commander-in-chief, New Fourth Army , one of the two main Chinese communist forces fighting the Japanese Imperial Army
Japanese Imperial Army
during the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(the other main communist force, Eighth Route Army , was commanded by Zhu De); Marshal Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying
, who led the overthrow of the Gang of Four
Gang of Four
in 1976, which marked the end of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
; and Hu Yaobang , where the memorial service for his death sparked off a pro-democracy movement which led to the Tiananmen Square protests in 1989. In Guangdong, China's most prosperous province, the "Hakka clique" (客家帮) has consistently dominated the provincial government. Guangdong's Hakka governors include Ye Jianying, Ding Sheng , Ye Xuanping and Huang Huahua .

Besides playing leading roles in all the three major revolutions of China, Hakkas had also been prominently involved in many of the wars against foreign intrusion of China. During the First Opium War , Lai Enjue led the Qing navy against the British at the Battle of Kowloon in 1839 and Yan Botao commanded the coastal defence at the Battle of Amoy in 1841. Feng Zicai and Liu Yongfu were instrumental in the defeat of the French at the Battle of Bang Bo which led to the French Retreat from Lang Son and the conclusion of the war in 1885. During the Japanese invasion of Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1895, the Taiwanese militia forces led by Qiu Fengjia and formed mainly by Hakkas, were able to put up a stiff resistance to the Japanese when the Qing army could not. During the Battle of Shanghai in the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
in 1937, the heroism of Xie Jinyuan and his troops, known as the "Eight Hundred Warriors" (八百壮士) in Chinese history, gained international attention and lifted flagging Chinese morale in their successful Defence of Sihang Warehouse against the more superior Japanese Imperial Army. However, in the ensuing Battle of Nanjing
Nanjing
, seventeen Nationalist generals were killed in action, of which six were Hakkas. During the war against the Japanese, both the commander-in-chiefs of the two main Chinese communist forces, Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, are Hakkas: Zhu De
Zhu De
and Ye Ting. On the Nationalist side, Xue Yue and Zhang Fakui
Zhang Fakui
were commander-in-chiefs for the 9th and 4th War Zones respectively. Called the " Patton
Patton
of Asia" by the West and the "God of War" (战神) by the Chinese, Xue was China
China
most outstanding general during the war, having won several major battles which killed hundreds of thousands of Japanese troops. Luo Zhuoying was the commander-in-chief for the 1st Route Expeditionary Forces, Burma
Burma
(China's first participation of a war overseas), 1942. During the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
from 1941-1945, the Dong River Column guerilla force (东江纵队) was a constant harassment to the Japanese troops. The force, whose members were mostly Hakkas and led by its legendary commander, Zeng Sheng, was highly successful due to its strong Hakka network. Noteworthy accomplishments of the guerilla force included the aiding of British and Commonwealth prisoners of war to escape successfully from Japanese internment camps and the rescuing of twenty American pilots who parachuted into Hong Kong
Hong Kong
when they were shot down. Since the Xinhai Revolution, Meizhou alone which consisted of 7 Hakka counties has produced 474 generals (there are more than 200 Hakka or partial-Hakka counties in China).

According to some books, the Soong family from which the Soong Sisters had been influential figures during the Republican period, has been cited to have Hakka ancestors. In the book, "My father Deng Xiaoping" (我的父亲邓小平), by China
China
paramount leader Deng Xiaoping 's daughter, Deng Rong , she had mentioned that the Deng family's ancestry is possibly Hakka, but not definitely.

Overseas Hakkas have also been prominent politically in the countries they had migrated to, many of which are leading political figures of the countries or the Chinese communities there. Since the 20th century, there have been twenty Hakkas who had become heads of state or heads of government in different countries.

PROMINENT POLITICAL LEADERS

* Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan
, founder and Heavenly King, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom , 1851-1864 * Hong Rengan , Premier, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, 1860-1864; first person in China
China
to advocate modern-style government and opening up reforms * Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
, founding father of modern China; first President, Provisional Government of the Republic of China
China
, 1912 * Chen Mingshu
Chen Mingshu
, Acting Premier of the Republic of China, 1931-1932 * Sun Ke , Premier of the Republic of China, 1932, 1948-1949 * Chen Jitang , warlord who wielded absolute control of the government and army of autonomous Guangdong
Guangdong
, 1929-1936 * Li Lisan
Li Lisan
, top leader, Communist Party of China
China
, 1928-1930 * Zhu De
Zhu De
, Chairman of the National People\'s Congress (Head of State), People\'s Republic of China
China
, 1975-1976; Founder, People\'s Liberation Army * Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying
, Chairman of the National People's Congress (Head of State), People's Republic of China, 1978-1983 * Hu Yaobang , Chairman of the Communist Party of China
China
, 1981-1982; General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
China
, 1982-1987 (both positions during these periods made Hu the highest-ranked in the Communist Party of China
China
and the second most powerful person in China
China
after Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
) * Liao Chengzhi , died four days after he was nominated to be the Vice-President of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, 1983 * Liu Yongfu , President, Republic of Formosa (Taiwan), 1895 * Qiu Fengjia , Vice-President, Republic of Formosa (Taiwan), 1895 * Lee Teng-hui
Lee Teng-hui
, President, Taiwan
Taiwan
, 1988-2000; first popularly elected President in Chinese history * Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen
, President, Taiwan, 2016–present; first and only popularly elected female President in Chinese history * Li Yuan-tsu , Vice-President, Taiwan
Taiwan
, 1990–1996 * Annette Lu , Vice-President, Taiwan, 2000-2008 * Wang Sheng , second most powerful person in Taiwan
Taiwan
after President Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
as he led the "Liu Shaokang Office" which was described as the inner court of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
party headquarters, 1979-1983 * Yu Shyi-kun , Premier, Taiwan
Taiwan
, 2002-2005 * Jiang Yi-huah , Premier, Taiwan, 2013-2014 * Martin Lee , leading figure of Pan-democracy camp, Hong Kong; hailed as the father of democracy of Hong Kong * Lau Wong-fat , political kingpin in the New Territories , Hong Kong * Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
, founding father of modern Singapore
Singapore
; first Prime Minister of Singapore, 1959-1990 * Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong
, Prime Minister of Singapore, 2004–present * Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy
, founder, modern Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, capital of Malaysia
Malaysia
, 1860s * Leong Fee , first Chinese member, Federal Legislative Council , Malaysia, 1909 * Low Fang Pak, founder and President, Hakka Republic of Lanfang in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, 1777–1795; the republic lasted for 107 years from 1777 to 1884 and had twelve presidents who are all Meixian Hakkas * Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Chung Ban Hok), first ethnic Chinese Governor of Jakarta
Jakarta
, capital of Indonesia, which is considered to be the third most powerful position in Indonesia
Indonesia
serving from 2014–2017 (after he was charged for blasphemy and his defeat in the gubernatorial elections) * Hasan Karman , first Chinese Mayor in Indonesia, 2007-2012 * Sok An , Deputy Prime Minister, Cambodia, 2004–present * Ne Win
Ne Win
, paramount leader of Myanmar
Myanmar
for three decades, 1958–60; 1962-1988 * San Yu , President of Myanmar
Myanmar
, 1981-1988 * Khin Nyunt , Prime Minister of Myanmar
Myanmar
, 2003–2004 * Pedro Lay, first Chinese Cabinet Minister, Timor-Leste , 2007-2015 * Francisco Kalbuadi Lay, first Chinese to be elected to National Parliament , Timor-Leste, 2002-2005 * Penny Wong , first Chinese and first Asian Cabinet Minister, Australia
Australia
, 2007-2013 * Helen Sham-Ho , first Chinese to be elected to an Australian parliament, 1988-2003 * Gaston Tong Sang , President, French Polynesia , 2006-2007, 2008-2011 * Moilin Jean Ah-Chuen , first Chinese Cabinet Minister, Mauritius
Mauritius
, 1967-1976 * Li Huarong , Deputy Minister, Seychelles
Seychelles
* Nat Wei, Baron Wei , youngest member at the age of 34 and first British-born person of Chinese origin in the House of Lords
House of Lords
, United Kingdom, 2011–present * André Thien Ah Koon, first and only Chinese elected to the French National Assembly and the first Chinese elected to a parliament in Europe, 1986-2006 * Varina Tjon-A-Ten , first Chinese elected to the House of Representatives , Netherlands, 2003-2006 * Roy Ho Ten Soeng , first Chinese Mayor in Netherlands
Netherlands
and Europe, 2000-2006 * Arthur Chung , first President, Guyana
Guyana
, 1970–1980 * Solomon Hochoy , last British Governor, 1960–1962, Trinidad and Tobago ; first non-white Governor in the whole of the British Empire
British Empire
, 1960; first Governor-General, 1962–1972, when Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962; first Chinese head of state in a non-Asian country * Hendrick Chin A Sen , President and Prime Minister of Suriname
Suriname
, 1980-1982 * Rose Leon , first Chinese and first female Cabinet Minister, Jamaica
Jamaica
, 1953-1960, 1972-1976 * William Boss Wu, first and only Chinese elected to the National Congress of Brazil
Brazil
, 2006–present

QUOTES

* "The Hakkas are able to mould outstanding military men, their hardworking conduct having been developed through years of ardous livelihood in the mountainous regions. Praises of the Guangdong
Guangdong
spirit by the Japanese actually refer to the Hakka spirit. A big majority of the officers and soldiers in the Guangdong
Guangdong
army are Hakkas, the distinguished successes of Hakka military men have been attested by the modern history of China." - Zhang Fakui, Commander-in-Chief, Republic of China
China
Army (1980) * "Fortunately for me, I have a very high threshold for pain. I am a Hakka. Hakkas can take a lot of pain. So, I survived." - Lee Kuan Yew, founding father of modern Singapore
Singapore
(1997) * "All of you should know that I, Lee Teng-hui, am a Hakka. Many of mainland China's leaders are also Hakkas. Hakka people
Hakka people
are brilliant, isn't it?" - Lee Teng-hui, President of Taiwan
Taiwan
(2000) * "My grandfather is Hakka. The origin of Hakka is at the Central Plains. A Hakka cultural centre is opening in Zhengdong economic centre. I will be unveiling a statue of my grandfather in the cultural centre, to promote the Hakka spirit." - Sun Huifang, granddaughter of Sun Yat-sen, founding father of modern China
China
(2003) * "There is a piece of important experience not found in books, that is the Hakka people
Hakka people
fine moral qualities in doing business based on integrity. This is the most precious legacy left behind by my Hakka forefathers." - Thaksin Shinawatra, Prime Minister of Thailand
Thailand
(2005) * "The Hakka spirit in my blood has been calling me to take the challenge and shoulder the responsibility of being president like numerous Hakka women have done for the past hundreds of years." - Tsai Ing-wen, President of Taiwan
Taiwan
(2011) * "And I nearly broke down, but I won't break down. I am a Hakka woman. So farewell, Papa. I will miss you. Rest in peace. And...be as tough as Hakkas come." - Lee Wei Ling, daughter of Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
(2015)

TRIVIA

* Hakka clique is a political group that has dominated the provincial government of Guangdong
Guangdong
, China, since the founding of the People\'s Republic of China
China
in 1949 * Hakka Fashion is an Asian ‘street style’ clothing label started by two Hakka sisters from Newcastle , United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 2014 * Jalan Hakka, Indonesia
Indonesia
is a property located in the busy commercial center of Medan
Medan
, Indonesia
Indonesia
* Jalan Hakka, Malaysia
Malaysia
or Hakka Road is a road in Lahad Datu , Sabah
Sabah
, Malaysia, named in honour in 2015 for the contribution of the Hakka community * Kampung Hakka or Hakka Village is a village settlement in Mantin , Negeri Sembilan , Malaysia
Malaysia
founded by Huizhou Hakka immigrants in 1860 * Meizhou Hakka Football Club is a professional football club founded in 2013 that participates in the China
China
League One division; the team is based in Wuhua County , Meizhou , Guangdong
Guangdong
, China * Hakka Party is a Taiwanese political party founded in 2006 to represent the Hakka people
Hakka people
and their interests in Taiwan

IN POPULAR CULTURE

* The Guest People (Chinese : 客家之歌), a 1997 30-episode Singapore
Singapore
television drama about four young Hakka men who migrated from China
China
to Singapore
Singapore
in the 1950s and were caught in the tumultuous anti-colonial period of the country's history. The Hakka language version of the drama was broadcast in Taiwan. The drama was nominated for the Best Drama Series awards in the Asian Television Awards and the New York Television Festival , 1998. * 1895 or Blue Brave: The Legend of Formosa 1895 (Chinese : 1895乙未), a 2008 Taiwan
Taiwan
Hakka language film about the Hakka militias fighting the Japanese during the Japanese invasion of Taiwan in 1895. The edited version for television won the Best Drama Series award in the Asian Television Awards, 2009. * (Chinese : 滚滚血脉 or 填四川), a 2009 29-episode China- Taiwan
Taiwan
television drama about a Hakka family spanning 300 years, with the Hakkas' migration from Guangdong
Guangdong
to Sichuan
Sichuan
during the Great Migration Wave to Sichuan
Sichuan
(湖广填四川) as backdrop. The Hakka language version of the drama, titled One Hundred Thousand Miles Away from Home (Chinese : 离家十万里), was broadcast in Taiwan. * Source (Chinese : 源), a 2010 20-episode Taiwan
Taiwan
Hakka language television drama about Hakka settlers in Miaoli , Taiwan, who founded Asia's first oil well in 1861. A-wei Chang won the Best Drama Performance by An Actor in a Leading Role (Highly Commended) award in the Asian Television Awards, 2010 * Down To Nanyang (Chinese : 下南洋), a 2011 40-episode China television drama about Fujian
Fujian
Yongding Hakkas' migration to Nanyang (Southeast Asia) during the late Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
and early Republican era , and their involvement as overseas Chinese in the revolution to overthrow the Qing government. The theme song of the drama is in the Hakka language. * The Great Southern Migration (Chinese : 大南迁 or 葛藤凹), a 2012 32-episode China
China
television drama about the Hakkas' migration to Southern China during the late Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
in the 9th century. * Hakka Women (Chinese : 客家女人) or To Be or Not to Be (Chinese : 来生不做香港人), a 2014 25-episode Hong Kong television drama about the lives of two Hakka sisters separated when young, one in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and the other in China.

SEE ALSO

* Hakka language * Hakka architecture
Hakka architecture
* Hakka cuisine
Hakka cuisine
* Hakka hill songs * Han opera (Hakka opera) * Tea-picking opera * Punti-Hakka Clan Wars * Japanese invasion of Taiwan
Taiwan
* Larut War
Larut War

FURTHER READING

PEOPLE AND IDENTITY

* Char, Tin-yuke (1969). The Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
- Their Origin & Folk Songs. Jade Mountain Press. * Eberhard, Wolfram (1974). Studies in Hakka Folktales. Taipei: Chinese Association for Folklore. * Kiang, Clyde (July 1991). The Hakka Search for a Homeland. Alleghemy Press. ISBN 9780910042611 . * Constable, Nicole, ed. (1996). Guest People: Hakka Identity in China
China
and Abroad. University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295984872 .

* Leong, Sow-Theng (1997). Wright, Tim, ed. Migration and Ethnicity in Chinese History: Hakkas, Pengmin and Their Neighbors. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804728577 . * Chung, Yoon-Ngan (2005). The Hakka Chinese: Their Origin, Folk Songs and Nursery Rhymes. Poseidon Books. ISBN 1921005505 . * Wright, Grace E. (August 2006). Identification of Hakka Cultural Markers. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781847285928 . * Leo, Jessieca (September 2015). Global Hakka: Hakka Identity in the Remaking. BRILL. ISBN 9789004300262 .

POLITICS

* Erbaugh, Mary S. (December 1992). "The Secret History of the Hakkas: The Chinese Revolution as a Hakka Enterprise". The China Quarterly. Cambridge University Press (132): 937–968. JSTOR
JSTOR
654189 .

* Spence, Jonathan D. (December 1996). God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
of Hong Xiuquan. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393315561 . * Zhang, Delai (2002). The Hakkas of Sabah: A Survey of Their Impact on the Modernization of the Bornean Malaysian State. Sabah
Sabah
Theological Seminary. ISBN 9789834084004 . * Yong, Kee Howe (July 2013). The Hakkas of Sarawak: Sacrificial Gifts in Cold War Era Malaysia. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781442615465 . * Lee, Wei Ling (January 2015). Yap, Koon Hong, ed. A Hakka Woman's Singapore
Singapore
Stories: My Life as a Daughter, Doctor and Diehard Singaporean. Straits Times Press. ISBN 9789814642477 . * Liu, L. Larry (January 2015). Hakkas in Power: A Study of Chinese Political Leadership in East and Southeast Asia, and South America. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 9781505429435 .

LANGUAGE

* Lee, T.H. (1955). Hakka Lessons for Malayan Students. Government Federation of Malaya. * Tsang, Joseph Mang Kin (January 2003). The Hakka Epic. President's Fund for Creative Writing in English. ISBN 9789990397406 . * Chen, Matthew Y.; Lian, Hee Wee; Yan, Xiuhong (2004). The Paradox of Hakka Tone Sandhi. Dept of Chinese Studies, National University of Singapore. ISBN 9789810519438 . * Hashimoto, Mantaro J. (June 2010). The Hakka Dialect: A Linguistic Study of its Phonology, Syntax and Lexicon. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521133678 .

RELIGION

* Constable, Nicole (August 1994). Christian
Christian
Souls and Chinese Spirits: A Hakka Community in Hong Kong. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520083844 . * Lutz, Jessie G.; Lutz, Rolland Ray (January 1998). Hakka Chinese Confront Protestant Christianity, 1850-1900: With the Autobiographies of Eight Hakka Christians, and Commentary . Routledge. ISBN 9780765600387 . * Christofferson, Ethan (September 2012). Negotiating Identity: Exploring Tensions between Being Hakka and Being Christian
Christian
in Northwestern Taiwan. Wipf & Stock Publishers. ISBN 9781610975032 .

FOOD

* Anusasananan, Linda Lau (October 2012). The Hakka Cookbook: Chinese Soul Food from around the World. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520273283 .

FAMILY STORIES

* Tan, Amy (October 1995). The Hundred Secret Senses . Penguin Books. ISBN 9780399141157 . The book was shortlisted for the 1996 Orange Prize for Fiction . * Lee, J.P. (January 2004). Breaking the Curse of the Green Dragon (A Hakka Story). Instrument of Truth. ISBN 9789810480424 . * Chin, Woon Ping (June 2008). Hakka Soul: Memories, Migrations and Meals. University of Hawaii. ISBN 9780824832896 . * Huang, Suhua (April 2012). A Faithful Reading Partner: A Story from a Hakka Village. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781468562675 . * Lampotang, Peggy (January 2014). The Coral Heart: A Shopkeeper's Journey. Atelier d'ecriture. ISBN 9789990336924 . * Sze, Elsie (February 2014). Ghost Cave: A Novel of Sarawak. Hong Kong Women in Publishing Society. ISBN 1496073940 . * Hsiung, C. Fong (September 2014). Picture Bride. Mawenzi House/TSAR Publishers. ISBN 9781927494394 . * Lin Ung, Charlene (March 2015). Nam Moi: A Young Girl's Story of Her Family's Escape from Vietnam. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 9781508700791 . * Madison, Paula Williams (April 2015). Finding Samuel Lowe: China, Jamaica, Harlem. Amistad. ISBN 9780062331632 . * Meet the black Americans going home to China
China
A continuation of the Paula Williams Madison story

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HAKKA .

* Toronto Hakka Conference 多伦多客家恳亲会, Canada * Hakka Affairs Council 客家委员会, Taiwan * Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hakka Association 香港客属总会, Hong Kong * Nanyang Khek Community Guild 南洋客属总会, Singapore * Federation of Hakka Associations of Malaysia 马来西亚客家公会联合会, Malaysia * The Hakka Association of Thailand
Thailand
泰国客家总会, Thailand * Hakka Association of Western Australia
Australia
西澳客家公会, Australia * Toronto Hakka Heritage Alliance 多伦多客家联谊会,

.