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HAKETIA (Hebrew : חקיטייה‎, Arabic
Arabic
: حاكيتيا‎‎) (also written as HAKITIA or HAQUITíA) is an endangered Jewish Romance language also known as Djudeo Spañol, Ladino Occidental, or Western Judaeo-Spanish
Judaeo-Spanish
. It was historically spoken by the North African Sephardim in the Moroccan cities of Tétouan , Tangier
Tangier
, Asilah , Larache and the Spanish towns of Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla
Melilla
. Tetuani Ladino was also spoken in Oran
Oran
, Algeria.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Modern use * 3 References * 4 External links

DESCRIPTION

An original letter in Haketia
Haketia
from Tangier, written in 1832.

The well-known form of Judaeo-Spanish
Judaeo-Spanish
spoken by Jews
Jews
living in the Balkans, Greece, Turkey and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is "Ladino Oriental" (eastern Ladino). Haketia
Haketia
may be described by contrast as "Ladino Occidental". The language is a variety of Spanish that borrows heavily from Judeo-Moroccan Arabic . It evidently also contains a number of words of Hebrew origin and was originally written using Hebrew letters . There is some cultural resemblance between the two Judaeo-Spanish dialect communities, including a rich shared stock of Romanzas (ballads) from medieval Spain, though both words and music often differ in detail (as indeed they do between one Oriental-Sephardic community and another).

The name "Haketia" derived from the Arabic
Arabic
ḥaká حكى, "tell", and is therefore pronounced with IPA: , reflecting the Arabic
Arabic
ḥāʾ ح. In some places it is written "Jaquetía" with the same pronunciation.

Haketia
Haketia
is considered to have influenced Llanito , the vernacular spoken in the British overseas territory
British overseas territory
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
due to migration of Moroccan Jews
Jews
.

MODERN USE

Haketia, unlike other varieties of Judeo-Spanish, did not develop a literary tradition and so the language remained as a colloquial form of communication and was not used as a vehicle for formal education since in Spanish Morocco
Morocco
, Spanish was used along with French at the Alliance Israélite Universelle schools. Because of the influence of the Spanish and French conquest first and because so many Jews
Jews
from North Morocco
Morocco
emigrated to Venezuela
Venezuela
, Spain and later Argentina, the language was levelled with modern Spanish, which has contributed greatly to its extinction. Still, there has been a slow renaissance of the language, helped by musicians such as Doris Benmaman (lad), Mor Karbasi and Kol Oud Tof Trio (lad), among others. Jose Benoliel (lad) and Alegría Bendayan de Bendelac (lad) have both compiled Spanish-Haketía dictionaries, published in 1977 and 1995, respectively. The Caracas Center of Sephardic Studies (lad) publishes regularly articles in Haketia
Haketia
in its magazine Magen-Escudo .

REFERENCES

* ^ La Haketia * ^ Benoliel, José (1977). Dialecto Judeo-hispano-marroquí o Hakitía. Madrid. OCLC
OCLC
5982985 . * ^ Haketía: El Djudeo-Espagnol de la Afrika del Nord

EXTERNAL LINKS

* List of articles

.