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A HAITIAN CUBAN (Spanish : Haitiano-Cubano, French : Haïtien Cubain, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
: Ayisyen Kiben) is a Cuban citizen of full or partial Haitian ancestry.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Haitian immigrant workers (1912-1939)

* 2.1 Revolution * 2.2 Religion * 2.3 Language * 2.4 Housing practices * 2.5 Education * 2.6 Haitian religion

* 3 Recent years * 4 Notable Haitian Cubans
Cubans
* 5 References * 6 External links

ORIGINS

Haitian culture and French and Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
languages, first entered Cuba
Cuba
with the arrival of Haitian immigrants at the start of the 19th century. Haiti
Haiti
was a French colony, and the final years of the 1791-1804 Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
brought a wave of French settlers fleeing with their Haitian slaves to Cuba. They came mainly to the east, and especially Guantanamo
Guantanamo
, where the French later introduced sugar cultivation, constructed sugar refineries and developed coffee plantations.

By 1804, some 30,000 French were living in Baracoa
Baracoa
and Maisí , the furthest eastern municipalities of the province.

HAITIAN IMMIGRANT WORKERS (1912-1939)

Due to the United States occupation of Haiti
United States occupation of Haiti
, many Haitians
Haitians
left to find work as laborers in neighboring countries like Cuba. These immigrants lived a fine line trying to maintain their Haitian culture and assimilating enough to be able to work and live in a foreign society. In 1937, over 25,000 Haitians
Haitians
were forcibly removed from Cuba and shipped back to Haiti. This different treatment of migrant laborers is due to several factors. Cuban racists beliefs combined with economic concerns were a direct catalyst for this drastic Haitian exodus.

REVOLUTION

Cubans
Cubans
feared a reply of the Haitian Revolution, which was not quelled by the current guerrilla warfare in Haiti
Haiti
by the caco forces against the Americans. Similarly, black Haitians
Haitians
were stereotyped as being violent and rife with crime, as the subject of stereotypes wasn't uncommon in Cuba, as black Cubans
Cubans
are often stereotyped the same way.

RELIGION

Haitian practice of vodou, was often mistaken for "witchcraft."

LANGUAGE

The vast majority of Haitians
Haitians
spoke Haitian Creole, which created a language barrier forcing Haitians
Haitians
to remain in agricultural labor.

HOUSING PRACTICES

Haitians
Haitians
lived in small communities near the sugar cane plantations, very rural and removed from populous cities.

EDUCATION

Economic restraints amongst Haitians
Haitians
kept education informal and contained in their small communities, as such, very few of these Haitians
Haitians
had anything above a basic level of Creole literacy. This enabled Haitians
Haitians
to keep control over the cultural values their children received.

HAITIAN RELIGION

Majority of Haitians
Haitians
are Catholic but vodou is also present behind the scenes. Vodou is decentralized and flexible. The rituals involved in vodou strengthen community ties and help the oppressed Haitians deal with their suffering.

RECENT YEARS

Later, Haitians
Haitians
continued to come to Cuba
Cuba
to work as braceros (hand workers, from the Spanish word brazo, meaning "arm") in the fields cutting cane. Their living and working conditions were not much better than slavery. Although they planned to return to Haiti, most stayed on in Cuba. For years, many Haitians
Haitians
and their descendants in Cuba
Cuba
did not identify themselves as such or speak Creole. In the eastern part of the island, many Haitians
Haitians
continued to suffer discrimination. But according to the Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
regime, since 1959, when he took over, this discrimination has stopped. After Spanish, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is the second most-spoken language in Cuba
Cuba
where over 300,000 Haitian immigrants speak it. It is recognized as a language in Cuba
Cuba
and a considerable number of Cubans
Cubans
speak it fluently. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti
Haiti
and do not possess Haitian ancestry, but merely learned it in their communities. In addition to the eastern provinces, there are also communities in Ciego de Ávila and Camagüey provinces where the population still maintains Creole, their mother tongue. Classes in Creole are offered in Guantanamo, Matanzas
Matanzas
and the City of Havana
Havana
. There is a Creole-language radio program.

NOTABLE HAITIAN CUBANS

* Benito Martínez , claimed to be the world's oldest living person * Bertrand Béoty , singer (partial Cuban descent) * Farrah Boulé , rapper * Sabrina Barnett , supermodel (partial Cuban descent)

REFERENCES

* ^ Haiti
Haiti
in Cuba * ^ Marc C. McLeod, "Undesirable Aliens: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism in the Comparison of Haitian and British West Indian Workers in Cuba, 1912-1939." Journal of Social History (1998): 599-614., 599 * ^ McLeod, 603 * ^ McLeod, 601 * ^ "A Lesson From Cuba
Cuba
on Race". Retrieved 1 April 2014. * ^ McLeod, 602 * ^ McLeod, 607 * ^ A B McLeod, 609 * ^ McLeod, 610 * ^ " Haiti
Haiti
in Cuba", AfroCubanWeb * ^ Haiti
Haiti
in

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