The Info List - Haitian Creole

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Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
(/ˈheɪʃən ˈkriːoʊl/; Haitian Creole: kreyòl ayisyen,[4][5] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
pronunciation: [kɣejɔl]; French: créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12 million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.[6][7] It is a creole language based largely on 18th century French with influences from Portuguese, Spanish, English, Taíno, and West African languages.[8] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
emerged from contact between French settlers and African slaves during the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
in the French colony of Saint-Domingue
(now Haiti). Haitians
are the largest creole-speaking community in the world.[9] Haitian Creole should not be confused with Haitian French, which is a variety of French spoken in Haiti. The usage and education in Haitian Creole—which is not mutually intelligible with French—has been contentious since at least the 19th century: where Haitians
saw French as a sign of colonialism, Creole was maligned by francophone elites as a miseducated or poor person’s French.[10][11] Until the late 20th century, Haitian presidents spoke only French to their fellow citizens, and until the 2000s, all instruction at Haitian elementary schools was in French, a foreign language to most of the students.[6]


1 Etymology 2 Origins

2.1 Difference between Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and French

3 History

3.1 Early development 3.2 Becoming an official language 3.3 Literature development

3.3.1 List of Haitian Creole-language writers

4 Sociolinguistics

4.1 Role in society 4.2 Use in educational system

5 Orthography

5.1 Haitian orthography debate 5.2 French-based orthography

6 Grammar

6.1 Pronouns 6.2 Plural of nouns 6.3 Possession 6.4 Indefinite article 6.5 Definite article 6.6 Demonstratives 6.7 Verbs

6.7.1 Copula 6.7.2 To have 6.7.3 There is 6.7.4 To know 6.7.5 To do 6.7.6 To be able to 6.7.7 Tense markers 6.7.8 Negation

7 Lexicon

7.1 Sample 7.2 Nèg and blan

8 Examples

8.1 Salutations

9 Proverbs and expressions

9.1 Proverbs 9.2 Expressions

10 Usage abroad

10.1 United States and Canada 10.2 Cuba 10.3 Dominican Republic 10.4 The Bahamas

11 Software 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The word creole is of Latin
origin via a Portuguese term that means "a person (especially a servant) raised in one's house".[12] It first referred to Europeans born and raised in overseas colonies, but later was used to refer to the language as well.[5] Origins[edit] Main article: Creole language
Creole language
§ Creole genesis Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
contains elements from both the Romance group of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
through its superstratum French language, as well as African languages.[13][14][15] There are many theories on the formation of the Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
language. John Singler suggests that Creole was probably formed between the time the French colony of Saint‑Domingue was founded in 1659 and 1740.[16]:53 During this period the colony moved from tobacco and cotton production to a mostly sugar-based economy, which created a favorable setting for the Creole language
Creole language
to form. At the time of tobacco and cotton production, the Haitian population was made up of colonists, the engagés (employed whites), gens de couleur and slaves in relatively balanced proportions, with roughly equal numbers of people of color and engagés. Singler estimates the economy shifted into sugar production in 1690, and radically reconfigured the early Haitian people as "the big landowners drove out the small ones, while the number of slaves exploded".[16]:53 Before this economic shift, engagés were favored over slaves as they were felt to be easier to control.[17] However, the sugar crop needed a much larger labor force, and larger numbers of slaves were brought in. As the colored slaves had decreasing contact with native French-speaking whites, the language would have begun to change.[16]:53–57 Many African slaves in French ownership were from the Niger-Congo territory and particularly from Kwa languages
Kwa languages
such as Gbe and the Central Tano languages and Bantu languages.[16]:53–57 Many were sent to French colonies. Singler suggests that the number of Bantu speakers decreased while the number of Kwa speakers increased, with Gbe being the most dominant group. The first fifty years of Saint‑Domingue's sugar boom coincided with the Gbe predominance in the French Caribbean. During the time Singler places the evolution of the language, the Gbe population was 50% of the imported slave population.[16]:53–57 In contrast to the African languages, a type of classical French (français classique) and langues d'oïl (Norman, Poitevin and Saintongeais dialects, Gallo and Picard) were spoken during the 17th and 18th centuries in Saint‑Domingue, as well as in the other French colonies of New France
New France
and French West Africa.[5][18] Slaves who seldom could communicate with fellow slaves would try to learn French. With the constant importation of slaves, the language gradually became formalized and became a distinct tongue to French. The language was also picked up by the whites and became used by all those born in what is now Haiti.[5] Difference between Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and French[edit] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and French have similar pronunciations and share many lexical items. In fact, over 90% of the Haitian Creole vocabulary is of French origin.[19] However, many cognate terms actually have different meanings. For example, as Valdman mentions in Haitian Creole: Structure, Variation, Status, Origin, the word for "frequent" in French is fréquent; however, its cognate in Haitian Creole frekan means 'insolent, rude, and impertinent' and usually refers to people.[20] In addition, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and French have different grammar, which is the main reason they are mutually unintelligible. For example, in Haitian Creole, verbs are not conjugated as they are in French.[5] Both Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and French have also experienced semantic change; words that had a single meaning in the 17th century have changed or have been replaced in both languages.[5] For example, "Ki jan ou rele?" ("What is your name?") corresponds to the French Comment vous appelez‑vous ? Although the average French speaker would not understand this phrase, every word in it is in fact of French origin: qui "what"; genre "manner"; vous "you", and héler "to call", but the verb héler has been replaced by appeler in modern French.[5] Lefebvre proposed the theory of relexification, arguing that the process of relexification (the replacement of the phonological representation of a substratum lexical item with the phonological representation of a superstratum lexical item, so that the Haitian creole lexical item looks like French, but works like the substratum language(s)) was central in the development of Haitian Creole.[citation needed] The Fon language, a modern Gbe language, is often used to compare grammatical structure between Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and to relexify it with vocabulary from French:[21]

French Fon Haitian Creole English

la maison[22] afe a kay la the house

History[edit] Early development[edit] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
developed in the 17th and 18th centuries on the western third of Hispaniola
in a setting that mixed native speakers of various Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
with French colonizers.[23] In the early 1940s under President Élie Lescot, attempts were made to standardize the language. American linguistic expert Frank Laubach and Irish Methodist missionary H. Ormonde McConnell developed a standardized Haitian Creole orthography. Although some regarded the orthography highly, it was generally not well received.[24] Its orthography was standardized in 1979. That same year Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
was elevated in status by the Act of 18 September 1979.[25] The Institut Pédagogique National established an official orthography for Creole, and slight modifications were made over the next two decades. For example, the hyphen (-) is no longer used, nor is the apostrophe.[26]:131[10]:185–192 The only accent mark retained is the grave accent in ⟨è⟩ and ⟨ò⟩.[10]:433 Becoming an official language[edit] The Constitution of 1987 upgraded Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
to a national language alongside French.[27] It classified French as the langue d'instruction or "language of instruction", and Creole was classified as an outil d'enseignement or a "tool of education". The Constitution of 1987 names both Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and French as the official languages, but recognizes Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
as the only language that all Haitians
hold in common.[28]:263[29] Literature development[edit] Even without government recognition, by the end of the 1800s, there were already literary texts written in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
such as Oswald Durand's Choucoune and Georges Sylvain's Cric? Crac!. Félix Morisseau-Leroy was another influential author of Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
work. Since the 1980s, many educators, writers, and activists have written literature in Haitian Creole. In 2001, Open Gate: An Anthology of Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
Poetry was published. It was the first time a collection of Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
poetry was published in both Haitian Creole and English.[30] On 28 October 2004, the Haitian daily Le Matin first published an entire edition in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
in observance of the country's newly instated "Creole Day".[31]:556 List of Haitian Creole-language writers[edit]

Louis-Philippe Dalembert Frankétienne Ady Jean-Gardy Josaphat-Robert Large Félix Morisseau-Leroy Lyonel Trouillot Emile Celestin-Megie

Sociolinguistics[edit] Role in society[edit] Although both French and Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
are official languages in Haiti, French is often considered the high language and Haitian Creole as the low language in the diglossic relationship of these two languages in society.[20] That is to say, for the minority of Haitian population that is bilingual, the use of these two languages largely depends on the social context: French is more used in public, especially in formal situation, whereas Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is more used in a daily basis and is often heard in ordinary conversation.[32] However, there is still a large population in Haiti
that is unilingual in Haitian Creole. For these people, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is the sole means of communication, whether under formal or informal conditions.[33] As Yves Dejean states in Diglossia
revisited: French and Creole in Haiti:

"French plays no role in the very formal situation of a Haitian peasant (more than 80% of the population make a living from agriculture) presiding at a family gathering after the death of a member, or at the worship of the family lwa or voodoo spirits, or contacting a Catholic priest for a church baptism, marriage, or solemn mass, or consulting a physician, nurse, or dentist, or going to a civil officer to declare a death or birth."[33](Dejean 192)

Use in educational system[edit] In most schools, French is still the preferred language for teaching. Generally speaking, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is more used in public schools, as that's where most children of ordinary families who often only speak Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
go to school. Historically, the education system has been French-dominant. Except the children of elites, many had to drop out of school because learning French was very challenging to them and they had a hard time to follow up[citation needed]. The Bernard Reform of 1978 tried to introduce Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
as the teaching language in the first four years of primary school; however, the reform overall was not very successful.[34] As a result, the use of Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
has grown but in a very limited way. After the earthquake in 2010, basic education became free and more accessible to the monolingual masses[citation needed]. The government is still trying to expand the use of Haitian Creole and improve the school system.[35][36] Orthography[edit]

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
has a phonemic orthography with highly regular spelling, except for proper nouns and foreign words. According to the official standardized orthography, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is composed of the following 32 symbols: ⟨a⟩, ⟨an⟩, ⟨b⟩, ⟨ch⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨è⟩, ⟨en⟩, ⟨f⟩, ⟨g⟩, ⟨h⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨j⟩, ⟨k⟩, ⟨l⟩, ⟨m⟩, ⟨n⟩, ⟨ng⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨ò⟩, ⟨on⟩, ⟨ou⟩, ⟨oun⟩, ⟨p⟩, ⟨r⟩, ⟨s⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨ui⟩, ⟨v⟩, ⟨w⟩, ⟨y⟩, and ⟨z⟩.[4]:100 The letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨u⟩ are always associated with another letter (in the multigraphs ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ou⟩, ⟨oun⟩, and ⟨ui⟩). The Haitian Creole alphabet
Haitian Creole alphabet
has no ⟨q⟩ or ⟨x⟩; when ⟨x⟩ is used in loanwords and proper nouns, it represents the sounds /ks/, /kz/, or /gz/.[10]:433


Haitian orthography IPA Examples English approximation

b b bagay bow

ch ʃ cho shoe

d d dous do

f f fig festival

g ɡ gòch gain

h h hèn hotel

j ʒ jedi measure

k k kle sky

l l liv clean

m m machin mother

n n nòt note

ng ŋ bilding feeling

p p pase spy

r ɣ rezon between go and loch

s s sis six

t t tout to

v v vyann vent

z z zero zero

Non-native consonants

dj dʒ djaz jazz


w w wi we

y j pye yes

Semivowel followed by vowel (digraph)

ui ɥi uit roughly like sweet


Haitian orthography IPA Examples English approximation

a (or à before an n)

a abako pàn


e e ale hey

è ɛ fèt festival

i i lide machine

o o zwazo roughly like law (British English)

ò ɔ deyò sort

ou u nou you

Nasal vowels

an (when not followed by a vowel) ã anpil No English equivalent; nasalized [a]

en (when not followed by a vowel) ɛ̃ mwen No English equivalent; nasalized [ɛ]

on (when not followed by a vowel) õ tonton No English equivalent; nasalized [o]

oun (when not followed by a vowel) ũ moun No English equivalent; nasalized [u]

There are no silent letters in the Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
orthography. All sounds are always spelled the same, except when a vowel carries a grave accent ⟨`⟩ before ⟨n⟩, which makes it an oral vowel instead of a nasal vowel:

⟨en⟩ for /ɛ̃/ and ⟨èn⟩ for /ɛn/; ⟨on⟩ for /ɔ̃/ and ⟨òn⟩ for /ɔn/; and ⟨an⟩ for /ã/ and ⟨àn⟩ for /an/.

When immediately followed by a vowel in a word, the digraphs denoting the nasal vowels (⟨an⟩, ⟨en⟩, ⟨on⟩, and sometimes ⟨oun⟩) are pronounced as an oral vowel followed by /n/. There is some ambiguity in the pronunciation of the high vowels of the letters ⟨i⟩ and ⟨ou⟩ when followed in spelling by ⟨n⟩.[37] Common words such as moun ("person") and machin ("car") end with consonantal /n/, while very few words, mostly adopted from African languages, contain nasalized high vowels as in houngan ("vodou priest").

Haitian orthography debate[edit] The first technical orthography for Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
was developed in 1940 by H. Ormonde McConnell. It was later revised with the help of Frank Laubach, resulting in the creation of what is known as the McConnell–Laubach orthography.[10]:434 The McConnell–Laubach orthography received substantial criticism from members of the Haitian elite. Haitian scholar Charles Pressoir critiqued the McConnell–Laubach orthography for its lack of codified front rounded vowels, which are typically used only by francophone elites.[10]:436 Another criticism was of the broad use of the letters ⟨k⟩, ⟨w⟩, and ⟨y⟩, which Pressoir argued looked "too American".[10]:431–432 This criticism of the "American look" of the orthography was shared by many educated Haitians, who also criticized its association with Protestantism.[10]:432 The last of Pressoir's criticisms was that "the use of the circumflex to mark nasalized vowels" treated nasal sounds differently from the way they are represented in French, which he feared would inhibit the learning of French.[10]:431 The creation of the orthography was essentially an articulation of the language ideologies of those involved and brought out political and social tensions between competing groups. A large portion of this tension lay in the ideology held by many that the French language
French language
is superior, which led to resentment of the language by some Haitians
and an admiration for it from others.[10]:435 This orthographical controversy boiled down to an attempt to unify a conception of Haitian national identity. Where ⟨k⟩ and ⟨w⟩ seemed too Anglo-Saxon and American imperialistic, ⟨c⟩ and ⟨ou⟩ were symbolic of French colonialism.[38]:191 French-based orthography[edit] When Haiti
was still a colony of France, edicts by the French government were often written in a French-lexicon creole and read aloud to the slave population.[39] The first written text of Haitian Creole was composed in the French-lexicon in a poem called Lisette quitté la plaine in 1757 by Duvivier de la Mahautière, a White Creole planter.[39][40] Before Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
orthography was standardized in the late 20th century, spelling varied, but was based on subjecting spoken Haitian Creole to written French, a language whose spelling has not matched its pronunciation since at least the 16th century. Unlike the phonetic orthography, French orthography of Haitian Creole is not standardized and varies according to the writer; some use exact French spelling, others adjust the spelling of certain words to represent pronunciation of the cognate in Haitian Creole, removing the silent letters. For example: Li ale travay nan maten (lit. “He goes to work in the morning”) could be transcribed as:

Li ale travay le maten, Lui aller travail le matin, or Li aller travail le matin.

Grammar[edit] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
grammar is highly analytical: for example, verbs are not inflected for tense or person, and there is no grammatical gender, which means that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun. The primary word order is subject–verb–object as it is in French and English. Many grammatical features, particularly the pluralization of nouns and indication of possession, are indicated by appending certain markers, like yo, to the main word. There has been a debate going on for some years as to whether these markers are affixes or clitics, and if punctuation such as the hyphen should be used to connect them to the word.[10]:185–192 Although the language's vocabulary has many words related to their French-language cognates, its sentence structure is like that of the West African Fon language.[21]

Haitian Creole Fon French (17th c.) English

bekann mwen bike my

keke che bike my

ma bécane my bike

my bike

bekann mwen yo bike my plural

keke che le bike my plural

mes bécanes my bikes

my bikes

Pronouns[edit] There are six pronouns: first, second, and third person, each in both singular, and plural; all are of French etymological origin.[41] There is no difference between direct and indirect objects.

Haitian Creole Fon[16]:142 French English

long form short form[26]:131[42]

mwen m nyɛ̀ je I


me me



ou[a][b] w hwɛ̀ tu you (singular), thou (archaic)




li[c] l é, éyɛ̀ il he

elle she, her

le him, it

la her, it

l' him, her, it

lui him, her, it

nou n mí nous we, us

vous[45]:94 you (plural)[d]

yo[e] y yé ils they


les them



^ sometimes the French pronoun on ("one", "[generic] you", "[singular] they") is translated to Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
as ou[43] and other times it is translated as yo[44] ^ sometimes ou is written as w and in the sample phrases below, w indicates ou ^ in the northern part of Haiti, li is often shortened to i as in Guadeloupe, Martinique
and the other Lesser Antilles ^ in southern Haiti, the second person plural is zòt ^ sometimes the French pronoun on ("one", "[generic] you", "[singular] they") is translated to Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
as yo[44] and other times it is translated as ou[43]

Plural of nouns[edit] Definite nouns are made plural when followed by the word yo; indefinite plural nouns are unmarked.

Haitian Creole French English

liv yo les livres the books

machin yo les autos the cars

fi yo mete wob les filles mettent des robes the girls put on dresses

Possession[edit] Possession is indicated by placing the possessor or possessive pronoun after the item possessed. This is similar to the French construction of chez moi or chez toi which are "my place" and "your place", respectively. In northern Haiti, a or an is placed before the possessive pronoun. Unlike in English, possession does not indicate definiteness ("my friend" as opposed to "a friend of mine"), and possessive constructions are often followed by a definite article.

Haitian Creole French English

lajan li son argent his money

her money

fanmi mwen ma famille my family

fanmi m

fanmi an m

kay yo leur maison their house

leurs maisons their houses

papa ou ton père your father

papa w

chat Pierre a le chat de Pierre Pierre's cat

chèz Marie a la chaise de Marie Marie's chair

zanmi papa Jean l'ami du père de Jean Jean's father's friend

papa vwazen zanmi nou le père du voisin de notre ami our friend's neighbor's father

Indefinite article[edit] The language has two indefinite articles, on and yon (pronounced /õ/ and /jõ/) which correspond to French un and une. Yon is derived from the French il y a un ("there is a"). Both are used only with singular nouns, and are placed before the noun:

Haitian Creole French English

on kouto un couteau a knife

yon kouto

on kravat une cravate a necktie

yon kravat

Definite article[edit] In Haitian Creole, there are five definite articles,[46]:28 and they are placed after the nouns they modify. The final syllable of the preceding word determines which is used with which nouns.[47]:20 If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by an oral vowel, it becomes la:

Haitian Creole French English

kravat la la cravate the tie

liv la le livre the book

lakay la la maison the house

If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by a nasal vowel, it becomes lan:

Haitian Creole French English

lamp lan la lampe the lamp

bank lan la banque the bank

If the last sound is an oral vowel and is preceded by an oral consonant, it becomes a:

Haitian Creole French English

kouto a le couteau the knife

peyi a le pays the country

If a word ends in "mi", "mou", "ni", "nou", or a nasal vowel, it becomes an:

Haitian Creole French English

fanmi an la famille the family

mi an le mur the wall

chyen an le chien the dog

pon an le pont the bridge

If the last sound is a nasal consonant, it becomes nan, but may also be lan:

Haitian Creole French English

machin nan la voiture the car

machin lan

telefonn nan le téléphone the telephone

telefonn lan

fanm nan la femme the woman

fanm lan

Demonstratives[edit] There is a single word sa that corresponds to English "this" and to "that" (and to French ce, ceci, cela, and ça). As in English, it may be used as a demonstrative, except that it is placed after the noun that it qualifies. It is often followed by a or yo (in order to mark number): sa a ("this here" or "that there"):

Haitian Creole French English

jaden sa bèl ce jardin est beau this garden is beautiful

that garden is beautiful

As in English, it may also be used as a pronoun, replacing a noun:

Haitian Creole French English

sa se zanmi mwen c'est mon ami this is my friend

that is my friend

sa se chyen frè mwen c'est le chien de mon frère this is my brother's dog

that is my brother's dog

Verbs[edit] Many verbs in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
are the same spoken words as the French infinitive, but there is no conjugation in the language; the verbs have one form only, and changes in tense, mood, and aspect are indicated by the use of markers:

Haitian Creole French English

li ale travay nan maten il va au travail le matin he goes to work in the morning

elle va au travail le matin she goes to work in the morning

li dòmi aswè il dort le soir he sleeps in the evening

elle dort le soir she sleeps in the evening

li li Bib la il lit la Bible he reads the Bible

elle lit la Bible she reads the Bible

mwen fè manje je fais à manger I make food

I cook

nou toujou etidye nous étudions toujours we always study

Copula[edit] Main article: Copula (linguistics)
Copula (linguistics)
§ Haitian Creole The concept expressed in English by the verb "to be" is expressed in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
by three words, se, ye, and sometimes e. The verb se (pronounced similarly to the English word "say") is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative:

Haitian Creole French English

li se frè mwen il est mon frère he is my brother

mwen se yon doktè je suis médecin I'm a doctor

je suis docteur

sa se yon pyebwa mango c'est un manguier this is a mango tree

that is a mango tree

nou se zanmi nous sommes amis we are friends

The subject sa or li can sometimes be omitted with se:[clarification needed]

Haitian Creole French English

se yon bon ide c'est une bonne idée that's a good idea

this is a good idea

se nouvo chemiz mwen c'est ma nouvelle chemise that's my new shirt

this is my new shirt

To express "I want to be", usually vin ("to become") is used instead of se.

Haitian Creole French English

li pral vin bofrè m il va devenir mon beau-frère he will be my brother-in-law he will be my stepbrother

li pral vin bofrè mwen

mwen vle vin on doktè je veux devenir docteur I want to become a doctor

sa pral vin yon pye mango ça va devenir un manguier that will become a mango tree

this will become a mango tree

nou pral vin zanmi nous allons devenir amis we will be friends

Ye also means "to be", but is placed exclusively at the end of a sentence, after the predicate and the subject (in that order):

Haitian Creole French English

mwen se Ayisyen je suis haïtien I am Haitian

Ayisyen mwen ye

Koman ou ye? lit. Comment êtes-vous? How are you?

Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
has stative verbs, which means that the verb "to be" is not overt when followed by an adjective. Therefore, malad means both "sick" and "to be sick":

Haitian Creole French English

mwen gen yon sè ki malad j'ai une sœur malade I have a sick sister

sè mwen malad ma sœur est malade my sister is sick

To have[edit] The verb "to have" is genyen, often shortened to gen.

Haitian Creole French English

mwen gen lajan nan bank lan j'ai de l'argent dans la banque I have money in the bank

There is[edit] The verb genyen (or gen) also means "there is" or "there are":

Haitian Creole French English

gen anpil Ayisyen nan Florid il y a beaucoup d'Haïtiens en Floride there are many Haitians
in Florida

gen on moun la il y a quelqu'un là there is someone here

there is someone there

pa gen moun la il n'y a personne là there is nobody here

there is nobody there

To know[edit] The Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
word for "to know" and "to know how" is konnen, which is often shortened to konn.

Haitian Creole French English

Eske ou konnen non li? Connais-tu son nom? Do you know his name?

Do you know her name?

mwen konnen kote li ye je sais où il est I know where he is

je sais où elle est I know where she is

Mwen konn fè manje Je sais comment faire à manger I know how to cook (lit. "I know how to make food")

Eske ou konn ale Ayiti? As-tu été à Haïti? Have you been to Haiti? (lit. "Do you know to go to Haiti?")

Li pa konn li franse Il ne sait pas lire le français He cannot read French (lit. "He doesn't know how to read French")

Elle ne sait pas lire le français She cannot read French (lit. "She doesn't know how to read French")

To do[edit] Fè means "do" or "make". It has a broad range of meanings, as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases.

Haitian Creole French English

Kòman ou fè pale kreyòl? Comment as-tu appris à parler Créole? How did you learn to speak Haitian Creole?

Marie konn fè mayi moulen. Marie sait faire de la farine de maïs. Marie knows how to make cornmeal.

To be able to[edit] The verb kapab (or shortened to ka, kap or kab) means "to be able to (do something)". It refers to both "capability" and "availability":

Haitian Creole French English

mwen ka ale demen je peux aller demain I can go tomorrow

petèt mwen ka fè sa demen je peux peut-être faire ça demain maybe I can do that tomorrow

nou ka ale pita nous pouvons aller plus tard we can go later

Tense markers[edit] There is no conjugation in Haitian Creole. In the present non-progressive tense, one just uses the basic verb form for stative verbs:

Haitian Creole French English

mwen pale kreyòl je parle créole I speak Creole

When the basic form of action verbs is used without any verb markers, it is generally understood as referring to the past:

Haitian Creole French English

mwen manje j'ai mangé I ate

ou manje tu as mangé you ate

li manje il a mangé he ate

elle a mangé she ate

nou manje nous avons mangé we ate

yo manje ils ont mangé they ate

elles ont mangé

Manje means both "food" and "to eat", as manger does in Canadian French[citation needed]; m'ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food". For other tenses, special "tense marker" words are placed before the verb. The basic ones are:

Tense marker Tense Annotations

te simple past from French été ("been")

t ap past progressive a combination of te and ap, "was doing"

ap present progressive with ap and a, the pronouns nearly always take the short form (m ap, l ap, n ap, y ap, etc.). From 18th century French être après, progressive form

a future some limitations on use. From French avoir à ("to have to")

pral near or definite future translates to "going to". Contraction of French pour aller ("going to")

ta conditional future a combination of te and a ("will do")

Simple past or past perfect:

Haitian Creole English

mwen te manje I ate

I had eaten

ou te manje you ate

you had eaten

li te manje he ate

she ate

he had eaten

she had eaten

nou te manje we ate

we had eaten

yo te manje they ate

they had eaten

Past progressive:

Haitian Creole English

mwen t ap manje I was eating

ou t ap manje you were eating

li t ap manje he was eating

she was eating

nou t ap manje we were eating

yo t ap manje they were eating

Present progressive:

Haitian Creole English

m ap manje I am eating

w ap manje you are eating

l ap manje he is eating

she is eating

n ap manje we are eating

y ap manje they are eating

For the present progressive, it is customary, though not necessary, to add kounye a ("right now"):

Haitian Creole English

m ap manje kounye a I am eating right now

y ap manje kounye a they are eating right now

Also, ap manje can mean "will eat" depending on the context of the sentence:

Haitian Creole English

m ap manje apre m priye I will eat after I pray

I am eating after I pray

mwen pap di sa I will not say that

I am not saying that

Near or definite future:

Haitian Creole English

mwen pral manje I am going to eat

ou pral manje you are going to eat

li pral manje he is going to eat

she is going to eat

nou pral manje we are going to eat

yo pral manje they are going to eat


Haitian Creole English

n a wè pita see you later (lit. "we will see later")

Other examples:

Haitian Creole English

mwen te wè zanmi ou yè I saw your friend yesterday

nou te pale lontan we spoke for a long time

lè l te gen uit an... when he was eight years old...

when she was eight years old...

m a travay I will work

m pral travay I'm going to work

n a li l demen we'll read it tomorrow

nou pral li l demen we are going to read it tomorrow

mwen t ap mache epi m te wè yon chen I was walking and I saw a dog

Recent past markers include fèk and sòt (both mean "just" or "just now" and are often used together):

Haitian Creole English

mwen fèk sòt antre kay la I just entered the house

A verb mood marker is ta, corresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense:

Haitian Creole English

yo ta renmen jwe they would like to play

mwen ta vini si m te gen yon machin I would come if I had a car

li ta bliye w si ou pa t la he would forget you if you weren't here

she would forget you if you weren't here

Negation[edit] The word pa comes before a verb and any tense markers to negate it:

Haitian Creole English

Rose pa vle ale Rose doesn't want to go

Rose pa t vle ale Rose didn't want to go

Lexicon[edit] See also: Haitian Creole vocabulary and Wiktionary:Appendix:Haitian Creole Swadesh list Most of the lexicon of Creole is derived from French, with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology; often the French definite article was retained as part of the noun. For example, the French definite article la in la lune ("the moon") was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: lalin. However, the language also inherited many words of different origins, among them Wolof, Fon, Kongo, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Taino and Arabic.[citation needed] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
creates and borrows new words to describe new or old concepts and realities. Examples of this are fè bak which was borrowed from English and means "to move backwards" (the original word derived from French is rekile from reculer), and also from English, napkin, which is being used as well as tòchon, from the French torchon.[citation needed] Sample[edit]

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Haitian Creole IPA Origin English

ablado[48] /ablado/ Spanish: hablado "a talker"

anasi /anasi/ Akan: ananse spider

annanna /ãnãna/ Taino: ananas pineapple

Ayiti /ajiti/ Taino: Ahatti, lit. 'mountainous land' Haiti
("mountainous land")

bagay /baɡaj/ French: bagage, lit. 'baggage' thing

bannann /bãnãn/ French: banane, lit. 'banana' banana / plantain

bekàn /bekan/ French: bécane bicycle

bokit[8] /bokit/ English: bucket

bòkò /boko/ Fon: bokono sorcerer

Bondye /bõdje/ French: bon dieu, lit. 'good God' God

chenèt /ʃenɛt/ French: quénette (French Antilles) gap between the two front teeth

chouk /ʃõk/ Fula: chuk, lit. 'to pierce, to poke' poke

dekabes /dekabes/ Spanish: dos cabezas, lit. 'two heads' two-headed win during dominos

dèyè /dɛjɛ/ French: derrière behind

diri /diɣi/ French: du riz, lit. 'some rice' rice

Etazini[49] /etazini/ French: États-Unis United States

fig /fiɡ/ French: figue, lit. 'fig' banana

je /ʒe/ French: yeux, lit. 'eyes' eye

kannistè[8] /kanniste/ English: cannister tin can

kay /kaj/ French: la cahutte, lit. 'the hut' house

kle /kle/ French: clé, lit. 'key' key, wrench

kle kola /kle kola/ French: clé, lit. 'key' bottle opener

English: cola

kònfleks /kõnfleks/ English: corn flakes breakfast cereal

kawotchou /kautʃu/ French: caoutchouc, lit. 'rubber' tire

lalin /lalin/ French: la lune, lit. 'the moon' moon

li /li/ French: lui he, she, him, her, it

makak /makak/ French: macaque monkey

manbo /mãbo/ Kongo: mambu or Fon: nanbo vodou priestess

marasa /maɣasa/ Kongo: mapassa twins

matant /matãt/ French: ma tante, lit. 'my aunt' aunt, aged woman

moun /mun/ French: monde, lit. 'world' people, person

mwen /mwɛ̃/ French: moi, lit. 'me' I, me, my, myself

nimewo /nimewo/ French: numéro, lit. 'number' number

oungan /ũɡã/ Fon: houngan vodou priest

piman /pimã/ French: piment a very hot pepper

pann /pãn/ French: pendre, lit. 'to hang' clothesline

podyab /podjab/ French: pauvre diable or Spanish: pobre diablo poor devil

pwa /pwa/ French: pois, lit. 'pea' bean

sapat[48] /sapat/ Spanish: zapato sandal

seyfing /seifiŋ/ English: surfing sea-surfing

tonton /tõtõ/ French: tonton uncle, aged man

vwazen /vwazɛ̃/ French: voisin neighbor

yo /jo/ Fon: ye they, them, their; plural marker

zonbi /zõbi/ Kongo: nzumbi soulless corpse, living dead, ghost

zwazo /zwazo/ French: les oiseaux, lit. 'the birds' bird

Nèg and blan[edit] Despite nèg and blan having similar words in French (nègre, a pejorative to refer to black people, and blanc, meaning white, or white person), the meanings they carry in French do not apply in Haitian Creole. Nèg means "person", regardless of skin color (like "guy" or "dude" in American English).[50] The word blan generally means "foreigner" or "not from Haiti". Thus, a non-black Haitian man would be called nèg, while a black person from the US could be referred to as blan.[50][51] Etymologically, the word nèg is derived from the French "nègre" and is cognate with the Spanish negro ("black", both the color and the people). There are many other Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
terms for specific tones of skin including grimo, bren, roz, and mawon. Some Haitians
consider such labels as offensive because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system, while others use the terms freely. Examples[edit] Salutations[edit]

Haitian Creole English

A demen! See you tomorrow!

A pi ta! See you later!

Adye! Good bye! (permanently)

Anchante! Nice to meet you! (lit. "enchanted!")

Bon apre-midi! Good afternoon!

Bònn nui! Good night!

Bonjou! Good day!

Good morning!

Bonswa! Good evening

Dezole! Sorry!

Eskize'm! Excuse me!

Kenbe la! Hang in there! (informal)

Ki jan ou rele? What's your name?

Ki non ou?

Ki non w?

Koman ou rele?

Mwen rele ... My name is...

Non'm se...

Ki jan ou ye? How are you?

Ki laj ou? How old are you? (lit. "What is your age?")

Ki laj ou genyen?

Kòman ou ye? How are you?

Kon si, kon sa So, so

Kontinye konsa! Keep it up!

M'ap boule I'm managing (informal; lit. "I'm burning") (common response to sa kap fèt and sak pase)

M'ap kenbe I'm hanging on (informal)

M'ap viv I'm living

Mal Bad

Men wi Of course

Mwen byen I'm well

Mwen dakò I agree

Mwen gen ... an I'm ... years old

Mwen la I'm so-so (informal; lit. "I'm here")

N a wè pita! See you later! (lit. "We will see later!")

Orevwa! Good bye (temporarily)

Pa mal Not bad

Pa pi mal Not so bad

Padon! Pardon!



Padonne m! Pardon me!

Forgive me!

Pòte w byen! Take care! (lit. "Carry yourself well!")

Sa k'ap fèt? What's going on? (informal)

What's up? (informal)

Sa'k pase? What's happening? (informal)

What's up? (informal)

Tout al byen All is well (lit. "All goes well")

Tout bagay anfòm Everything is fine (lit. "Everything is in form")

Tout pa bon All is not well (lit. "All is not good")

Proverbs and expressions[edit] See also: Wikiquote:Haitian proverbs Proverbs play a central role in traditional Haitian culture and Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
speakers make frequent use of them as well as of other metaphors.[52] Proverbs[edit]

Haitian Creole English

Men anpil, chay pa lou Strength through unity[53] (lit. "With many hands, the burden is not heavy";[54] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
equivalent of the French on the coat of arms of Haiti, which reads l'union fait la force)

Apre bal, tanbou lou There are consequences to your actions (lit. "After the dance, the drum is heavy")[55]

Sak vid pa kanpe No work gets done on an empty stomach (lit. "An empty bag does not stand up")[56]:60

Pitit tig se tig Like father like son (lit. "The son of a tiger is a tiger")

Ak pasyans w ap wè tete pis Anything is possible (lit. "With patience you will see the breast of the ant")

Bay kou bliye, pòte mak sonje The giver of the blow forgets, the carrier of the scar remembers

Mache chèche pa janm dòmi san soupe You will get what you deserve

Bèl dan pa di zanmi Not all smiles are friendly

Bèl antèman pa di paradi A beautiful funeral does not guarantee heaven

Bel fanm pa di bon menaj A beautiful wife does not guarantee a happy marriage

Dan konn mode lang People who work together sometimes hurt each other (lit. "Teeth are known to bite the tongue")

Sa k rive koukouloulou a ka rive kakalanga tou What happens to the turkey can happen to the rooster too (lit. "What happens to the dumb guy can happen to the smart one too")[56]:75

Chak jou pa Dimanch Your luck will not last forever (lit. "Not every day is Sunday")

Fanm pou yon tan, manman pou tout tan A woman is for a time, a mother is for all time[56]:93

Nèg di san fè, Bondye fè san di Man talks without doing, God does without talking[56]:31

Sa Bondye sere pou ou, lavalas pa ka pote l ale What God has saved for you, nobody can take it away

Nèg rich se milat, milat pov se nèg A rich negro is a mulatto, a poor mulatto is a negro

Pale franse pa di lespri Speaking French does not mean you are smart[56]:114

Wòch nan dlo pa konnen doulè wòch nan solèy The rock in the water does not know the pain of the rock in the sun[57]

Ravèt pa janm gen rezon devan poul Justice will always be on the side of the stronger[58] (lit. "A cockroach in front of a chicken is never correct")

Si ou bwè dlo nan vè, respèkte vè a If you drink water from a glass, respect the glass

Si travay te bon bagay, moun rich ta pran l lontan If work were a good thing, the rich would have grabbed it a long time ago

Sèl pa vante tèt li di li sale Let others praise you (Said to ridicule those who praise themselves)

Bouch granmoun santi, sak ladan l se rezon Wisdom comes from the mouth of old people (lit. "The mouth of the old stinks but what's inside is wisdom")

Tout moun se moun Everyone matters (lit. "Everybody is a person")[59]


Haitian Creole English

Se lave men, siye l atè It was useless work (lit. "Wash your hands and wipe them on the floor")

M ap di ou sa kasayòl te di bèf la Mind your own business

Li pale franse He cannot be trusted, he is full of himself (lit. "He speaks French")[60]

Kreyòl pale, kreyòl konprann Speak straightforwardly and honestly (lit. "Creole talks, Creole understands")[56]:29

Bouche nen ou pou bwè dlo santi You have to accept a bad situation (lit. "Pinch your nose to drink smelly water")[56]:55

Mache sou pinga ou, pou ou pa pile: "Si m te konnen!" "Be on your guard, so you don't have to say: 'If only I'd known!'"[56]:159

Tann jis nou tounen pwa tann To wait forever (lit. "left hanging until we became string beans" which is a word play on tann, which means both "to hang" and "to wait")

San pran souf Without taking a breath; continuously

W ap kon joj Warning or threat of punishment or reprimand (lit. "You will know George")

Dis ti piti tankou ou Dismissing or defying a threat or show of force (lit. "Ten little ones like you couldn't...")

Lè poul va fè dan Never (lit. "When hens grow teeth")[61]

Piti piti zwazo fè nich li You will learn (lit. "Little by little the bird makes its nest")[56]:110

Usage abroad[edit] United States and Canada[edit]

Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
display at a car rental counter in the Northwest Florida
Beaches International Airport (2014).

See also: Haitian Americans
Haitian Americans
and Haitian Canadians Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is used widely among Haitians
who have relocated to other countries, particularly the United States and Canada. Some of the larger Creole-speaking populations are found in Montreal, Quebec (where French is the first official language), New York City, Boston, and Central and South Florida
(Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and Palm Beach). To reach out to the large Haitian population, government agencies have produced various public service announcements, school-parent communications, and other materials in Haitian Creole. For instance, Miami-Dade County in Florida
sends out paper communications in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
in addition to English and Spanish. In the Boston
area, the Boston
subway system and area hospitals and medical offices post announcements in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
as well as English. North America's only Creole-language television network is HBN, based in Miami. The area also has more than half a dozen Creole-language AM radio
AM radio
stations.[62] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and Haitian culture are taught in many colleges in the United States and the Bahamas. York College at the City University of New York features a minor in Haitian Creole.[63] Indiana University has a Creole Institute[64] founded by Albert Valdman where Haitian Creole, among other facets of Haiti, are studied and researched. The University of Kansas, Lawrence has an Institute of Haitian studies, founded by Bryant Freeman. Additionally, the University of Massachusetts Boston, Florida
International University, and University of Florida
offer seminars and courses annually at their Haitian Creole Summer Institute. Brown University, University of Miami, and Duke University[65] also offer Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
classes, and Columbia University and NYU
have jointly offered a course since 2015.[66][67] The University of Chicago
University of Chicago
began offering Creole courses in 2010.[1] According to the 2014-2015 English Language Learner Demographic Report published by the NYC Department of Education, 3,031 English Language Learners (ELLs) in K-12 schools in New York City
New York City
speak Haitian Creole, making it the sixth most common home language of ELLs citywide and the fifth most common home language of Brooklyn ELLs.[68] Because of the large population of Haitian Creole-speaking students within NYC schools, various organizations have been established to respond to the needs of these students. For example, Flanbwayan and Gran Chimen Sant Kiltirèl, both located in Brooklyn, New York, aim to promote education and Haitian culture through advocacy, literacy projects, and cultural/artistic endeavors.[69] Cuba[edit] See also: Haitian Cubans and Languages of Cuba Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is the second most spoken language in Cuba
after Spanish,[70][71] where over 300,000 Haitian immigrants speak it. It is recognized as a minority language in Cuba
and a considerable number of Cubans speak it fluently. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti
and do not possess Haitian ancestry, but merely learned it in their communities. In addition, there is a Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
radio station operating in Havana.[71] Dominican Republic[edit] See also: Haitians
in the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
and Languages of the Dominican Republic As of 2012[update], the language was also spoken by over 450,000 Haitians
who reside in the neighboring Dominican Republic,[72] although the locals do not speak it. However, some estimates suggest that there are over a million speakers due to a huge population of undocumented immigrants from Haiti.[73] The Bahamas[edit] As of 2009, up to 80,000 Haitians
were estimated residing in the Bahamas,[74] where about 20,000 speak Haitian Creole. It is the third most‑spoken language after English and Bahamian Creole.[75] Software[edit] After the 2010 Haiti
earthquake, international aid workers desperately needed translation tools for communicating in Haitian Creole. Furthermore, international organizations had little idea whom to contact as translators. As an emergency measure, Carnegie Mellon University released data for its own research into the public domain.[76] Microsoft Research and Google Translate
Google Translate
implemented alpha version machine translators based on the Carnegie Mellon data. Several smartphone apps have been released, including learning with flashcards by Byki and two medical dictionaries, one by Educa Vision and a second by Ultralingua, the latter of which includes an audio phrase book and a section on cultural anthropology. See also[edit]

Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
edition of, the free encyclopedia

portal Languages portal

Radio Haiti-Inter Creole language Antillean Creole Louisiana Creole


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3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b Faraclas, Nicholas; Spears, Arthur K.; Barrows, Elizabeth; Piñeiro, Mayra Cortes (2012) [1st pub. 2010]. "II. Structure and Use § 4. Orthography". In Spears, Arthur K.; Joseph, Carole M. Berotte. The Haitian Creole
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Language: History, Structure, Use, and Education. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7391-7221-6. LCCN 2010015856. OCLC 838418590.  ^ a b c d e f g Valdman, Albert (2002). "Creole: The National Language of Haiti". Footsteps. 2 (4): 36–39. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015.  ^ a b DeGraff, Michel; Ruggles, Molly (1 August 2014). "A Creole Solution for Haiti's Woes". The New York Times. p. A17. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Under the 1987 Constitution, adopted after the overthrow of Jean‑Claude Duvalier’s dictatorship, [Haitian] Creole and French have been the two official languages. But at least 95 percent of the population speaks only Creole.  ^ Léonidas, Jean-Robert (1995). Prétendus Créolismes: Le Couteau dans l'Igname [So‑Called Creolisms: The Knife in the Yam] (in French). Montréal: Editions du CIDIHCA. ISBN 978-2-920862-97-5. LCCN 95207252. OCLC 34851284. OL 3160860W.  ^ a b c Bonenfant, Jacques L. (2011). "History of Haitian-Creole: From Pidgin to Lingua Franca and English Influence on the Language" (PDF). Review of Higher Education and Self-Learning. 3 (11). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2015.  ^ Nadeau, Jean-Benoît; Barlow, Julie (2008) [1st pub. 2006]. "Far from the Sun". The Story of French. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-312-34184-8. LCCN 2006049348. OCLC 219563658. There are more speakers of French-based Creoles than all other Creoles combined (including English), thanks mostly to Haiti, the biggest Creole-speaking nation in the world...  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Schieffelin, Bambi B.; Doucet, Rachelle Charlier (September 1992). "The 'Real' Haitian Creole: Ideology, Metalinguistics, and Orthographic Choice" (PDF). Journal of Pragmatics. Elsevier. 2 (3): 427–443. doi:10.1525/ae.1994.21.1.02a00090. ISSN 0378-2166. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2015.  ^ DeGraff, Michel (2003). "Against Creole exceptionalism" (PDF). Language. 79 (2): 391–410. doi:10.1353/lan.2003.0114. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2015.  ^ Harper, Douglas (ed.). "Creole". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Haitian". Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Gurevich, Naomi (2004). "Appendix A: Result Summary". Lenition and Contrast: The Functional Consequences of Certain Phonetically Conditioned Sound Changes. New York: Routledge. pp. 301–304. ISBN 978-1-135-87648-7. LCCN 2004051429. OCLC 919306666. OL 5731391W. Name: ... Haitian Creole ...; Phylum: ... Indo‑European...  ^ John, Vijay; Slocum, Jonathan (2014). "Indo‑European Languages: Italic Family". Linguistics Research Center. University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015.  ^ a b c d e f Lefebvre, Claire (2006). Creole Genesis and the Acquisition of Grammar: The Case of Haitian Creole. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02538-6. LCCN 2006280760. OCLC 71007434. OL 7714204M.  ^ Cohen, William B. (2003) [1st pub. 1980]. The French Encounter with Africans: White Response to Blacks, 1530–1880. Indiana University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-253-34922-2. LCCN 2003278283. OCLC 5410213. A larger number of engagés was also favored because authorities feared that the growing number of slaves would become increasingly hard to control.  ^ Lefebvre, Claire (2004). "The linguistic situation in Haiti
at the time Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
was formed". Issues in the Study of Pidgin and Creole Languages. Studies in language companion series. 70. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 240–241. ISBN 978-1-58811-516-4. ISSN 0165-7763. LCCN 2004041134. OCLC 54365215.  ^ Lagarde, François (2007). "5. Langues § 1. Locaters § 1.2. Immigrés". Français aux Etats-Unis (1990–2005): migration, langue, culture et économie. Transversales (in French). 20. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers. p. 137. ISBN 978-3-03911-293-7. LCCN 2008271325. OCLC 122935474. le français et le créole haïtien ... sont des langues différentes «non mutuellement intelligibles»  ^ a b Valdman, Albert (2015). Haitian Creole : structure, variation, status, origin. Equinox: Equinox. p. 14. ISBN 9781845533878.  ^ a b Lefebvre, Claire (1986). " Relexification in Creole Genesis Revisited: the Case of Haitian Creole". In Muysken, Pieter; Smith, Norval. Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis. Creole Language Library. 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 279–301. ISBN 978-90-272-5221-0. ISSN 0920-9026. LCCN 86018856. OCLC 14002046. OL 5268669W.  ^ The modern French construction la maison‑là (roughly “that there house”) instead of the standard la maison (“the house”) is only superficially and coincidentally similar to the Haitian Creole construction. ^ DeGraff, Michel (2007). "Kreyòl Ayisyen, or Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
('Creole French')". In Holm, John; Patrick, Peter L. Comparative Creole Syntax: Parallel Outlines of 18 Creole Grammars (PDF). London: Battlebridge. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-1-903292-01-3. OCLC 192098910. OL 12266293M. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 July 2015.  ^ Fontaine, Pierre-Michel (1981). "Language, Society, and Development: Dialectic of French and Creole Use in Haiti". Latin
American Perspectives. 8 (1): 28–46. doi:10.1177/0094582X8100800103. ISSN 0094-582X. JSTOR 2633128. OCLC 5724884282. (Registration required (help)).  ^ "Haïti: Loi du 18 septembre 1979" [Haiti: Act of 18 September 1979]. Chaire pour le développement de la recherche sur la culture d'expression française en Amérique du Nord (in French). Québec City: Université Laval. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. L'usage du créole, en tant que langue commune parlée par les 90 % de la population haïtienne, est permis dans les écoles comme instrument et objet d'enseignement.  ^ a b Védrine, Emmanuel W. (2007) [1st pub. 1994]. "Òtograf ofisyèl la" (PDF). Yon koudèy sou pwoblèm lekòl Ayiti [A look at the problem of schools in Haiti] (PDF) (in Haitian Creole) (2nd ed.). Boston. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-938534-28-0. LCCN 94-65943. OCLC 37611103. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 April 2015. Nou suiv sa yo rele ‘òtograf ofisyèl’ la lan tout sa li mande. Tout liv oubyen dokiman Éditions Deschamps sòti respekte òtograf sa a alalèt. Yon sèl ti eksepsyon petèt, se kesyon apostwòf nou pa anplwaye aprè de gwoup kòm ‘m ap’ (m'ap); ‘sa k ap fèt?’ (sa k'ap fèt?)....  ^ Valdman, Albert (1989). "The Use of Creole as a School Medium and Decreolization in Haiti". In Zuanelli Sonino, Elisabetta. Literacy in School and Society: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Topics in Language and Linguistics. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 59. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-0909-1. ISBN 978-1-4899-0909-1. LCCN 89-35803. OCLC 646534330. OL 9382950W. In 1979, by a presidential decree, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
was officially recognized as classroom medium and as school subject at the primary level. In the 1983 Constitution it was upgraded to the level of national language with French.  ^ Hebblethwaite, Benjamin (2012). "French and underdevelopment, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and development: Educational language policy problems and solutions in Haiti" (PDF). Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages. 27 (2): 255–302. doi:10.1075/jpcl.27.2.03heb. ISSN 0920-9034. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2015. Article 5 of the ... Constitution of 1987 ... recognizes Creole as the sole language that unites all Haitians.  ^ "La Constitution de 1987, Article 5" [Constitution of 1987, Article 5] (in French). 1987. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2015. Tous les Haïtiens sont unis par une Langue commune : le Créole.  ^ Laraque, Paul (April 2001). Open Gate: An Anthology of Haitian Creole Poetry. ISBN 978-1-880684-75-7.  ^ DeGraff, Michel (2005). "Linguists' most dangerous myth: The fallacy of Creole Exceptionalism" (PDF). Language in Society. 34 (4): 533–591. doi:10.1017/S0047404505050207. ISSN 0047-4045. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 April 2015.  ^ FÉRÉRE, GÉRARD A. (March 1977). "DIGLOSSIA IN HAITI: A COMPARISON WITH PARAGUAYAN BILINGUALISM". Caribbean Quarterly. 23: 50–69 – via JSTOR.  ^ a b Dejean, Yves (1983). " Diglossia
revisited: French and Creole in Haiti". WORD. 34:3: 189–213. doi:10.1080/00437956.1983.11435744. ISSN 0043-7956.  ^ World Education Encyclopedia: A Survey of Educational Systems Worldwide. Detroit, MI: Gale Group. 2002. ISBN 978-0028655949.  ^ Daniel, Trenton (February 6, 2013). "Haitian schools expand use of Creole language". US News. Archived from the original on 2017-07-30.  ^ Hebblethwaite, Benjamin (2012). "French and underdevelopment, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and development" (PDF). Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages. 27:2: 255–302. doi:10.1075/jpcl.27.2.03heb. ISSN 0920-9034.  ^ Cadely, Jean‑Robert (2002). "Le statut des voyelles nasales en Créole haïtien" [The Status of Nasal Vowels in Haitian Creole]. Lingua (in French). Amsterdam: Elsevier. 112 (6): 437–438. doi:10.1016/S0024-3841(01)00055-9. ISSN 0024-3841. (Subscription required (help)). L’absence d’opposition distinctive dans la distribution des voyelles hautes ainsi que le facteur combinatoire illustré ci-dessus amènent certains auteurs ... à considérer les voyelles nasales [ĩ] et [ũ] comme des variantes contextuelles de leurs correspondantes orales. Toutefois, l’occurrence dans le vocabulaire des Haïtiens de nombre de termes qui se rattachent pour la plupart à la religion vaudou contribue à affaiblir cette analyse. Par exemple, dans la liste des mots que nous présentons ... il est facile de constater que les voyelles nasales hautes n’apparaissent pas dans l’environnement de consonnes nasales: [ũɡã] ‘prêtre vaudou’ [ũsi] ‘assistante du prêtre/ de la prêtresse’ [ũfɔ] ‘sanctuaire du temple vaudou’ [hũ] ‘tambour’ [oɡũ] ‘divinité vaudou’ [ũɡɛvɛ] ‘collier au cou du prêtre vaudou’ [bũda] ‘derrière’ [pĩɡa] ‘prenez garde’ [kaʃĩbo] ‘pipe de terre’ [jũ/ũ nɛɡ] ‘un individu’  ^ Romaine, Suzanne (2002). "Signs of Identity, Signs of Discord: Glottal Goofs and the Green Grocer's Glottal in Debates on Hawaiian Orthography". Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. Wiley. 12 (2): 189–224. doi:10.1525/jlin.2002.12.2.189. ISSN 1055-1360. JSTOR 43104013. (Registration required (help)). For some opponents of the official orthography, ⟨k and ⟨w⟩⟩ are tainted with the perceived stigma of being Anglo-Saxon and smack of American imperialism. The French symbols ⟨c⟩ and ⟨ou⟩, however, are allied with colonialism.  ^ a b Ayoun, Dalila, ed. (2008). "Studies in French Applied Linguistics". John Benjamins Publishing. p. 230. ISBN 9789027289940. Retrieved 4 September 2017.  ^ Jenson, Deborah, ed. (2012). "Beyond the Slave Narrative: Politics, Sex, and Manuscripts in the Haitian Revolution". Liverpool University Press. p. 257. ISBN 9781846317606. Retrieved 4 September 2017.  ^ Saint Martin, Weston (2005). Les formes des pronoms personnels de l’haïtien et leur place en comparaison avec celles du français (PDF) (Thesis) (in French). pp. 9–11. OCLC 155834626. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 April 2016.  ^ Léger, Frenand (2011). Pawòl Lakay: Haitian-Creole Language and Culture for Beginner and Intermediate Learners. Coconut Creek, Florida: Educa Vision. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-58432-687-8. OCLC 742361935.  ^ a b Damoiseau, Robert; Jean-Paul, Gesner (2002). J'apprends le créole haïtien [I’m Learning Haitian Creole] (in French and Haitian Creole). Port-au-Prince and Paris: Faculté de Linguistique Appliquée, Université d'État d'Haïti and Éditions Karthala. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-2-84586-301-9. OCLC 50772881. OL 4553655W. Kèlkeswa kote ou' fè nan peyi a lè ou kite Pòtoprens, ou travèse zòn kote yo fè jaden... Quelle que soit la route qu''on emprunte pour sortir de Port-au-prince, on traverse des zones cultivées.  ^ a b Damoiseau, Robert; Jean-Paul, Gesner (2002). J'apprends le créole haïtien [I'm Learning Haitian Creole] (in French and Haitian Creole). Port-au-Prince and Paris: Faculté de Linguistique Appliquée, Université d'État d'Haïti and Éditions Karthala. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-2-84586-301-9. OCLC 50772881. OL 4553655W. Yo pa fè diferans ant « kawotchou » machin ak « wou » machin nan. Yo di yonn pou lòt. Gen kawotchou ki fèt pou resevwa chanm, genyen ki pa sèvi ak chanm. Yo rele kawotchou sa a tiblès... On ne fait pas de différence entre « pneu » et « roue » d'une voiture. On dit l'un pour l'autre. Il y a des pneus conçus pour recevoir une chambre à air, il y en a qui s'utilisent sans chambre à air. On appelle ce dernier type de pneus « tubeless ».  ^ DeGraff, Michel; Véronique, Daniel (2000). "À propos de la syntaxe des pronoms objets en créole haïtien : points de vue croisés de la morphologie et de la diachronie" [On the Syntax of Object Pronouns in Haitian Creole: Contrasting Perspectives of Morphology and Diachrony]. Langages. Syntaxe des langues créoles (in French). Paris. 34 (138): 89–113. doi:10.3406/lgge.2000.2373. ISSN 0458-726X. JSTOR 41683354. OCLC 196570924.  ^ Heurtelou, Maude; Vilsaint, Féquière (2004). "Atik defini ak atik endefini". Guide to Learning Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
(in English and Haitian Creole) (2nd ed.). Coconut Creek, Florida: Educa Vision. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-58432-108-8. LCCN 2007362183. OCLC 56117033.  ^ Cadely, Jean-Robert (2003). "Nasality in Haitian Creole". In Adone, Dany. Recent Development in Creole Studies. Linguistische Arbeiten. 472. Tübingen, Germany: Max Niemeyer Verlag. p. 20. doi:10.1515/9783110948318.5. ISBN 978-3-11-094831-8. ISSN 0344-6727. OCLC 5131095031.  ^ a b Gall, Timothy L.; Hobby, Jeneen, eds. (2009). "Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life: Americas". p. 265. ISBN 9781414448909. Retrieved 1 February 2017.  ^ Targète, Jean; Urciolo, Raphael G. (1993). Haitian Creole–English Dictionary (in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and English) (2nd ed.). Kensington, Maryland: Dunwoody Press. pp. i, 63, 141. ISBN 978-0-931745-75-1. LCCN 93071725. OCLC 30037768. OL 3628156W. Archived from the original on 12 November 2015 – via Yumpu. Most English words that are of the same origin as Creole words are marked with an asterisk (*).... Etazini n[oun] United States* ... ozetazini In the U.S.A.  ^ a b Katz, Jonathan M. (2013). The Big Truck That Went By: How the World Came to Save Haiti
and Left Behind a Disaster. St. Martin's Press. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1-137-32395-8. LCCN 2012037217. OCLC 886583605. OL 16813109W.  ^ "Vignettes from Jakzi" (PDF). Haiti
Marycare News. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2015.  ^ Rahill, Guitele; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Thomlison, Barbara; Pinto-Lopez, Elsa (2011). "Metaphors as Contextual Evidence for Engaging Haitian Clients in Practice: A Case Study" (PDF). American Journal of Psychotherapy. Association for the Advancement of Psychotherapy. 65 (2): 138–139. ISSN 0002-9564. PMID 21847891. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 October 2015. The importance of metaphors in Haitian storytelling is reflected in the value ascribed to proverbs as an important aspect of teaching and reinforcing practical wisdom and values to children and community members. The existence of two separate texts in which 999 to more than 3000 Haitian proverbs are documented serve as evidence of the importance of these proverbs and their centrality in traditional Haitian culture...  ^ "Civic Heraldry of Haiti". Heraldry of the World. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2015.  ^ McAlister, Elizabeth A. (2002). "6. Voices under Domination: Rara and the Politics of Insecurity". Rara!: Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti
and Its Diaspora. University of California Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-520-22822-1. LCCN 2001005016. OCLC 5559545903. OL 7711139M. Aristide took ownership of the pwen and replied with another: 'Men anpil chay pa lou' ("With many hands, the burden is not heavy").  ^ Cynn, Christine (2008). "Nou Mande Jistis! (We Demand Justice!): Reconstituting Community and Victimhood in Raboteau, Haiti". Women's Studies Quarterly. New York: The Feminist Press. 36 (½): 53. doi:10.1353/wsq.0.0071. ISSN 1934-1520. JSTOR 27649734. OCLC 5547107092. (Registration required (help)). After Aristide announced his unexpected candidacy in the 1990 presidential elections, the American ambassador to Haiti, Alvin Adams, in a speech assured Haitians
that the United States would support whichever candidate was elected but concluded his remarks with a proverb (or pwen) emphasizing the problems that would remain after the elections: ‘After the dance, the drum is heavy [Apre bal, tanbou lou]’....  ^ a b c d e f g h i Freeman, Bryant C. (1997). Haitian–English Medical Phraseology (PDF). Medicine in Haiti
(in English and Haitian Creole). 1. Lawrence, Kansas: Institute of Haitian Studies, University of Kansas. OCLC 38740045. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2015.  ^ Rosenthal, Kent (11 July 2006). "Undeclared War on Haiti's Poor". Eureka Street. Richmond, Victoria, Australia. 16 (8). ISSN 1036-1758. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. The rock in the sun cannot get ahead like the rock in the water. Whether you’re the rock suffering in the sun or whether you’re cooling off in the water depends on where you were born, what passport you hold, what education you have, whether you speak French, whether your parents are peasants or well-off, whether your parents are married or if you have a birth certificate. Chance can deal a very cruel or kind hand in Haiti.  ^ Joint, Gasner (1999). "Impact social du vaudou". Libération du vaudou dans la dynamique d’inculturation en Haïti [The Liberation of Vodou in the Dynamic of Inculturation in Haiti]. Interreligious and Intercultural Investigations (in French). 2. Rome: Gregorian & Biblical Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-88-7652-824-8. LCCN 2001421254. OCLC 51448466. Cette situation d’injustice institutionalisée est dénoncée par la philosophie populaire dans les adages courants comme : ... « Ravèt pa janm gen rezon devan poul » ... « Un cafard ne saurait l’emporter sur un poulet ». Expression populaire et imagée de la loi de la jungle: « la raison du plus fort est toujours la meilleure ».  ^ Joseph, Celucien L. (2014). "Toward a Politico-Theology of Relationalit: Justice as Solidarity and the Poor in Aristide's Theological Imagination". Toronto Journal of Theology. Toronto School of Theology. 30 (2): 270. doi:10.3138/tjt.2105. ISSN 0826-9831. [Peter] Hallward has wrongly misconstrued [Jean-Bertrand] Aristide’s affirmative and egalitarian principle tout moun se moun (‘Everybody is a person’)—the idea that everyone matters and that ‘everyone is endowed with the same essential dignity.’  ^ Faedi Duramy, Benedetta (2008). "The Double Weakness of Girls: Discrimination and Sexual Violence in Haiti". Stanford Journal of International Law. 44: 150. Li pale franse (He speaks French (so he is likely deceiving you).)  ^ Targète, Jean; Urciolo, Raphael G. (1993). Haitian Creole–English Dictionary (in Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and English) (2nd ed.). Kensington, Maryland: Dunwoody Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-931745-75-6. LCCN 93071725. OCLC 30037768. OL 3628156W. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015 – via Yumpu. Lè poul va fè dan: Never (when hens grow teeth).  ^ Moise, Raymond (30 October 2015). "Haitian Radio Stations". Bonpounou. Archived from the original on 9 August 2015.  ^ "Creole (Minor)". Jamaica, New York: York College. 2014. Archived from the original on 30 August 2015.  ^ " Indiana University
Indiana University
Creole Institute".  ^ "Schedule of Classes, Fall 2015" (PDF). Durham, North Carolina: Duke University. 2015. p. 40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.  ^ "Elementary Haitian Kreyol". Directory of Classes. New York: Columbia University. 2015. Archived from the original on 30 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015. This course is part of the language exchange program with New York University...  ^ "Institute of Latin
American Studies: CU– NYU
Consortium Courses: Spring 2016" (PDF). New York: Columbia University. 4 November 2015. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 January 2016.  ^ "English Language Learner Demographics Report: 2014-2015 School Year" (PDF). New York City
New York City
Department of Education. Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ Cerat, Marie Lily (2011). "Myths and Realities: A History of Haitian Creole Language Programs in New York City". Journal of Haitian Studies. 17: 73–91.  ^ Press, ed. (16 March 2016). "Haitian and Creole Culture in Cuba". Cuba
Journal. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b " Haiti
in Cuba". AfroCubaWeb. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015.  ^ "Primera Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes en la República Dominicana" [First National Survey of Immigrants in the Dominican Republic] (PDF) (in Spanish). Santo Domingo: Oficina Nacional de Estadística. 2012. p. 163. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 June 2015.  ^ "Illegal Haitians
deported". DR1. 16 August 2005. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.  ^ Davis, Nick (20 September 2009). "Bahamas outlook clouds for Haitians". London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 May 2015.  ^ Ethnologue - Bahamas (18th ed.) ^ "Carnegie Mellon releases data on Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
to hasten development of translation tools". e! Science News. 27 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Anglade, Pierre (1998). "Inventaire Étymologique des Termes Créoles des Caraibes d'origine Africaine". Editions L'Harmattan. ISBN 9782296352582.  (in French) DeGraff, Michel (2001). "Morphology in Creole genesis: Linguistics and ideology" (PDF). In Kenstowicz, Michael. Ken Hale: A life in language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 52–121. ISBN 978-0-262-61160-2. LCCN 00-061644. OCLC 44702224. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2015.  Lang, George (2004). "A Primer of Haitian Literature in Kreyòl ". Research in African Literatures. Indiana University
Indiana University
Press. 35 (2): 128–140. doi:10.1353/ral.2004.0046. ISSN 1527-2044. JSTOR 3821349. (Registration required (help)). 

External links[edit]

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Creole Institute".  Haitian Creole
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