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HAINANESE ( Hainan Romanised : _Hái-nâm-oe_, simplified Chinese : 海南话; traditional Chinese : 海南話; pinyin : _Hǎinán huà_), also known as QIóNG WéN (simplified Chinese : 琼文; traditional Chinese : 瓊文) or QIóNG Yǔ (瓊語/琼语), is a group of Min Chinese varieties spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan . In the classification of Yuan Jiahua , it was included in the Southern Min group, though is mutually unintelligible with Southern Min varieties such as Teochew and Hokkien –Taiwanese . In the classification of Li Rong , used by the _ Language Atlas of China _, it was treated as a separate Min subgroup. It is sometimes combined with Leizhou Min , spoken on the neighboring mainland Leizhou Peninsula , in a Qiong–Lei group. "Hainanese" is also used for the language of the Li people living in Hainan, but generally refers to Min varieties spoken in Hainan.

CONTENTS

* 1 Phonology * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links

PHONOLOGY

Hainanese has a simple vowel system.

FRONT BACK

CLOSE /i/ /u/

CLOSE-MID /e/ /o/

OPEN-MID /ɛ/ /ɔ/

OPEN

/a/

Hainanese notably has a series of implosive consonants , which it acquired through contact with surrounding languages, probably Hlai .

LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLO-PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

PLOSIVE VOICELESS /p/ /t/

/k/ (/ʔ/)

VOICED /IMPLOSIVE /ɓ/ /ɗ/

(/ɠ/)

AFFRICATE

/c/

FRICATIVE VOICELESS /f/ /s/ /x/ /h/

VOICED /v/ /ʑ/

/ɦ/

NASAL /m/ /n/

/ŋ/

APPROXIMANT (/w/) /l/ (/j/)

The phonological system of Hainanese corresponds well with that of Hokkien, but it has had some restructuring. In particular, etymological *anterior plain stops have undergone implosivization (*p > , *t > , etymological *aspirated stops have spirantized (*pʰ > , *tʰ > , *cʰ > *kʰ > ), and etymological *s have hardened into stops (*s > ), and *h > . Additionally, some dialects have , and is allophonic with /j/.

REFERENCES

* ^ Hou Jingyi . 2002. _An Introduction to Modern Chinese Dialects_ , Shanghai Educational Press , pp. 207–208 * ^ _A_ _B_ Hou Jingyi . 2002. _An Introduction to Modern Chinese Dialects_ , Shanghai Educational Press , p. 238 * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hainanese". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hainan". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). _Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of M