HAINANESE ( Hainan Romanised : _Hái-nâm-oe_, simplified Chinese : 海南话; traditional Chinese : 海南話; pinyin : _Hǎinán huà_), also known as QIóNG WéN (simplified Chinese : 琼文; traditional Chinese : 瓊文) or QIóNG Yǔ (瓊語/琼语), is a group of Min Chinese varieties spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan . In the classification of Yuan Jiahua , it was included in the Southern Min group, though is mutually unintelligible with Southern Min varieties such as Teochew and Hokkien –Taiwanese . In the classification of Li Rong , used by the _ Language Atlas of China _, it was treated as a separate Min subgroup. It is sometimes combined with Leizhou Min , spoken on the neighboring mainland Leizhou Peninsula , in a Qiong–Lei group. "Hainanese" is also used for the language of the Li people living in Hainan, but generally refers to Min varieties spoken in Hainan.
* 1 Phonology * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links
Hainanese has a simple vowel system.
CLOSE /i/ /u/
CLOSE-MID /e/ /o/
OPEN-MID /ɛ/ /ɔ/
Hainanese notably has a series of implosive consonants , which it acquired through contact with surrounding languages, probably Hlai .
LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLO-PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL
PLOSIVE VOICELESS /p/ /t/
VOICED /IMPLOSIVE /ɓ/ /ɗ/
FRICATIVE VOICELESS /f/ /s/ /x/ /h/
VOICED /v/ /ʑ/
NASAL /m/ /n/
APPROXIMANT (/w/) /l/ (/j/)
The phonological system of Hainanese corresponds well with that of Hokkien, but it has had some restructuring. In particular, etymological *anterior plain stops have undergone implosivization (*p > , *t > , etymological *aspirated stops have spirantized (*pʰ > , *tʰ > , *cʰ > *kʰ > ), and etymological *s have hardened into stops (*s > ), and *h > . Additionally, some dialects have , and is allophonic with /j/.
* ^ Hou Jingyi . 2002. _An Introduction to Modern Chinese Dialects_ , Shanghai Educational Press , pp. 207–208 * ^ _A_ _B_ Hou Jingyi . 2002. _An Introduction to Modern Chinese Dialects_ , Shanghai Educational Press , p. 238 * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hainanese". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hainan". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). _Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects"_. Walter de Gruyter . pp. 54–55, 86. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2 .
* Chang, Kuang-yu (1986). _Comparative Min phonology_ (PhD thesis). University of California, Berkeley. * Chen, Hongmai (1996). _Hǎikǒu fāngyán cídiǎn_ 海口方言詞典 . _GREAT DICTIONARY OF MODERN CHINESE DIALECTS _. 16. Nanjing: Jiangsu Education Press. ISBN 978-7-5343-2886-2 . * Huang, Karen. "Contact-induced changes in the languages of Hainan". _Annual Student Conference of the College of Languages, Linguistics, and Literature_. University of Hawaii. * Kwok, Bit-chee (2006). "The role of language strata in language evolution: three Hainan Min dialects". _Journal of Chinese Linguistics_. 34 (2): 201–291. JSTOR 23754124 . * Norman, Jerry Lee (1969). _The Kienyang Dialect of Fukien_ (PhD thesis). University of California, Berkeley. includes a description of the phonology of the Ding\'an dialect. * Solnit, David B. (1982). "Linguistic Contact in Ancient South China: The Case of Hainan Chinese, Be, and Vietnamese". _Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society_. 8: 219–230. doi :10.3765/bls.v8i0.2041 . * Woon, Wee-Lee (1979a). "A synchronic phonology of Hainan dialect: Part I". _Journal of Chinese Linguistics_. 7 (1): 65–100. JSTOR 23753034 . describes Wenchang dialect . * Woon, Wee-Lee (1979b). "A synchronic phonology of Hainan dialect: Part II". _Journal of Chinese Linguistics_. 7 (2): 268–302. JSTOR 23752923 . * Yan, Margaret Mian (2006). _Introduction to Chinese Dialectology_. LINCOM Europa. ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6 .
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