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Hainan
Hainan
is the smallest and southernmost province of China, consisting of various islands in the South China
China
Sea. Hainan
Hainan
Island, separated from Guangdong's Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
by the Qiongzhou Strait, is the largest island under PRC control (Taiwan, which is slightly larger, is also claimed but not controlled by the PRC) and makes up the majority of the province. The province has an area of 33,920 square kilometers (13,100 sq mi), with Hainan
Hainan
Island making up 32,900 square kilometers (12,700 sq mi) (97%) and the rest divided among 200 islands scattered across three archipelagos. It was administered as part of Guangdong
Guangdong
until 1988, when it became a separate province; around the same time, it was made the largest Special
Special
Economic Zone established by Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
as part of the Opening Up of China. There are a total of ten major cities and ten counties in Hainan
Hainan
Province. Haikou
Haikou
on the northern coast of Hainan
Hainan
Island is the capital while Sanya
Sanya
is a well-known tourist destination on the southern coast. The other major cities are Wenchang, Qionghai, Wanning, Wuzhishan, Dongfang, and Danzhou. According to China's territorial claims several territories in the South China
China
Sea, including the Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
(Nansha) and Paracel Islands (Xisha),[4] are notionally administered as part of the province.

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Prehistoric Era 2.2 Imperial Era 2.3 Republic of China
China
rule 2.4 People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
rule

3 Geography

3.1 Rivers and lakes 3.2 Islands

3.2.1 Nearby islands 3.2.2 Disputed islands

3.3 Environment

3.3.1 Province-wide infrastructure improvements

3.4 Climate

3.4.1 Annual fog

4 Flora and fauna

4.1 Flora 4.2 Fauna

5 Demographics

5.1 Religion 5.2 Languages

6 Government

6.1 Politics 6.2 Intelligence 6.3 Administrative 6.4 Subdivisions 6.5 Military

7 Economy

7.1 Economic and technological development zones 7.2 Duty-free
Duty-free
program 7.3 Natural resources 7.4 Agriculture 7.5 Fisheries 7.6 Real estate market 7.7 Golf industry 7.8 Medical tourism 7.9 Automotive industry

8 Transportation

8.1 Road 8.2 Air 8.3 Rail 8.4 Seaports

9 Education 10 Culture 11 Media 12 Cuisine 13 Tourism

13.1 Statistics 13.2 Historical sites 13.3 Other attractions and destinations

13.3.1 Yachting

14 Events 15 Miscellaneous topics

15.1 Space centre

16 Notable residents 17 International partnership 18 See also 19 References 20 Further reading 21 External links

Names[edit] The provincial name derives from its major island, Hainan, in Hainanese
Hainanese
"Hai Nam", which is named for its position south of the Qiongzhou Strait
Qiongzhou Strait
/ Kheng Ju Haihiap. (To the north of the strait, the Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
/ Lui Ju Buadau in Guangdong
Guangdong
is also known as Haibei/Hai Bac or "North of the Sea".) Former names for Hainan
Hainan
Island include Zhuya, Qiongya, and Qiongzhou. The later two gave rise to the provincial abbreviation 瓊 or 琼 (Qióng/Kheng). History[edit] Prehistoric Era[edit] Hainan
Hainan
island was originally attached to the Northeastern part of what is now Vietnam; however, the island was formed after it physically broke away from Vietnam
Vietnam
due to volcano eruption and drifted southeast near China
China
after the Mesozoic period, millions of years ago.[5] Imperial Era[edit] Hainan
Hainan
Island first entered written history in 110 BC, when the Han dynasty of China
China
established a military garrison there following the arrival of General Lu Bode. In 46 BC the Han court decided that the conquest was too expensive and abandoned the island. Around that time, Han Chinese
Han Chinese
people together with military personnel and officials began to migrate to Hainan
Hainan
Island from the mainland. Among them were the offspring of those who were banished to Hainan
Hainan
for political reasons. Most of them arrived in Hainan
Hainan
Island from the southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Fujian
Fujian
and Guangxi. Li people are the original inhabitants of Hainan. They are believed to be the descendants of the ancient tribes from the mainland, who settled on the island between 7 and 27 thousand years ago.[6] The Li people mainly reside in the nine cities and counties in the middle and southern part of Hainan
Hainan
– the cities of Sanya, Wuzhishan and Dongfang, the Li autonomous counties of Baisha, Lingshui, Ledong, Changjiang, and the 'Li and Miao Autonomous Counties of Qiongzhong and Baoting'. Some others live elsewhere on Hainan
Hainan
with other ethnic groups in Danzhou, Wanning, Qionghai, Lingshui and Tunchang. The area inhabited by the Li ethnic group totals 18,700 square kilometers (7,200 sq mi), about 55 percent of the province's total.[7]

Haikou, the capital of the province as seen looking south from Evergreen Park, a large park located on the north shore of the city

During the Three Kingdoms Period
Three Kingdoms Period
(184−280), Hainan
Hainan
was the Zhuya Commandery (珠崖郡) under the control of Eastern Wu. At the time of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(980−1279), Hainan
Hainan
became part of Guangxi, and for the first time large numbers of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
arrived, settling mostly in the north. Under the Mongol Empire (1206–1368) the island became an independent province then in 1370 was placed under the administration of Guangdong
Guangdong
by the ruling Ming dynasty. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, large numbers of Han people from Fujian
Fujian
and Guangdong
Guangdong
began migrating to Hainan, pushing the Li into the highlands in the southern half of the island. In the eighteenth century, the Li rebelled against the Qing Empire, which responded by bringing in mercenaries from the Miao regions of Guizhou. Many of the Miao settled on the island and their descendants live in the western highlands to this day. During the 17th and 18th centuries, explorers referred to the island as "Aynam",[8][9] which remains the pronunciation of its name in the local Hainanese
Hainanese
dialect. In 1906, the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
proposed that Hainan should become a separate province although this did not happen until 1988. Republic of China
China
rule[edit] Hainan
Hainan
was historically part of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi
Guangxi
Provinces and as such was the Qiongya Circuit (瓊崖道) under the 1912 establishment of the Republic of China. In 1921, it was planned to become a special administrative region (瓊崖特別行政區); in 1944, it became Hainan
Hainan
Special
Special
Administrative Region with 16 counties containing the South China
China
Sea Islands.

Hainanese
Hainanese
residents in the countryside

During the 1920s and 30s, Hainan
Hainan
was a hotbed of Communist activity, especially after a bloody crackdown in Shanghai, the Republic of China in 1927 drove many Communists
Communists
into hiding. The Communists
Communists
and the Li natives fought a vigorous guerrilla campaign against the Japanese occupation of Hainan
Hainan
(1939–45), but in retaliation the Japanese launched numerous massacres against Li villages. Feng Baiju
Feng Baiju
led the Hainan
Hainan
Independent Column of fighters throughout the 1930s and 1940s. After the Japanese surrender in 1945 the Nationalist Party (KMT) re-established control. Hainan
Hainan
was one of the last areas of China controlled by the Republic of China
China
during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
when it lost the mainland from 1946-49. People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
rule[edit] From March to May 1950, the Landing Operation on Hainan
Hainan
Island captured the island for the Chinese communists. Hainan
Hainan
had been left to the command of Xue Yue
Xue Yue
after Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
fled to Taiwan. Feng Baiju and his column of guerrilla fighters played an essential role in scouting for the landing operation and coordinated their own offensive from their jungle bases on the island. This allowed the Hainan takeover to be successful where the Jinmen and Dengbu assaults had failed in the previous fall. The takeover was made possible by the presence of a local guerrilla force that was lacking also on Taiwan. Hence, while many observers of the Chinese civil war thought that the fall of Hainan
Hainan
Island to the Communists
Communists
would be followed shortly by the fall of Taiwan
Taiwan
Island, the lack of any communist guerrilla force on Taiwan
Taiwan
Island and its sheer distance from the mainland made this impossible, as did the arrival of the US 7th fleet in the Taiwan Strait after the outbreak of the Korean War
Korean War
in June.

The capital city of Haikou, although highly populated relative to many other international cities, is geographically quite small, with almost no urban sprawl. Much of the city limits end abruptly with forest or farm land.

On 1 May 1950, under the PRC, the Special
Special
Administrative Region became an Administrative Region Office (海南行政区公署), a branch of the Guangdong
Guangdong
provincial government. The Communists
Communists
resumed development of the island along the lines established by the Japanese, but the results were limited by the island's isolation, its humid and typhoon-prone climate, and its continuing reputation as a place of danger and exile by mainland Chinese. With China's shift in economic policy at the end of the 1970s, Hainan
Hainan
became a focus of attention. During the mid-1980s, when Hainan
Hainan
Island was still part of Guangdong Province, a fourteen-month episode of marketing zeal by Hainan
Hainan
Special District Administrator Lei Yu[10] put Hainan's pursuit of provincial status under a cloud. It involved the duty-free imports from Hong Kong of 90,000 Japanese-made cars and trucks at a cost of ¥ 4.5 billion (US$1.5 billion), and exporting them – with the help of local naval units – to the mainland, making 150% profits. By comparison, only 10,000 vehicles were imported into Hainan
Hainan
since 1950. In addition, it involved further consignments of 2.9 million TV sets, 252,000 videocassette recorders & 122,000 motorcycles. The money was taken from the 1983 central government funds destined for the construction of the island's transportation infrastructure (roads, railways, airports, harbours) over the next ten years.[citation needed] On October 1, 1984, it became the Hainan
Hainan
Administrative Region (海南行政区), with a People's Government, and finally as province separate from Guangdong
Guangdong
four years later. In 1988, when the island was made a separate province, it was designated a Special
Special
Economic Zone in an effort to increase investment. The central government funds were deemed insufficient by the Hainan authorities for the construction of the island's other infrastructures (water works, power stations, telecommunications, etc.) and had taken a very liberal interpretation of the economic and trade regulations for Hainan
Hainan
and thirteen coastal cities; the regulations did not mention on prohibiting the re-selling of second-hand goods. Some of the proceeds, from unsold units, were later retrieved by the central government to re-finance the special district. Geography[edit]

Topographical map

Hainan, separated by the Qiongzhou Strait
Qiongzhou Strait
from the Leizhou Peninsula of Guangdong, is the largest island administered by the People's Republic of China. The area of Hainan
Hainan
Island (32,900 km2 (12,700 sq mi), 97% of the province) is similar to that of Belgium. To the west of Hainan
Hainan
Island is the Gulf of Tonkin. Wuzhi Mountain is the highest mountain on the island at 1,840 m (6,040 ft). Hainan
Hainan
Island measures 155 km (96 mi) long and 169 km (105 mi) wide. The northern half of Hainan
Hainan
is covered with the ancient Hainan Volcanic Field. Beneath the topsoil is volcanic rock while the topsoil itself contains small pieces of this vesicular rock. Wetland covers 320,000 hectares, 78,000 hectares of which were created artificially. Most of this is located in the eastern and northern part of Hainan.[11] Rivers and lakes[edit] Most of the rivers in Hainan
Hainan
originate in the central area of the island and flow radially in different directions. The Wanning
Wanning
River in the southern part of the island is the largest river surrounding Hainan. It is 350 km (220 mi) long. The Nandu River
Nandu River
in the northern part of the island is 314 km (195 mi) long, and its tributary, the Xinwu River, is 109 km (68 mi) long. The Changhua River in the west is 230 km (140 mi) long, and the Wanquan River
Wanquan River
in the east is 162 km (101 mi) long. Evaporation during the dry season around the coastal areas greatly reduces the flow of the rivers. There are very few natural lakes in Hainan. There is a well-known artificial reservoir, the Songtao Reservoir, in the central-north area. Islands[edit] Further information: Islands of Hainan Nearby islands[edit] Several small islands exist around the coast of Hainan
Hainan
Island:

Dazhou Island
Dazhou Island
is located about 5 km (3.1 mi) off the coast of Wanning Haidian Island, on the north coast, is part of Haikou
Haikou
City Nanwan Monkey Island, in actuality a peninsula Phoenix Island
Phoenix Island
is an artificial resort island currently under construction in Sanya
Sanya
Bay. Wuzhizhou Island
Wuzhizhou Island
is located within Haitang Bay Xinbu Island
Xinbu Island
is located directly to the east of Haidian Island

Due to their close proximity to the main island, the flora, fauna, and climate conditions are very similar. Disputed islands[edit] See also: South China
China
Sea Islands

Maritime claims of South China
China
Sea

A number of small islands, which are located hundreds of kilometers to the south, are claimed and administrated by Sansha
Sansha
as part of Hainan Province.[12] Sovereignty of these islands is however disputed. These islands include:

Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
Xisha Islands – "The West-sands" – claimed by Vietnam, the PRC and the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan, ROC)

Money Island, Paracel Islands Rocky Island, South China
China
Sea Tree Island, South China
China
Sea Triton Island Woody Island, South China
China
Sea

Zhongsha Islands
Zhongsha Islands
– "The Middle-sands" Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
– Nansha Islands – "The South-sands" are subject to claims by Vietnam, the PRC, ROC, Malaysia, The Philippines, and Brunei.

Spratly Island Flat Island (Spratly) Taiping Island James Shoal
James Shoal
(southernmost point) Loaita Island Namyit Island Nanshan Island Sin Cowe Island Thitu Island West York Island

Environment[edit] Compared to most of mainland China, the air quality of Hainan
Hainan
is far higher since it strays away from factory pollution, which has plagued the air on the mainland. Throughout 2012, Hainan
Hainan
had the highest air quality in the country for 351 days.[13] The provincial government's environmental protection campaign has taken action against a number of industrial plants. During 2012, several outdated manufacturing facilities had their business licenses revoked, and 175 cases related to illegal sewage discharge were handled.[13] Total sulfur dioxide emissions for the province were 34,000 tons in 2012, a 3 percent year-on-year reduction. In 2011, smog emissions were reduced 6.3 percent to 15,000 tons.[13] Province-wide infrastructure improvements[edit]

2012

2016

A typical example of a town's improvement. The above images show the same place in Guilinyang
Guilinyang
roughly four and a half years apart.

From 2015 to the present, a widespread program to improve cities and other settlements has been taking place. It includes the removal of litter from towns, villages, and many roadsides. Small, illegal dumps are being removed. Large, plastic dumpsters have been put in place within villages and at countryside road intersections. Towns are being improved with new road and sidewalk surfaces, landscaping features are being created, and many buildings are receiving new façades. This initiative in Haikou
Haikou
has seen entire neighbourhoods demolished and rebuilt, sanitation improved, illegal structures used for business removed, roadside vendors banned, roads and sidewalks replaced, and new street crossings with traffic lights installed. Climate[edit] The climate of Hainan
Hainan
varies from subtropical to fully tropical. Northern Hainan, including the island's capital Haikou, has a humid subtropical climate, while most of the rest of the island has a tropical monsoon climate with warmer annual temperatures the further south a location is. The coldest months are January and February when temperatures drop to 16 to 21 °C (61 to 70 °F); the hottest months are July and August, and the temperatures are 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F). Except for the mountainous regions in the central part of the island, the daily average temperature in Hainan
Hainan
in all months is well above 10 °C (50 °F), and the total number of growing degree-days reaches eight thousand to nine thousand degrees Celsius.[citation needed] The summer in the north is hot and, for more than 20 days in a year, the temperature can be higher than 35 °C (95 °F)[citation needed]. The average annual precipitation is 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (59 to 79 in) and can be as high as 2,400 millimetres (94 in) in central and eastern areas, and as low as 900 millimetres (35 in) in the coastal areas of the southwest. Parts of Hainan
Hainan
lie in the path of typhoons, and 70% of the annual precipitation is derived from typhoons and the summer rainy season. Major flooding occurs due to typhoons, which can cause many problems for local residents. Annual fog[edit] From January to February, the island of Hainan
Hainan
is affected by thick fog, particularly in coastal areas and the northern part of the island. This is caused by cold winter air from the north coming into contact with the warmer sea, causing the moisture that evaporates from the sea to be condensed into fog. The fog remains from day to night, and is evenly distributed. Visibility may be reduced to 50 metres for days at a time. During this period, residents normally keep windows shut. The moisture in the air is so extreme that the walls in homes weep, and floors often accumulate a layer of water several millimetres deep.[citation needed] Flora and fauna[edit]

This view in Wanning
Wanning
near the southeast coast is typical of the inland countryside.

Hainan
Hainan
has over 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi) of tropical forest, in which live 4,600 kinds of plants and more than 570 species of animals.[citation needed] However, due to an invasion of exotic species, human impact from tourism, deforestation, and the release of pollutants, many species are under threat. A report from the Department of Land, Environment and Resources of Hainan
Hainan
Province states that 200 species are near extinction, with 6 species, such as Maytenus hainanensis and Sciaphila tenella already extinct.[14] Flora[edit] The majority of Hainan's land mass is forest with 61.5 percent coverage (210,000 hectares) reported at the end of 2012. This is an increase of 34,133 hectares since 2011. A further 1,187 hectares grass and trees were planted along the province's highways.[13]

Hainan
Hainan
yellow lantern chili

There are 53 genera in 29 families of wild and cultivated fruit growing on Hainan
Hainan
Island.[15] There are few large trees on the island; coconut palms are very common along with other smaller trees. Most of Hainan
Hainan
Island is however covered by forest.

Hainan yellow lantern chili
Hainan yellow lantern chili
is a pepper similar to the scotch bonnet. Hainan
Hainan
white pine, a species of tree. Cephalotaxus hainanensis
Cephalotaxus hainanensis
is a species of plum-yew.

Fauna[edit] There are numerous protected areas and wildlife preserves on the island. Animals that are ubiquitous throughout the island include frogs, toads, geckos, skinks, and butterflies. Present, but less commonly observed, are snakes (Asian palm pit vipers, red bamboo snake, and occasionally cobras), Siberian chipmunks, squirrels, and the masked palm civet. Almost no large animals remain in the wild. The lakes are largely populated with carp and catfish. There are 362 known bird species.[14] Seabirds such as gulls are not generally seen. Egrets are common in agricultural areas. Similar to many subtropical areas, insect species are diverse, and mosquitoes are very common.

Hainan gymnure
Hainan gymnure
(Neohylomys hainanensis or Hainan
Hainan
moonrat) is a small mammal. Hainan partridge
Hainan partridge
(Arborophila ardens) is a species of bird endemic to Hainan
Hainan
Island. Hainan peacock-pheasant
Hainan peacock-pheasant
(Polyplectron katsumatae) is an endangered species belonging to the Phasianidae
Phasianidae
family. Hainan black crested gibbon
Hainan black crested gibbon
(Nomascus hainanus) is one of the world's most endangered primates. Seacology, a non-profit organization in Berkeley, California, United States, initiated a project to protect the highly endangered Hainan
Hainan
gibbon in exchange for scholarships for the children of four villages near Hainan
Hainan
Bawangling National Nature Reserve. Hainan hare
Hainan hare
(Lepus hainanus) is a species of hare endemic to Hainan. A subspecies of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis alleni) is endemic to Hainan. Hainan leaf-warbler
Hainan leaf-warbler
(Phylloscopus hainanus) is an Old World warbler in the Phylloscopidae
Phylloscopidae
family.

In the ocean, sea turtles and whale sharks are known to migrate in these waters. Hainan
Hainan
island has rich bio-diversity of cetaceans and is the site of studying these in Chinese waters.[16] Many whales such as North Pacific right whales, western gray whales, humpback whales, and blue whales (all of these are almost extinct in Chinese waters)[17] were historically seen in the winter and spring to mate and calve. These gentle giants of the sea had been hunted heavily and were wiped out by Japanese whalers (established whaling stations on various sites on Chinese and Korean coasts including Hainan
Hainan
and Daya Bay). A few Bryde's whales and minke whales may still occur in the adjacent waters along with on Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
and the Gulf of Tonkin.[18][19] Smaller species of whale and dolphins, such as short-finned pilot whales[20] and pantropical spotted dolphins,[21] but most notably the endangered Chinese white dolphin. Declared sanctuary for the species extends along the coasts. These dolphins may appear among clearer waters such as vicinity to Sanya.[22] Dugongs still occur in small number, mostly on Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
side. Demographics[edit]

Historical ethnolinguistic groups on Hainan, 1967 map (Link to entire map including key).

The population density of Hainan
Hainan
is low compared to most Chinese coastal provinces. In 2000, the ethnic groups of Hainan
Hainan
included the Han Chinese, known as the Hainanese
Hainanese
people, who are the majority (84% of the population); the Li (Hlai) (14.7% of the population); the Miao (0.7%) and the Zhuang (0.6%).[citation needed] The Li are the largest indigenous group on the island in terms of population. Also found on the island are the Utsuls, descendants of Cham refugees, who are classified as Hui by the Chinese government. There is a Tanka community that live at Sanya
Sanya
Bay.[23] Although they are indigenous to the island and do not speak a Chinese language, the Limgao (Ong-Be) people near the capital (8% of the population) are counted as Han Chinese. Religion[edit]

The East Mosque in Sanya, an example of Chinese-Islamic architecture.

Most of the Hainanese
Hainanese
population practices Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
and Chinese Buddhism. The Li population has a Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist minority. Most of the Utsuls of the island, a branch of Cham people
Cham people
living near Sanya, are Muslims. Because Hainan
Hainan
was a point in the travel route of missionaries, there are some Christians. According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christians constitute 0.48% of the province's population.[24] Nanshan Park is the centre of Buddhism on Hainan
Hainan
Island. Encompassing more than 50 km2 (19 sq mi) of rainforest, the site includes countless grand temples, statues and spiritual gardens the likes of Saviour Garden and Longevity Valley, with intricately trimmed hedges and abundant in lotus flowers, a venerated symbol in Buddhism meaning virtue or purity. At the heart of the valley is the grand Nanshan Temple, its gates flanked by stone figures of Buddha in front of the Tang dynasty-style entrance. The interior displays images of the Four Heavenly Kings amid statues of other deities enshrined in renderings of stone, gold and jade. Perhaps the most popular site within the Nanshan Buddhist Cultural Zone is the awe-inspiring stone rendering of the bodhisattva Guan Yin, emerging out of the South China
China
Sea to stand at 108 metres, taller than the statue of liberty. The Nanshan Buddhist Cultural Zone is visited by thousands of tourists and pilgrims each year who come pay homage to the site that plays a significant role in the religion in China
China
and to sample some of the finest Buddhist vegan cuisine on the island.[25] Languages[edit]

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The Han Chinese
Han Chinese
of Hainan
Hainan
speak a variant of the Min Nan
Min Nan
Chinese language, known as Hainanese. In addition, the national standard Putonghua
Putonghua
is understood and spoken by most people, and Cantonese
Cantonese
is understood by some local Hainanese. The Li, the Zhuang and the Limgao (Ong-Be) speak Tai–Kadai languages. The Miao speak Hmong–Mien languages. These groups would usually speak Putonghua
Putonghua
as a second language. 4,500 people in the villages of Yanglan (羊栏) and Huixin (回新), two villages on the outskirts of Sanya, speak the Tsat language, a member of the Austronesian Chamic languages. Adults who are members of a minority also have quite high literacy skills in Chinese. Most adults speak several Chinese dialects, and some also speak Li. In old Yacheng City and its vicinity as well as for several dozen miles west of Huihui and Huixin, the so-called military speech (the official language of the southwest among the northern Chinese dialects) is spoken. In Yanglan Village to the northeast, two Min dialects, both closely related to Cantonese, are spoken: the Mai dialect and the Danzhou
Danzhou
dialect, spoken in Haipo Village in the south, which is the same dialect as the dialect spoken in Danzhou
Danzhou
in Dan Country in the northern part of the island. From the east to the west along the seashore, the Hainanese
Hainanese
dialect is used. In Sanya
Sanya
City itself one sometimes finds speakers of Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese. The general public can also use Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
to communicate with mainlanders. When Chams interact with the Hainanese
Hainanese
dialect speakers from within Hainan
Hainan
Province, they use the Hainanese
Hainanese
dialect, though youngsters generally use Mandarin. Not many can communicate in Li when interacting with the Li, so the Hainanese
Hainanese
dialect or Mandarin is often used. In the market place and within the Sanya
Sanya
Municipality, the Cham speakers use Cham among themselves, and when they interact with speakers of other languages, they mostly use the Hainanese
Hainanese
dialect. However, in the market places near the government seat of Yanglan Township, the Chams either use the Hainanese
Hainanese
dialect or the Mai dialect.[26] Government[edit] Even while Hainan
Hainan
Island was a part of Guangdong
Guangdong
it had a considerable amount of local autonomy; the southern half of the island was an autonomous prefecture. Hainan's elevation to provincial level in 1988 increased its accountability to the Central People's Government, but by designating the new province a special economic zone the central government expressed its intent to allow Hainan
Hainan
maximum flexibility in devising programs to facilitate foreign investment and economic growth. Administratively, the province has been divided into five economic major districts.[citation needed] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Hainan
Politics of Hainan
and List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China The politics of Hainan
Hainan
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Hainan
Governor of Hainan
is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hainan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hainan Communist Party of China
China
Provincial Committee Secretary or CPC Party Chief. Intelligence[edit] Per the research conducted by Information Warfare Monitor, Hainan
Hainan
is the physical location of GhostNet. The Chinese government has officially denied the existence of a cyber war and intelligence apparatus. Administrative[edit] In the official PRC territorial claim, Hainan
Hainan
Province includes not just one island, but also some two hundred South China
China
Sea Islands. Whilst the containment of the South China
China
Sea Islands means that Hainan
Hainan
Province has a very large water body, it has a disproportionally small land area. James Shoal
James Shoal
(曾母暗沙 Zengmu Ansha), which is presently marked by the PRC, signifies the country's southernmost border. But Malaysia
Malaysia
also claims that it is on their continental shelf. Subdivisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Hainan
List of administrative divisions of Hainan
and List of township-level divisions of Hainan Hainan
Hainan
Province uses a slightly different administrative system than the other provinces of China. Most other provinces are divided entirely into prefecture-level divisions, each of which is then divided entirely into county-level divisions. County-level divisions generally do not come directly under the province. In Hainan, nearly all county-level divisions (the eight districts excepted) come directly under the province. This method of division is due to Hainan's relatively sparse population of around 8 million people.

Administrative divisions of Hainan

№ Division code[27] English name Chinese Pinyin
Pinyin
/ Hainanese Area in km2[28] Population 2010[29] Seat Divisions[30]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities

  460000 Hainan
Hainan
/ Hai Nam 海南省 Hǎinán Shěng / Hai Nam Teng 35354.00 8,671,518 Haikou
Haikou
/ Hai Khau 8 4 6 5

1 460100 Haikou 海口市 Hǎikǒu Shì / Hai Khau Si 2304.80 2,046,189 Xiuying District
Xiuying District
/ Tiu Eng Khi 4

2 460200 Sanya 三亚市 Sānyà Shì / Tam Ah Si 1910.67 685,408 Jiyang District
Jiyang District
/ Kiet Riang Khi 4

19 460300 Sansha
Sansha
* # 三沙市 Sānshā Shì / Tam Sa Si ~13.00 444 Yongxing Town / Riong Heng Dien

3 460400 Danzhou
Danzhou
# 儋州市 Dānzhōu Shì / Dam Ju Si 3394.00 932,362 Nada Town / No Dua Dien

6 469001 Wuzhishan ** 五指山市 Wǔzhǐshān Shì / Ngouji Tua Si 1131.00 104,122 Tongzha Town / Khong Ta Dien

1

4 469002 Qionghai
Qionghai
** 琼海市 Qiónghǎi Shì / Kheng Hai Si 1710.14 483,217 Jiaji Town / Kia Zec Dien

1

8 469005 Wenchang
Wenchang
** 文昌市 Wénchāng Shì / Von Sio Si 2459.18 537,428 Wencheng Town / Von Tia Dien

1

5 469006 Wanning
Wanning
** 万宁市 Wànníng Shì / Van Neng Si 1899.90 545,597 Wancheng Town / Van Tia Dien

1

7 469007 Dongfang ** 东方市 Dōngfāng Shì / Dang Fang Si 2272.29 408,309 Basuo
Basuo
Town / Boi To Dien

1

11 469021 Ding'an County
Ding'an County
** 定安县 Dìng'ān Xiàn / Deng An Kuai 1187.00 284,616 Dingcheng Town / Deng Tia Dien

1

12 469022 Tunchang County
Tunchang County
** 屯昌县 Túnchāng Xiàn / Ton Siang Kuai 1223.97 256,931 Tuncheng
Tuncheng
Town / Ton Tia Dien

1

10 469023 Chengmai County
Chengmai County
** 澄迈县 Chéngmài Xiàn / Deng Mai Kuai 2076.28 467,161 Jinjiang Town / Kiom Kiang Dien

1

9 469024 Lingao County
Lingao County
** 临高县 Língāo Xiàn / Liom Ko Kuai 1343.33 427,873 Lincheng Town / Liom Tia Dien

1

14 469025 Baisha Li Autonomous County ** 白沙黎族自治县 Báishā Lízú Zìzhìxiàn / Be Tua Loitoc Seji Kuai 2117.20 167,918 Yacha Town / Ge Sa Dien

1

13 469026 Changjiang Li Autonomous County ** 昌江黎族自治县 Chāngjiāng Lízú Zìzhìxiàn / Siang Kiang Loitoc Seji Kuai 1617.70 223,839 Shilu Town / Jo Loc Dien

1

18 469027 Ledong Li Autonomous County ** 乐东黎族自治县 Lèdōng Lízú Zìzhìxiàn / Loc Dong Loitoc Seji Kuai 2763.53 458,876 Baoyou Town / Bo Yu Dien

1

16 469028 Lingshui Li Autonomous County ** 陵水黎族自治县 Língshuǐ Lízú Zìzhìxiàn / Leng Tui Loitco Seji Kuai 1121.24 320,468 Yelin Town / Hia Liom Dien

1

17 469029 Baoting Li and Miao Autonomous County ** 保亭黎族苗族自治县 Bǎotíng Lízú Miáozú Zìzhìxiàn / Bo Deng Loi-Miautoc Seji Kuai 1166.78 146,684 Baocheng Town / Bo Tia Dien

1

15 469030 Qiongzhong Li and Miao Autonomous County ** 琼中黎族苗族自治县 Qióngzhōng Lízú Miáozú Zìzhìxiàn / Kheng Tong Loi-Miautoc Seji Kuai 2704.00 174,076 Yinggen
Yinggen
Town / Riong Kien Dien

1

* - Sovereignty over Sansha
Sansha
(including the Paracel, Spratly and Zhongsha Islands) is disputed as of 6 April 2018. ** - Directly administered county-level divisions # - direct-piped cities - does not contain any county-level divisions

Military[edit] Main article: People's Liberation Army Navy Hainan
Hainan
Island is home to the People's Liberation Army Navy
People's Liberation Army Navy
Hainan Submarine Base and strategic nuclear submarine naval harbor at 18°13′16″N 109°41′10″E / 18.221°N 109.686°E / 18.221; 109.686.[31] The naval harbor is estimated to be 60 feet (18 m) high, built into hillsides around a military base. The caverns are capable of hiding up to 20 nuclear submarines from spy satellites. The harbor houses nuclear ballistic missile submarines and is large enough to accommodate aircraft carriers. The U.S. Department of Defense has estimated that China
China
will have five type 094 submarines operational by 2010 with each capable of carrying 12 JL-2
JL-2
ballistic missiles. Two 950-metre (3,120 ft) piers and three smaller ones would be enough to accommodate two carrier strike groups or amphibious assault ships. Economy[edit]

Further information: Tourism

Hainan's economy is predominantly agricultural, and more than a half of the island's exports are agricultural products. Hainan's elevation to province-level status (1988), however, was accompanied by its designation as China's largest "special economic zone", the intent being to hasten the development of the island's plentiful resources. Prior to this, the province had a reputation for being a "Wild West" area, largely untouched by industrialisation; even today there are relatively few factories in the province. Tourism
Tourism
plays an important part of Hainan's economy, thanks largely to its tropical beaches and lush forests. The central government has encouraged foreign investment in Hainan
Hainan
and has allowed the island to rely to a large extent on market forces.[citation needed] Hainan's industrial development largely has been limited to the processing of its mineral and agricultural products, particularly rubber and iron ore. Since the 1950s, machinery, farm equipment, and textiles have been manufactured in the Haikou
Haikou
area for local consumption. A major constraint on industrial expansion has been an inadequate supply of electricity. Much of the island's generating capacity is hydroelectric, and it is subject to seasonal fluctuations in stream and river flows.[citation needed] Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 251.5 billion yuan (US$39.9 billion), making it the 4th smallest in all of the PRC and contributes just 0.53% to the entire country's economy. At that time, its GDP per capita was 19,166 yuan (US$2,805). By the first quarter of 2010, Hainan
Hainan
had the highest increase in GDP of any province in China, with a year-on-year increase of 25.1%. The GDP of Hainan's Qionghai
Qionghai
city grew 58.7%. In December 2009, the government of China
China
announced that it plans to establish Hainan
Hainan
as an "international tourist destination" by 2020.[32] This announcement contributed to a surge in the province's economy, with a year-on-year increase in investment of 136.9% in the first three months of 2010. Hainan's real estate sector accounted for more than one third of the province's economic growth.[33] Economic and technological development zones[edit]

Haikou
Haikou
Free Trade Zone Haikou
Haikou
New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone Yangpu Economic Development Zone

Duty-free
Duty-free
program[edit] On April 20, 2011, a pilot duty-free program commenced with the aim of increasing luxury goods purchases. It permits domestic Chinese visitors to claim tax refunds on imported luxury items purchased within the province. The maximum value is set at 5,000 yuan (US$762), with lowered tax rates on purchases over 5,000 yuan.[34] In October 2012, duty limits were raised to 8,000 yuan ($1,273), and became available to both domestic and international tourists.[35] The total sales of duty-free products for 2012 was 2.4 billion yuan.[36] The world's largest duty-free shopping complex is scheduled to open in Haitang Bay in August 2014.[37] Natural resources[edit] Hainan
Hainan
has commercially exploitable reserves of more than 30 minerals. Iron, first mined by the Japanese during their occupation of the island in World War II, is the most important. Also important are titanium, manganese, tungsten, bauxite, molybdenum, cobalt, copper, gold, and silver. There are large deposits of lignite and oil shale on the island, and significant offshore finds of oil and natural gas have been discovered. Virgin forests in the interior mountains contain more than 20 commercially valuable species, including teak and sandalwood. Agriculture[edit]

One of the many rice fields in Hainan

Owing to Hainan's tropical climate, paddy rice is cultivated extensively in the northeastern lowlands and in the southern mountain valleys.[32] Leading crops other than rice include coconuts, palm oil, sisal, tropical fruits (including pineapples, of which Hainan
Hainan
is China's leading producer), black pepper, coffee, tea, cashews, and sugarcane. In the early 20th century Chinese emigrants returning from then British Malaya, introduced rubber trees to the island; after 1950, state farms were developed, and Hainan
Hainan
now produces a substantial amount of China's rubber. The hot Hainan
Hainan
yellow lantern chili, a variety unique to the island, is grown in the southeast and southwest. Domesticated farm animals comprise mainly goats, cows, water buffalo, chickens, geese and ducks. Fisheries[edit]

Fish farms in Chengmai

Grouper, Spanish mackerel, and tuna[citation needed] constitute the bulk of the catch from offshore fishing grounds. Scallops and pearls are raised in shallow bays and basins for local use and export. Shrimp production is estimated to have been 120,000 to 150,000 metric tons (130,000 to 170,000 short tons) in 2007, more than 50% of which was exported. Hainan
Hainan
has over 400 hatcheries, most being located between Wenchang
Wenchang
and Qionghai. Tilapia production in 2008 was 300,000 metric tons (330,000 short tons). The island has an estimated 100,000 local, commercial fish farming families.[38] Real estate market[edit] In 1990, Hainan
Hainan
province was the site of the largest property bust in modern Chinese history[32] With 2009 and the announcement of the Chinese Government's plan to develop the province into a major international tourist location, property sales rose by 73%, creating the possibility of another bubble in Hainan's property market.[32] Since March 2010, commercial and residential property values in some parts of Hainan
Hainan
have slowed down since the market peaked in February. In March, average month-on-month transaction prices dropped 12.82% to 12,280 RMB
RMB
per square meter, with a reduction in volume to 627,000 square metres (6,750,000 sq ft), a 19.05% decline. Later in April, prices declined 2.84% to 11,932 yuan per square metre, with a 57.59% decline in volume to 567,200 square meters (6,105,000 sq ft). Then in May prices declined a further 29.74% from the previous month to 8,483 yuan per square metre, with a 57.95% decline in volume to 229,000 square metres (2,460,000 sq ft).[39] However, property prices in the tourist resort of Sanya
Sanya
remain strong as of January 2011, with prime developments selling at prices of up to 80,000 RMB
RMB
per square metre. Data for 2016 data shows that Hainan
Hainan
saw an increase in house sales of 44%. Volume in sales was 129 billion RMB
RMB
($18.82 billion) which is a rise of 51.2 percent year-on-year. During that year in November, commercial apartments in Sanya
Sanya
sold for 20,695 RMB
RMB
per square meter a rise of 15.75% year-on-year. The total amount of Sanya
Sanya
real estate sold during that time was 212,400 square metres.[40] Out of China's twenty leading real estate developers, eighteen had invested in Hainan
Hainan
during 2016.[40] In the beginning of 2017, the price for a house in Haikou
Haikou
was approximately 8,000 RMB
RMB
($1,170) per square meter and $20,000 RMB ($2,977) per square meter in Sanya.[41] Golf industry[edit] See also: Golf in China
China
§ Hainan This industry is expanding in Hainan, with numerous courses being constructed, including Mission Hills Haikou, which is one of the largest golf complexes in the world. The golf industry attracts foreign investment and overseas golfers from such countries as Australia, South Korea, and Japan. Medical tourism[edit] The government of Hainan
Hainan
intends to expand the province's medical tourism industry.[42][43] The provincial government plans to establish the Boao
Boao
Lecheng International Medical Travel Zone in the Bo'ao
Bo'ao
area. This was announced at the Boao Forum for Asia
Boao Forum for Asia
in 2011.[44] The State Council has approved the development of Lecheng Island[45] as a medical tourism-themed destination.[46] Lecheng Island is a small island in the Wanquan River
Wanquan River
about 3 km (1.9 mi) west of the coastal town of Bo'ao
Bo'ao
on the west coast of the province. Construction on the 20 km2. zone is expected to begin in December 2014, will cost a projected 1.5 billion yuan, and is scheduled for completion in 2016. It will be the first special zone for medical travel in China.[47] Automotive industry[edit] Domestic Chinese manufacturer, Haima Automobile
Haima Automobile
has its global headquarters in Haikou. Transportation[edit] Road[edit]

Map showing main highways

Before 1950 there were practically no transportation links with the interior of the island. The first roads were built in the early 20th century, but no major road construction was undertaken in the mountains until the 1950s. Parallel north–south roads along the east and west coasts and through the interior of the island constitute most of Hainan's road network. Air[edit] Hainan
Hainan
Province has two international airports ( Haikou
Haikou
Meilan International Airport and Sanya
Sanya
Phoenix International Airport) and two domestic airports ( Qionghai
Qionghai
Bo'ao
Bo'ao
Airport and Danzhou
Danzhou
Airport, the latter is under construction.) Rail[edit] Today's Hainan
Hainan
is ringed by standard-gauge railways. Since 2004, a rail ferry connects the island's railroad network to the mainland.[48] In 2005, Ministry of Communications allocated 20 million yuan (US$2.4 million) to set up a committee to research and study the possibility of a bridge or tunnel link connecting the island to the mainland.[49] From the ferry terminal, located near Haikou
Haikou
Railway Station (west of Haikou), freight and passenger trains arriving from the mainland can proceed on the Hainan Western Ring Railway
Hainan Western Ring Railway
along the island's west coast, via Dongfang to Sanya. This railway line has been developed over several decades, starting with a few short 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge lines constructed during the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s. The Hainan Eastern Ring High-Speed Railway
Hainan Eastern Ring High-Speed Railway
links Haikou
Haikou
and Sanya along the island's east coast. There are 15 stations in between, either in operation or still under construction. Trains are designed to travel at 250 km/h (160 mph). Travel time from Haikou
Haikou
to Sanya
Sanya
is approximately 1 hour and 22 minutes.[citation needed] The total length of Hainan Eastern Ring High-Speed Railway
Hainan Eastern Ring High-Speed Railway
is 308.11 km (191.45 mi). The in-between railway stations include Haikou
Haikou
East, Changliu, Xiuying, Meilan Airport, Wenchang, Qionghai, Bo'ao, Wanning, Shenzhou, Sun and Moon Bay, Lingshui and Tiandu.[50] The first train run started on 30 December 2010 at the price of 114 RMB
RMB
for first-class seat and 95 RMB
RMB
for a second-class seat for a full journey between Haikou
Haikou
and Sanya.[51] The Hainan Western Ring High-Speed Railway is on the west coast of Hainan, roughly paralleling the existing Hainan
Hainan
Western Ring Railway. It links up with the Hainan
Hainan
Eastern Ring Railway at both ends, thus forming a high-speed railway ring around the island.[52] Seaports[edit]

Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port

Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port (海口秀英港) serves as the main passenger and cargo center.[53] Haikou
Haikou
New Port (海口新港) opened June 1, 2005[53] Macun Port (马村港) located in Chengmai
Chengmai
County; opened June 1, 2005[53] Hainan
Hainan
Strait Port[54] Basuo
Basuo
Port in Dongfang City is a small port on the west coast of Hainan. One of its main cargos is iron ore from the Shilu Mine.

Hainan
Hainan
received 11,000 tons of products via ports November 2010, up 90.1 percent month-on-month. Between January and November 2010, 102,000 tons of products were exported via Hainan, 34,000 tons of which were exported to the US, and 14,000 tons sent to the EU.[55] Education[edit]

Haikou
Haikou
College of Economics, Guilinyang
Guilinyang
campus

See also: List of universities and colleges in Hainan The level of primary and secondary education has improved since 1949, but facilities for higher education remain somewhat inadequate.[citation needed]

Hainan University
Hainan University
(海南大学) Hainan Normal University
Hainan Normal University
(海南师范大学) Qiongzhou University
Qiongzhou University
(琼州大学) Hainan Medical Institute
Hainan Medical Institute
(海南医学院) Haikou
Haikou
College of Economics (海口经济学院) South China
China
Tropical Agricultural University (华南热带农业大学, merged into Hainan University
Hainan University
on Aug 14, 2007)

Culture[edit]

Hainan
Hainan
Provincial Museum

Hainan
Hainan
has always been on the fringe of the Chinese cultural sphere. Traditionally, the island was a place of exile for criminals and disgraced officials. As a frontier region celebrated by such exiled poets as Su Dongpo, Hainan
Hainan
acquired an air of mystery and romance. The influx of large numbers of mainlanders after 1950 – particularly in the 1970s, when young Chinese from southern Guangdong
Guangdong
were assigned to state farms to help develop Hainan, and in the 1980s, when thousands more came to take advantage of the economic opportunities offered – has perpetuated the frontier atmosphere on the island. Media[edit] As well as programming from Central China
China
Television (CCTV), Hainan has a number of local TV stations including Hainan
Hainan
TV and Haikou
Haikou
TV. The Chinese language
Chinese language
Nanguo Metropolis Daily, Haikou
Haikou
Evening News, and Hainan Daily
Hainan Daily
newspapers are published in Haikou. A large movie studio is located in the south part of Haikou. Movie Town Haikou
Haikou
comprises several studio buildings and an artificial town used as filming sets and a visitor attraction. Cuisine[edit]

Common dishes served in Hainan

Main article: Hainan
Hainan
cuisine Hainan cuisine
Hainan cuisine
is said to be "lighter, with mild seasonings." A lot of local taste is mixed with the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
taste. Seafood predominates the menu, as shrimp, crab, fish and other sea life are widely available. Wenchang
Wenchang
chicken / Von Sio Coi is a dish known throughout the province of Hainan. Although there are many varieties of this dish, the name is usually used to define a type of small, free-range chicken from Wenchang, located on the east coast of the province. As opposed to battery chickens, its meat has more texture and is somewhat drier. Hainan
Hainan
chicken rice / Coibui is a famous dish in Southeast Asia bearing the region's name. However, whilst many restaurants use chicken fat to quickly add flavour to the dish, the proper local method is to 'marinate' the rice with chicken soup to add a more full flavour. Tourism[edit]

Located in Sanya, this beach is typical of those along the entire eastern coast of Hainan

Hainan
Hainan
Island is often divided into eight regions for tourism purposes: Haikou
Haikou
and area (Haikou, Qiongshan, Ding'an); the Northeast (Wenchang); the Central East Coast (Qionghai, Ding'an); the South East Coast; the South (Sanya); the West Coast also called the Chinese Riviera (Ledong, Dongfang, Xianghsui, Changjiang); the North West (Danzhou, Lingao, Chengmai); and the Central Highlands (Baisha, Qiongzhong, and Wuzhishan/Tongzha). Popular tourist destinations include the beaches and resorts in the southern part of the province. Inland is Five Finger Mountain, a scenic area. Tourists also visit the capital of Haikou
Haikou
with area visitor attractions such as Movie Town Haikou
Haikou
and Holiday Beach. Statistics[edit] In 2000, the province initiated a visa-upon-arrival policy for foreign tourist groups. It is available to citizens of twenty-six different countries, and was established in order to attract visitors. During 2008, 20.6 million tourists visited Hainan, producing total revenues of 19.23 billion yuan (US$2.81 billion). Of these tourists, 979,800 were from overseas with the largest numbers coming from South Korea, Russia
Russia
and Japan.[56] In 2010, the amount of overnight tourists visiting Hainan
Hainan
was 25.87 million, 663,000 of which came from outside China.[57] During 2011, more than 30 million tourists visited Hainan, mostly from mainland China. Of the 814,600 overseas tourists, 227,600 of them came from Russia, a 53.3 percent a rise year-on-year.[58] Total revenue during that year was 32 billion RMB
RMB
($4.3 billion US), up 25 percent from 2010.[59] In the first quarter of 2012, the Hainan
Hainan
Provincial Tourism Development Commission reports that Hainan
Hainan
received 208,300 overnight visitors, 25 percent of whom came from Russia.[58] In 2014, Hainan
Hainan
received 50.2 million tourists, 660,000 of whom were from overseas.[60] During 2015, Hainan
Hainan
received 53 million visitors.[61][61] In 2016, over 60 million tourists went to Hainan, up 12.9% from 2015.[62] In 2017, Hainan
Hainan
received more than 1.1 million overseas tourists.[63] Historical sites[edit] Main article: Major national historical and cultural sites (Hainan) Haikou
Haikou
is the province's capital and contains interesting historic sites. Also known as Coconut City, Haikou
Haikou
is a major port. The Five Officials Temple (Chinese: 五公祠; pinyin: Wŭgōng cí, 20°0′35.79″N 110°21′17.34″E / 20.0099417°N 110.3548167°E / 20.0099417; 110.3548167) consists of five traditional temples and halls that were built in honour of five officials of the Tang (618-907) and Song (960-1279) dynasties. These officials were banished to Hainan
Hainan
for periods ranging from 11 days to 11 years for speaking out against what they felt were wrong practices by the emperors. (It is perhaps significant that the establishment of the Five Officials Temple
Five Officials Temple
in the late 19th century coincides with a time when China's territorial integrity was under threat, and that several of the officials honoured here were exiled for espousing aggressive policies on the recapture of the north of China
China
from the Jurchens
Jurchens
during the Southern Song dynasty.) Xiuying Fort
Xiuying Fort
was built in 1891 to defend the southeastern corner of China
China
during the Sino-French War. The Xiuying Fort
Xiuying Fort
Barbette covers about a third of an acre. Its five large cannons are still intact and viewable at the site.

Tomb of Hai Rui

The Tomb of Hai Rui
Hai Rui
(20°0′29.66″N 110°17′30.18″E / 20.0082389°N 110.2917167°E / 20.0082389; 110.2917167) is a key national cultural protection site. Hai Rui
Hai Rui
was a compassionate and popular official of Hainanese
Hainanese
origins who lived during the Ming dynasty. He was famous for his lifelong honesty and his willingness to speak out on behalf of local people. In later life, Hai Rui
Hai Rui
was persecuted and fell out of favour with the emperor. His admirers built the Hai Rui
Hai Rui
Tomb after his death to commemorate his great works. Construction of the tomb began in 1589. The Yangpu Ancient Salt Field
Yangpu Ancient Salt Field
is a heritage site in Yantian village on Yangpu Peninsula. The area comprises more than 1,000 stones, cut flat on top, used to dry seawater to produce salt. Other attractions and destinations[edit]

Yalong Bay, the most expensive and well-known beach in Hainan, and location of numerous 5-star hotels.

Hainan
Hainan
Island has a number of beaches, hot springs and other attractions. Some top scenic sites include Yalong bay National Resort; Dadonghai Tourist Resort; Qizhi Shan (Seven Finger Mountain), Nuilin mountain tropical botanical reserve in Lingshui county, Guantang Hot Spring Resort, Shishan Volcanic Garden; the Wanquan River, Baishi Ridge Scenic Zone and Baihua Ridge. Other attractions in Hainan
Hainan
include:

Phoenix Island, an artificial island in Sanya
Sanya
Bay. Monkey Island, near the well-known perfume bay or Xiangshui Wan, a popular tourist destination located in Lingshui County, is a state-protected nature reserve for macaques. Yalong Bay
Yalong Bay
(Crescent Dragon Bay or Yalong Wan), a 7 km (4.3 mi) long beach east of Sanya
Sanya
City. Xiangshui Bay Scenic Area, 48 km (30 mi) from Sanya
Sanya
Tiandu. Luobi Cave, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Sanya
Sanya
City. Nanshan Temple, a Buddhist cultural area west of Sanya
Sanya
featuring a 108 metres (354 ft) statue of Guanyin, Buddhist Goddess of Mercy. Yanoda
Yanoda
is a rainforest area. It is open to visitors with guided walking tours, a zipline, and a waterfall climbing activity.

Yachting[edit] To encourage the international yachting community, new regulations now allow foreign yachts to stay for a total of 183 days each year, with a maximum single stay duration of 30 days. 13 additional ports will be built around the island to accommodate this market.[57] Events[edit] Numerous events are hosted or sponsored on the island, including:

Swatch Girls World Pro China
China
- Annual Elite Women's surfing competition, held at Wanning[64] Hainan
Hainan
International Surfing Festival, held annually at Riyue Bay, Wanning[65] Miss World
Miss World
beauty pageant is regularly held in the city of Sanya. Mission Hills Star Trophy
Mission Hills Star Trophy
is an annual golf tournament that started in 2010. Tour of Hainan
Tour of Hainan
bicycle race Hainan
Hainan
Rendez-Vous, an annual four-day event that draws China's ultra high-net-worth individuals to the Chinese Riviera-like shores of Hainan[66] Ironman triathlon Boao
Boao
Forum for Asia, held in Boao, is an international high-level government, business, and academia forum. H1 Hot Air Balloon Challenge is held annually in Haikou. Balloons from across the nation fly over the Qiongzhou Strait
Qiongzhou Strait
from Haikou
Haikou
to a designated location on the mainland in Xunwen County, Guangdong.[67][68]

Miscellaneous topics[edit]

The novel, Red Detachment of Women, by Liang Xin, was set in Hainan. The novel was first adapted to a feature film in the 1950s, and then a ballet in the 1960s as one of the Eight model plays. Most of the people of that time derived their romanticized image of Hainan
Hainan
Island from the scenes in the ballet, particularly that of the vivid forests of coconut trees, the Five Finger Mountain (Wuzhi Shan), and the Wanquan River. Parts of the 2010 movie If you are the One 2 (非诚勿扰 2) were shot in Shimei Bay (石梅湾) near Sanya.[69] Two notable lighthouses are located on Hainan: the Baishamen Lighthouse and Mulantou Lighthouse
Mulantou Lighthouse
are among the tallest in the world, the latter being the tallest in China. 3024 Hainan, named for the province, is an outer main-belt asteroid discovered in 1981. Hainan Kopi Tales is an award-winning Singaporean Chinese drama serial set in a famous Hainan
Hainan
coffee shop that explores the Hainanese
Hainanese
way of life from the 1960s to the 1980s. Hainian Resort is also a multiplayer map in the 2013 video game Battlefield 4.

Space centre[edit] Main article: Wenchang
Wenchang
Satellite Launch Center One of China's satellite launch centers is located in Hainan
Hainan
east of the city of Wenchang. The Wenchang
Wenchang
Satellite Launch Center, a 1,200 hectares (3,000 acres) facility, is the closest Chinese launch center to the equator. The construction plan was first announced in October 2007. The new launch centre began operations on November 3, 2016 with the Long March 5
Long March 5
rocket making its maiden flight. Notable residents[edit] The poet Su Shi
Su Shi
(1036–1101) popularized Hainan's isolation and exoticism when he was exiled there under the Song dynasty. The Dongpo Academy was built on the site of the residence where he lived in exile. Hai Rui
Hai Rui
(1514–1587) was a famous Chinese official of the Ming dynasty. His name has come down in history as a model of honesty and integrity in office. Chih-Ping Chen
Chih-Ping Chen
(1906-1983) was a distinguished diplomat and statesman for the Republic of China, who served to build the Yunnan-Burma Road, and a diplomatic career that spanned four decades. The most well-known native of Hainan
Hainan
is Chinese-American Methodist minister turned businessman, Charlie Soong, father of the Shanghai-born Soong sisters: Soong Ai-ling, wife of H. H. Kung
H. H. Kung
(once China's richest man); Soong Ching-ling, wife of Sun Yat-Sen; and Soong Mei-ling, wife of former ROC President Chiang Kai-shek. International partnership[edit] Hainan
Hainan
has international relationships with these places: [70][71]

Region Country Date

Hyōgo Prefecture  Japan 1990.9

Hawaii  United States 1992.6

Jejudo  South Korea 1995.10

Crimea  Ukraine 1996.4

Cebu
Cebu
Island  Philippines 1996.6

Prince Edward Island  Canada 2001.6

Balearic Islands  Spain 2004.7

Phuket Island  Thailand 2005.9

Canary Islands  Spain 2005.11

New Britain Island  Papua New Guinea 2006.9

Chiloé Island  Chile 2007.12

Fuego Island  Argentina 2008.10

Washington State  United States 2009.7

Murmansk  Russia 2010.10

Gotland
Gotland
Island  Sweden 2010.11

Sardegna
Sardegna
Island  Italy 2011.10

Bali
Bali
Island  Indonesia 2012.2

Grande Comore
Grande Comore
Island  Comoros 2012.8

Penang
Penang
Island  Malaysia 2013.10

Crete
Crete
Island  Greece 2014.10

Tasmania
Tasmania
Island  Australia 2016.10

Palawan
Palawan
Island  Philippines 2017.3

Yap State  Federated States of Micronesia 2017.3

See also[edit]

Hainan
Hainan
Island incident

Islands portal Asia portal Southeast Asia portal China
China
portal

References[edit]

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Hainan
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China
Builds Secret Nuclear Submarine Base in South China
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Hainan
officials rule out bubble burst". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2010-08-09.  ^ "The Business of Luxury and Culture in China". Jing Daily. 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2013-01-25.  ^ "The Business of Luxury and Culture in China". Jing Daily. 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2013-01-25.  ^ F_221. " Hainan
Hainan
tax rebate attracts 1.6 million tourists for shopping - People's Daily
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– Shrimp and Tilapia Farming in Hainan
Hainan
and Guangdong
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Provinces". Euchinawto.org. Retrieved 2011-11-12.  ^ "CapitalVue News: Hainan
Hainan
Property Market Collapses". Capitalvue.com. 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2010-08-09.  ^ a b http://www.ecns.cn/business/2017/02-07/244258.shtml ^ http://www.ecns.cn/business/2017/02-07/244342.shtml ^ " Hainan
Hainan
steps up learning process with Spain
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Hainan
Mulls Bridge/ Tunnel Link to Mainland". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2008-08-12.  ^ " Hainan
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Steps into an Era of High Speed Railways (海南吉林迈入"高铁时代")" (in Chinese). People's Daily Online. December 31, 2010. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2012.  ^ "Hainan's Eastern Ring Railway/Ticket Price". news.wenweipo.com. December 28, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2012.  ^ " Hainan
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Further reading[edit]

D'Arcy Brown, Liam (2003). Green Dragon, Sombre Warrior: travels to China's extremes. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-6038-1 Edmonds, Richard Louis. " Hainan
Hainan
province" and its impact on the geography of China, Geography, Vol. 74, No. 2 (April 1989), pp. 165–169

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hainan.

Hainan
Hainan
Government Website Hainan
Hainan
travel guide from Wikivoyage Economic profile for Hainan
Hainan
at HKTDC Dr Howard M Scott "Hainan" Resources on the Hainanese
Hainanese
in the National Library of Singapore Learn Hainanese
Hainanese
Website Hainan
Hainan
Province Official English Language Tourism
Tourism
Website

Places adjacent to Hainan

Gulf of Tonkin Haiphong, Nam Định, Quảng Ninh and Thái Bình Provinces,  Vietnam Guangdong Qiongzhou Strait Taiwan Qiongzhou Strait

Gulf of Tonkin Hà Tĩnh, Nghệ An and Thanh Hóa Provinces,  Vietnam

Hainan

Pratas Islands

Gulf of Tonkin Quảng Trị and Thừa Thiên-Huế Provinces,  Vietnam South China
China
Sea South China
China
Sea

v t e

Hainan
Hainan
topics

Haikou
Haikou
(capital)

General

History Historical and cultural sites Politics Economy

Geography

Islands of Hainan Dazhou Island Haidian Island Haitang Bay Sanya
Sanya
Bay Nandu River Wanquan River Songtao Reservoir Wuzhizhou Island Wuzhi Mountain Yangpu Peninsula Yongxing Island/Woody Island

Flora and fauna

Hainan
Hainan
yellow lantern chili Hainan
Hainan
gymnure Hainan
Hainan
partridge Hainan
Hainan
peacock-pheasant Hainan
Hainan
black crested gibbon Hainan
Hainan
hare

Media

Hainan
Hainan
TV Haikou
Haikou
TV Nanguo Metropolis Daily Hainan
Hainan
Daily

Transportation

Hainan
Hainan
Eastern Ring HSR Hainan
Hainan
Western Ring HSR Hainan
Hainan
Airlines Haikou
Haikou
Meilan International Airport Qionghai
Qionghai
Bo'ao
Bo'ao
Airport Sanya
Sanya
Phoenix International Airport Basuo
Basuo
Port Haikou
Haikou
New Port Haikou
Haikou
Xiuying Port Macun Port Port of Yangpu

Education

Haikou
Haikou
College of Economics Hainan
Hainan
Medical University Hainan
Hainan
Normal University Hainan
Hainan
University Qiongzhou University/ Hainan
Hainan
Tropical Ocean University Sanya
Sanya
University

Demographics

Hainanese Hui Miao Han Chinese Li (Hlai) Zhuang Utsul

Buildings and structures

Crown of Beauty Theatre Haikou
Haikou
Century Bridge Haikou
Haikou
Great Hall of the People Hainan
Hainan
Centre for the Performing Arts Hainan
Hainan
Exhibition & Convention Center Hainan
Hainan
Library

Cuisine

Hainan
Hainan
chicken rice Wenchang
Wenchang
chicken

Visitor attractions

Statue of Guanyin Hainan
Hainan
Museum Leiqiong/ Haikou
Haikou
Volcanic Cluster Global Geopark Luobi Cave Mission Hills Star Trophy Nanwan Monkey Island Nanshan Temple Phoenix Island Temple of the Five Lords Tianya Haijiao Yangpu Ancient Salt Field Yalong Bay

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Hainan
Hainan
Province

Haikou
Haikou
(capital)

Prefecture level

Prefecture-level cities

Haikou

Longhua District Meilan District Qiongshan
Qiongshan
District Xiuying District

Sanya

Jiyang District Tianya District Haitang District Yazhou District

Sansha

Sansha

Xisha District*

Yongxing Town (Yongxing Management Area) Qilianyu Management Area Yongle Archipelago Management Area

Nansha District*

(directly governed — no township-level divisions)

Zhongsha District*

(unincorporated)

* Not a formal administrative subdivision

Danzhou

v t e

Danzhou

Towns

Nada Heqing Nanfeng Dacheng Yaxing Lanyang Guangcun Mutang Haitou Eman Sandou

Yangpu EDZ

Wangwu Baimajing Zhonghe Paipu Dongcheng Xingzhou

County level

County-level cities

Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang

Counties

Ding'an Tunchang Chengmai Lingao

Autonomous counties

Baisha Changjiang Ledong Lingshui Baoting Qiongzhong

Township-level divisions of Hainan Politics of Hainan

v t e

Economic Development Zones of China

Special
Special
Economic Zones

Shenzhen Zhuhai Shantou Xiamen Kashgar Hainan
Hainan
Province

New open development zones

Dalian Qingdao Qinhuangdao Lianyungang Pudong Yantai Zhanjiang Ningbo Wenzhou Nantong Fuzhou Guangzhou Beihai Shuyang

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

.