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The HAFTARAH or (in Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
pronunciation) HAFTOROH (alt. HAPHTARA, Hebrew : הפטרה; "parting," "taking leave", plural haftarot or haftoros—despite resemblances it is not related to the word Torah
Torah
) is a series of selections from the books of Nevi\'im ("Prophets") of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(Tanakh) that is publicly read in synagogue as part of Jewish religious practice . The Haftarah reading follows the Torah
Torah
reading on each Sabbath and on Jewish festivals and fast days . Typically, the haftarah is thematically linked to the parasha ( Torah
Torah
portion ) that precedes it. The haftarah is sung in a chant (known as "trope" in Yiddish
Yiddish
or " Cantillation
Cantillation
" in English). Related blessings precede and follow the Haftarah reading.

The origin of haftarah reading is lost to history, and several theories have been proposed to explain its role in Jewish practice, suggesting it arose in response to the persecution of the Jews
Jews
under Antiochus Epiphanes which preceded the Maccabean revolt , wherein Torah
Torah
reading was prohibited, or that it was "instituted against the Samaritans
Samaritans
, who denied the canonicity of the Prophets (except for Joshua), and later against the Sadducees ." Another theory is that it was instituted after some act of persecution or other disaster in which the synagogue Torah
Torah
scrolls were destroyed or ruined - it was forbidden to read the Torah
Torah
portion from any but a ritually fit parchment scroll, but there was no such requirement about a reading from Prophets, which was then "substituted as a temporary expedient and then remained." The Talmud
Talmud
mentions that a haftarah was read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus , who lived c.70 CE, and that by the time of Rabbah (the 3rd century) there was a "Scroll of Haftarot", which is not further described, and in the Christian
Christian
New Testament several references suggest this Jewish custom was in place during that era.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Who reads the haftarah * 3 What form of the text is read * 4 Haftarah blessings and customs * 5 Haftarah cantillation * 6 Haftarot on Sabbath afternoon * 7 Haftarah as a B\'nai Mitzvah ritual

* 8 List of Haftarot

* 8.1 Haftarot for Genesis * 8.2 Haftarot for Exodus * 8.3 Haftarot for Leviticus * 8.4 Haftarot for Numbers * 8.5 Haftarot for Deuteronomy * 8.6 Haftarot for special Sabbaths, Festivals, and Fast Days * 8.7 Haftarah for a bridegroom

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

HISTORY

No one knows for certain the origins of reading the haftarah, but several theories have been put forth. The most common explanation, accepted by some traditional Jewish authorities is that in 168 BCE, when the Jews
Jews
were under the rule of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes , they were forbidden from reading the Torah
Torah
and made do with a substitute. When they were again able to read the Torah, they kept reading the haftarah as well. However this theory was not articulated before the 14th century, when it was suggested by Rabbi David Abudirham , but this explanation has several weaknesses.

An alternative explanation, offered by Rabbis Reuven Margolies and Samson Raphael Hirsch (except where otherwise identified, this is the Hirsch cited throughout this article), is that the haftarah reading was instituted to fight the influence of those sects in Judaism
Judaism
that viewed the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
as consisting only of the Torah.

However, all offered explanations for the origin of reading the haftarah have unanswered difficulties.

Certainly the haftarah was read — perhaps not obligatorily nor in all communities nor on every Sabbath — as far back as circa 70 CE: The Talmud
Talmud
mentions that a haftarah was read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus , who lived at that time. The New Testament indicates that readings from the Prophets - but not necessarily a fixed schedule - was a common part of the Sabbath service (Luke 4:16-17; Act 13:15 in contemporary Jewish observance one may not choose his or her own haftarah, explained Rabbi Moshe Feinstein , as that would run against accepted custom. Rabbi Karo's explanation, however, helps to explain why communities have varying customs regarding what to read as haftarah.

WHAT FORM OF THE TEXT IS READ

Unlike the Torah
Torah
portion, the haftarah is, nowadays, normally read from a printed book. This may be either a Tanakh
Tanakh
(entire Hebrew Bible), a Chumash (or "Humash") (volume containing the Torah
Torah
with haftarot) or, in the case of the festivals, the prayer book; there are also books containing the haftarot alone in large print. Even when a scroll of haftarah readings is used, that scroll - unlike the Torah scroll - may include such embellishments as the vowel points and trope.

However, according to most halakhic decisors (posqim ), it is preferable to read the haftarah out of a parchment scroll, and according to a small minority of posqim (mainly the followers of the Vilna Gaon ), such a parchment scroll is an absolute requirement. This may take various forms.

* According to some older traditions, the haftarot were read out of a special scroll containing just the selections of the Prophetic Books which were used in actual haftarot; this was known as a Sifra De'aftarta (ספרא דאפטרתא), and can still be found in a few communities today, both Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
and Sephardic; in some communities the scroll is made of paper. These scrolls sometimes contain vowel points and te`amim (cantillation signs), and sometimes do not. * However, the Vilna Gaon instituted that haftarot be read only from scrolls which contained the full text of a Prophetic Book (e.g., full text of Joshua, or full text of Judges, or full text of Isaiah), just as a Torah
Torah
scroll contains the full text of the Pentateuch. These scrolls are written in accordance with the laws of writing Torah scrolls, and thus - in the opinion of the Vilna Gaon - do not contain vowel points or cantillation signs. Such scrolls are used for the reading of the haftarot in many, perhaps most, Lithuanian-style yeshivot , and in a number of Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
synagogues, especially in Israel. * Some Orthodox insist that a scroll of haftarot is not sufficient, nor the scroll of an individual prophetic book, but require a scroll of the entire Prophetic segment of the Bible (Sefer Navi), which is relatively uncommon, although some would allow such a scroll to be written in ordinary ink or on ordinary paper (unlike Torah
Torah
scrolls), and if such a scroll is unavailable the entire congregation must read the haftarah for themselves, silently or in a murmur, from books rather than the maftir reciting aloud from something other than a scroll.

HAFTARAH BLESSINGS AND CUSTOMS

Blessings both precede and follow the haftarah reading. These blessings are derived from the minor (and uncanonical) Talmudic tractate Massekhet Soferim - also called, simply, Soferim, which dates back to the 7th or 8th century CE. But it is possible that these blessings, or at least some of them, date from before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E. At least some haftarah blessings were in use by the second century ( Talmud
Talmud
Babli, Shabbat
Shabbat
24a). The blessings are read by the person to read the haftarah portion; the blessing before the haftarah is read in the tune of the haftarah. The Sephardic practice is to recite, immediately after the text of the haftarah and before the concluding blessings, the verse Isaiah 47:4 ("Our Redeemer! The Lord of Hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel!"). The blessings following the haftarah are standard on all occasions the haftarah is read, except for the final blessing, which varies by date and is omitted on some days.

There are five blessings, one before, and the others after, the haftarah reading. These blessings may go back as far as the haftarah ritual itself. It will be immediately noticed that the haftarah has more, and longer, blessings than the reading of the Torah
Torah
itself; it is plausible that the reading from the Prophets was given this distinction in order to emphasize the sacred nature of the Prophetic books in the face of Samaritan rejection. If the haftarah is read by the maftir, then he had already recited two blessings for the Torah reading and the five haftarah blessings means he has recited a total of the significant number of seven blessings. The first blessing is not recited until the Torah
Torah
scroll has been rolled shut. And, similarly, the haftarah text itself - whether a book or a scroll - remains open on the lectern until after the final haftarah blessing is concluded. The blessings have changed but only a little over the centuries, the current text apparently coming from the late 11th century Machzor Vitry , with slight differences from the texts perpetuated in the tractate Massekhet Soferim (possibly 7th or 8th century), and the writings of Maimonides
Maimonides
, dating back to the 12th century.

The first blessing, chanted before the haftarah portion read, uses the same melody as the haftarah chant itself, also in minor mode. For this reason, many prayerbooks print this first blessing with the cantillation marks used in the Bible itself for the books of the Prophets, possibly the only instance of a non-biblical text to be equipped with such marks. This initial blessing is only two verses, but both begin with blessing God, yet are not interrupted by an intervening Amen.

The blessings are as follows: The FIRST BLESSING precedes the reading:

Blessed are you, Lord , our God, King of the universe, Who has chosen good prophets, And was pleased with their words spoken in truth.

Blessed are you, Lord, who has chosen the Torah, and his servant Moses, And his people Israel, And the prophets of truth and righteousness.

This is a somewhat free translation from the very poetic Hebrew text which is the same in both Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
and Sephardic prayerbooks. This first blessing is straight from the minor tractate Massekhet Soferim , chapter 13, paragraph 7. The first verse praises God, "who has chosen good prophets" (presumably distinguished from false prophets not called by God), the second verse is one of the few places in the Sabbath liturgy that mentions Moses, also chosen by God as were the prophets. In this context, 'Israel' means world Jewry wherever they may be.

Immediately after the last word of the haftarah has been read, many Sefardic, Mizrahi, and Italic congregations traditionally recite two Bible verses, which are then repeated by the maftir:

Our Redeemer - the Lord of Hosts is his name - the holy one of Israel. Blessed be the Lord forever. Amen and Amen.

The blessings that follow the reading of the haftarah are chanted in the pentatonic scale.

The SECOND BLESSING follows the end of the Prophetic reading:

Blessed are you, Lord, our God, King of the universe, Rock of all the worlds, righteous through all eras, The trustworthy God, who says and does, who speaks and fulfills, For all his words are true and just.

Trustworthy are you, Lord, and trustworthy are your words, And not a single one of your words is recalled as unfulfilled, Because you are God, king, trustworthy. Blessed are you Lord, the God who is trustworthy in all his words.

Again, this is straight from Massekhet Soferim , paragraphs 8 and 10; Paragraph 9 set out a congregational response which seems not to have been adopted; after the first verse the congregation would rise and say "Faithful are you Lord our God, and trustworthy are your words. O faithful, living, and enduring, may you constantly rule over us forever and ever." This response apparently was in use in antiquity - the Jews
Jews
of the eastern diaspora would recite this while seated, the Jews
Jews
of Eretz Yisrael would stand. This practice appears to have ceased during the Middle Ages (it is not in Amram's prayerbook of the 9th century although a phrase of it is in the Mahzor Vitry , (ca. 1100), but in the 18th century Rabbi Jacob Emden criticized its omission. The second half of the blessing echoes Isaiah 45:23 and 55:11.

The THIRD BLESSING follows immediately:

Be merciful to Zion, because it is the home of our life, And save the downtrodden soon, in our own days. Blessed are you Lord, who makes glad the children of Zion .

Very similar to Massekhet Soferim , paragraph 11, which begins "Comfort , Lord our God, Zion your city..." and ends "who comforts the children of Zion." Zion means Mount Zion, the hill in Jerusalem on which the Temple stood, although it had been destroyed centuries before this blessing was composed. It is possible that Mount Zion is mentioned deliberately to refute the Samaritans, who centered their devotion to Mount Gerizim instead of Mount Zion. Instead of "save" the downtrodden, Massekhet Soferim has "avenge" , which is used in the Yemenite version of the blessing. By the time of Amram Gaon (9th century) and Saadiah Gaon (10th century), as well as the Mahzor Vitry (ca. 1100), 'be merciful' had replaced 'comfort' - but 'avenge' was still part of the text—and into the last century was still part of both Romaniot and Yemenite versions. It has been suggested that "save" replaced "avenge" in so many communities because of Christian
Christian
and Moslem censorship or intimidation.

The FOURTH BLESSING follows immediately:

Make us glad, Lord our God, with the Prophet Elijah, your servant, and with the kingdom of the house of David, your anointed, May he arrive soon and bring joy to our hearts. Let no stranger sit upon his throne, Nor let others continue to usurp his glory. For you swore by your holy name that through all eternity his lamp will never go dark. Blessed are you Lord, shield of David.

This is virtually identical to the text in Massekhet Soferim , paragraph 12, until the last line. Before the second "Blessed are you", Soferim contains this line (quoting Jeremiah 23:6): "And in his days may Judah be made safe, and Israel to dwell securely, and he shall be called, 'the Lord is our vindicator'." This line remained in Romaniot liturgy. Instead of "Shield of David", Soferim has "who brings to fruition the mighty salvation of his people Israel." But by the 3rd century, "shield of David" was the text in use ( Talmud
Talmud
Babli, Pesachim 117b), predating Soferim. The lines "let no stranger sit on his throne" and "others continue to usurp his glory" might date back to the earliest Talmudic times, when the Hasmoneans and Herodians, rather than true descendants of the royal house of David, were rulers of the Holy Land.

The FIFTH (FINAL) BLESSING follows immediately and is a bit longer than the previous one:

For the Torah
Torah
reading, and for the worship service, and for the Prophets, And for this Sabbath day , which you have given us, Lord our God, For holiness and for respite, for honor and for splendor, For all of this, Lord our God, We gratefully thank you, and bless you. May your name be blessed by every living mouth, Always and forever. Blessed are you Lord, who sanctifies the Sabbath.

This is from paragraph 13 of Soferim, which does not contain the phrase "by every living mouth", and which concludes with "who sanctifies Israel and the Day of whatever " (this last word to be replaced by the proper name of the holy occasion). Amram Gaon and Maimonides
Maimonides
concluded with "who rebuilds Jerusalem," but this appears to have been discarded by all factions. This final blessing is modified for the various festivals and holidays. In all traditions that last phrase, "who sanctifies the Sabbath", is replaced by the appropriate substitute when the occasion is something other than an ordinary Sabbath, if a holiday falling on a Sabbath the phrasing is "And for this Sabbath day and for this day of this...." (if not on a Sabbath, then merely "and for this day of ..."); e.g. (for Passover) "Festival of Matzos", (on Shavuous) "Festival of Shavuous", (on Succos) "Festival of Succos, (on Shemini Atzeres or Simhas Torah) "Festival of the Assembly", (on Rosh Hashana) "Day of Remembrance", (on Yom Kippur) "Day of Atonement", - but it appears from Kol Bo (14th century) that Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
is the only fast day with a name and therefore this final blessing is not used on other fast days, such as Gedaliah or Esther or Tisha B'Av, since they have no such names that can be inserted into the blessing - and then the blessing concludes:

"... that you, Lord our God, have given us for gladness and joy , for honor and splendor. For all this Lord our God we thank you and praise you. May your name be blessed by every living mouth, always and forever. Blessed are you Lord, who sanctifies Israel and the Festivals."

And on Yom Kippur, replace the last line with :

Blessed are you Lord, the King who pardons and forgives our sins and the sins of his people, the family of Israel, and who removes our iniquities year after year, King over all the earth, who sanctifies Israel, and the Day of Atonement.

In ancient times the haftarah, like the Torah, was translated into Aramaic as it was read, and this is still done by Yemenite Jews
Jews
. The Talmud
Talmud
lays down that, while the Torah
Torah
must be translated verse by verse, it is permissible to translate other readings (such as the Haftarah) in units of up to three verses at a time.

Some generalities have been drawn from the haftarah choices, but they have exceptions. For example, that the haftarot have something in common, or some relevancy, with the Torah
Torah
reading. But, for example, the relevance for the parsha Bamidbar (Numbers 1:1-4:20) is the one word, "wilderness", in Hosea 12:16 (and, of course, the haftarot for special Sabbaths and holidays do not require any relation to the Torah reading for that week). Or, that the haftarah should be at least 21 verses in length, to match the minimal Torah
Torah
reading (see Talmud Babli, Megilla 23a and the haftarah for Miketz (Genesis 41:1-44:17) is, for Ashkenazim and Sephardim only 15 verses, and for Italic Jews only 14 verses. The Tosefta
Tosefta
mentions a haftarah in antiquity (before the 2nd century C.E.) that was just one verse, namely Isaiah 52:3, and some others that were only four or five verses. Another, that the haftarah reading should not end on a macabre or distressing verse, and therefore either the penultimate verse is repeated at the very end or else verses from elsewhere (sometimes even from different prophetic books) are used as a coda, such as with the haftarah for Tzav (Leviticus 6:1-8:36) (Ashkenazim and Sephardim skip ahead in the same prophet to avoid concluding with the description of the dire fate of the wicked, a total of 19 verses; Chabad and Yemenite also skip ahead to avoid concluding with a different disquieting verse, a total of 16 verses; Karaites and Romaniote go back and repeat the penultimate verse, promising the reappearance of Elijah, rather than end with the word "desolation" - and the same applies when everyone else reads the same passage on Shabbat
Shabbat
Hagadol ). Among the consistent characteristics is that entire verses are read; never is only a part of a verse read.

In antiquity there was no prescribed list of haftarah readings for the year, although the Talmudic literature (including the Midrash and Tosefta) does report some recommendations for specific holidays. It would appear that, in antiquity, the choice of portion from the Prophets was made ad hoc, without regard for the choice of previous years or of other congregations, either by the reader or by the congregation or its leaders; this is evidenced by recommendations in Talmudic literature that certain passages should not be chosen for haftarah readings, which indicates that, to that time, that a regular list for the year's readings did not exist. Further evidence of the lack of an ancient authoritative list of readings is the simple fact that, while the practice of reading a haftarah every Sabbath and most holy days is ubiquitous, the different traditions and communities around the world have by now adopted differing lists, indicating that no solid tradition from antiquity dictated the haftarah selections for a majority of the ordinary Sabbaths.

HAFTARAH CANTILLATION

The haftarah is read with cantillation according to a unique melody (not with the same cantillation melody as the Torah). The tradition to read Nevi'im
Nevi'im
with its own special melody is attested to in late medieval sources, both Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
and Sephardic . A medieval Sephardic source notes that the melody for the haftarot is a slight variation of the tune used for reading the books of Nevi\'im in general (presumably for study purposes), and Jews
Jews
of Iraqi origin to this day preserve separate "Neviim" and "Haftarah" melodies.

Note that although many selections from Nevi\'im are read as haftarot over the course of the year, the books of Nevi\'im are not read in their entirety (as opposed to the Torah). Since Nevi\'im as a whole is not covered in the liturgy, the melodies for certain rare cantillation notes which appear in the books of Nevi\'im but not in the haftarot have been forgotten. For more on this, see Nevi\'im .

As a generality, although the Torah
Torah
was chanted in a major key (ending in a minor key), the haftarah is chanted in a minor key (as is the blessing before the reading of the haftarah) and ends in a pentatonic mode (and the blessings following the haftarah reading are also pentatonic).

The Haftarot for the morning of Tisha b'Av, and for the Shabbat preceding it, are, in many synagogues, predominantly read to the cantillation melody used for the public reading of the Book of Lamentations , or Eicha.

Leonard Bernstein employed the Haftarah cantillation melody extensively as a theme in the second movement ("Profanation") of his Symphony No. 1 ("Jeremiah").

HAFTAROT ON SABBATH AFTERNOON

Some Rishonim , including Rabbenu Yaakov Tam , report that a custom in the era of the Talmud
Talmud
was to read a haftarah at the mincha service each Sabbath afternoon — but that this haftarah was from the Ketuvim rather than from the Nevi\'im . Most halachic authorities maintain that that was not the custom in Talmudic times, and that such a custom should not be followed. In the era of the Geonim , some communities, including some in Persia , read a passage from Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(whether or not in the form of a haftarah) Sabbath afternoons. Although this practice is virtually defunct, most halachic authorities maintain that there is nothing wrong with it.

Rabbi Reuven Margolies claims that the now-widespread custom of individuals' reciting Psalm
Psalm
111 after the Torah
Torah
reading Sabbath afternoon derives from the custom reported by Rabbenu Tam. Louis Ginzberg makes the analogous claim for the custom of reciting Psalm
Psalm
91 in Motza'ei Shabbat.

HAFTARAH AS A B\'NAI MITZVAH RITUAL

In many communities the haftarah is read by a Bar Mitzvah or Bat Mitzvah at his or her respective ceremonies, along with some, all, or, sometimes none of the Torah
Torah
portion. This is often referred to, mainly in Hebrew schools and bar preparatory programs, as a haftarah portion.

LIST OF HAFTAROT

The selections of haftarot readings for the various weeks, and holy days, of the year differs from tradition to tradition - Ashkenazic from Sefardic from Yemenite from Mizrachi, etc. And even within a tradition there is no one authoritative list, but a multitude of different lists from different communities and congregations, usually differing from each other by only one or two haftarot. A study of the antiquity of each of these lists, and how they differ from each other, is beyond the scope of this (or any other brief) article but may be most informative on the history (including the contacts and separations) of the various communities.

The selection from Nevi\'im read as the haftarah is not always the same in all Jewish communities. When customs differ, this list indicates them as follows: A= Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
custom (AF= Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
; AH= Chabad ; AP= Poland ); I=Italian custom; S= Sephardic and Mizrahi custom (SM= Maghreb
Maghreb
; SZ= Mizrahi ); Y=Yemenite custom; R=Romaniote (Byzantine, eastern Roman empire, extinct) custom; and K=Karaite custom. In some instances Isr.Wikip = the Israeli version of (in Hebrew) of this article had different readings in its list. In several instances, authorities did not agree on the readings of various communities.

Because, in the Diaspora, certain holy days and festivals are observed for an additional day, which day is not so observed in Eretz Yisrael, sometimes different haftarot are read simultaneously inside and outside Eretz Yisrael. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

HAFTAROT FOR GENESIS

* Bereshit (1:1–6:8)

* A: Isaiah 42:5–43:10 * S, AF, AH, AP: Isaiah 42:5–21 * Portuguese (acc to Dotan, Lyons): Isaiah 42:5–21, and 61:10, and 62:5 * I: Isaiah 42:1–21 * Y: Isaiah 42:1–16 * R: Isaiah 65:16–66:11 * K: Isaiah 65:17–66:13

* Noach (6:9–11:32)

* A, Y, I, SM: Isaiah 54:1-55:5 * some Y communities: Isaiah 54:1–55:3 * S, AF, AH: Isaiah 54:1–10 * K, R: Isaiah 54:9–55:12

* Lech-Lecha (12:1–17:27)

* A, S: Isaiah 40:27–41:16 * Y, I: Isaiah 40:25-41:17 * R: Joshua 24:3–23 * K: Joshua 24:3–18

* Vayera (18:1–22:24)

* A, Y, AH, I, Algiers: Second Kings 4:1-37 * S, AF, AP: Second Kings 4:1–23 * R: Isaiah 33:17–34:13 * K: Isaiah 33:17–35:12 and verse 35:10

* Chayei Sarah (23:1–25:18)

* A, S, Y, Dardaim (Yemeni Orthodox) communities: First Kings 1:1–31 (some Y add at end First Kings 1:46) * I: First Kings 1:1-34 * K, R: Isaiah 51:2–22

* Toledot (25:19–28:9)

* A, S, I: Malachi 1:1-2:7 * Y: Malachi 1:1–3:4 * K, R: Isaiah 65:23–66:18

* Vayetze (28:10–32:3) (S.R. Hirsch notes that there are conflicting traditions about Vayetze; what follows is as given in Hirsch, Hertz, Jerusalem Crown, some other A (acc to Dotan) Hosea 12:13-14:7 * S (also A, acc Cassuto, IDF): Hosea 11:7-12:12 * K, Amsterdam, Algiers, some SM (and S, acc to ArtScroll): Hosea 11:7-13:5 * Y, I, Baghdad, Djerba (Tunisia), (and AH, acc to Cassuto): Hosea 11:7-12:14 * AH (acc to Hirsch): Hosea 11:7-12:12; * R: Hosea 12:13–14:3

* Vayishlach (32:4–36:43)

* A (acc to many authorities, including Hertz) (a few A, acc to Dotan; "some" A, acc to Hirsch): Hosea 11:7–12:12

* S, Y, I, R, K, AH (and many A, acc to Dotan, Lyons)(both A & S, acc to Hirsch, SJC, –47:27)

* A, S, I: Ezekiel 37:15-28 * R: Joshua 14:6-15:6 * K: Joshua 14:6-14:15

* Vayechi (47:28-50:26, end; after the reading of the final verse of Genesis the entire congregation proclaims Hazak, hazak, v'nit'hazek ! - "Be strong, be strong, and may we all be strengthened!")

* A, S, I: First Kings 2:1-12 * K, R: Second Kings 13:14–14:7

HAFTAROT FOR EXODUS

* Shemot (1:1–6:8)

* A, (acc to Dotan) some S: Isaiah 27:6–28:13 it is customary for the congregation to stand while the Song at the Sea, 15:1-19, is read)

* A, AH: Judges 4:4-5:31 (longest Haftarah of the weekly readings) * Y, Libya, Fez, Istanbul: Judges 4:23–5:31 * I, (some A, acc to Isr.Wikip.): Judges 4:4–5:3 * some A (acc to Benisch notes in English) Judges 4:4-24 * S: Judges 5:1–5:31 * K, R: Joshua 24:7–24:26

* Yitro (18:1–20:26) (it is customary for the congregation to stand while the Ten Commandments, 20:1-14, are read)

* A, I, Baghdad, Algiers: Isaiah 6:1-7:6 & 9:5-6 * S, AH, some I: Isaiah 6:1-13 * Y: Isaiah 6:1-6:13 & 9:5-6 * R: Isaiah 33:13–34:10 * K: Isaiah 33:13–34:8

* Mishpatim (21:1–24:18) °

* A, S, some I: Jeremiah 34:8-22 & 33:25-26 * Y: Jeremiah 34:8–35:19 * I: Jeremiah 34:8–35:11 * R: Isaiah 56:1–57:10

* K: Isaiah 56:1–57:2& (° in most years, the Sabbath of Mishpatim is the Sabbath of Parsha Shekalim)

* Terumah (25:1–27:19)

* A, S, I, Y: First Kings 5:26-6:13 * R: Isaiah 60:17–62:3 * K: Isaiah 60:17–61:9

* Tetzaveh (27:20–30:10)

* A, S, I, Y: Ezekiel 43:10-27 * K, R: Jeremiah 11:16–12:15

* Ki Tissa (30:11-34:35) (in some congregations the verses about the golden calf, 31:18-32:10 and 32:15-33:6, are read in a whisper)

* A: First Kings 18:1-39 * S, AH, AF, AP, ( after the reading of the final verse of Exodus the entire congregation proclaims Hazak, hazak, v'nit'hazek ! - "Be strong, be strong, and may we all be strengthened!") ° (° in most years this haftarah is not read because it falls on the Sabbath of Parsha HaHodesh, or, less often, Parsha Shekalim )

* A, AH: First Kings 7:51–8:21 * S, Y, Baghdad, I: First Kings 7:40–50 (acc to Cassuto, I end with verse 51)

* AF: First Kings 7:40–8:1

* Perushim (disciples of the Vilna Gaon who settled in Eretz Yisrael): First Kings 7:40–8:21

* I: First Kings 7:40-51 * R: First Kings 7:27–47 * K: Jeremiah 30:18–31:13

HAFTAROT FOR LEVITICUS

* Vayikra (1:1–5:26)

* A, S: Isaiah 43:21–44:23 * Y, I, some SM: Isaiah 43:21–44:6 * R: Isaiah 43:21–44:13 * K: Isaiah 43:21–44:23

* Tzav (6:1–8:36) ° (° In many years this Haftarah is not read because it coincides with Shabbat
Shabbat
Hagadol, or, less often, the Sabbath of Parsha Zachor or of Parsha Parah.)

* A, S: Jeremiah 7:21–8:3; 9:22–23 * Y, AH: Jeremiah 7:21–28; 9:22–23 * I, Fez: Jeremiah 7:21–28; (acc to Isr.Wikip.) I. adds at end Jeremiah 10:6-7 * K, R: Malachi 3:4–3:24, & repeat 3:23

* Shemini (9:1–11:47)

* A: Second Samuel 6:1–7:17 * S, AH: Second Samuel 6:1-19 (and some add 7:16–17) * Y, I: Second Samuel 6:1–7:3 * R: Ezekiel 43:27–44:21 * K: Ezekiel 43:27–44:16

* Tazria (12:1–13:59)

* A, S, I, Y: Second Kings 4:42–5:19 * K, R: Isaiah 66:7–66:24, & repeat 66:23

* Tazria – Metzora

* Second Kings 7:3–20

* Metzora (14:1–15:33)

* A, S, AH, R: Second Kings 7:3–20 * Y, I: Second Kings 7:1–20 & 13:23 * K: Second Kings 7:3-18

* Acharei Mot (16:1-18:30) (both Hirsch and the ArtScroll humashim note that there is some confusion over the correct Haftarah. In most years this parsha is combined with next, Kedoshim, so the two are seldom distinguished from each other: )

* A (acc to Hirsch, Dotan, & ArtScroll), AH: Amos 9:7-15 * A, S (acc to Hertz, Hirsch), Berlin, (and, acc to Hirsch, A in Israel): Ezekiel 22:1-19 ° * S, K, AF (and A, acc to Cassuto, Koren, IDF, Jerusalem Crown, Benisch, & Isr.Wikip.): Ezekiel 22:1-16 °

* R: Ezekiel 22:1-20 (° This reading contains the verse, disparaging the city of Jerusalem, which Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus disfavored in Megilla 25b. It was therefore the practice of the Vilna Gaon, of Rabbi Joseph Soloveichik, and others, to read the haftarah for the next parsha from Amos, even if this meant repeating the same Amos reading two weeks in a row.)

* Acharei Mot - Kedoshim

* A, AH: Amos 9:7-15 (this is contrary to the usual rule that when weekly portions must be combined, the second week's haftarah is read) * S, I: Ezekiel 20:2-20

* Kedoshim (19:1-20:27) (again, some confusion)

* A (acc to ArtScroll): Ezekiel 22:1-16 * A (acc to Hirsch): Ezekiel 22:1-19 * A (acc to Cassuto, Hertz, IDF, Jerusalem Crown, Benische, Dotan, Koren, & Isr.Wikip.): Amos 9:7-15 * S, AH, Y, I (acc to Hirsch, and Benisch): Ezekiel 20:1-20

* S (acc to Cassuto, ArtScroll, Hertz, IDF, Jerusalem Crown, Koren, and some S acc to Hirsch), some I: Ezekiel 20:2-20 * Y (acc to Isr.Wikip.): Ezekiel 20:1-15 * R: Isaiah 3:4-5:17 * K: Isaiah 4:3-5:16

* Emor (21:1-24:23)

* A, S, Y, I: Ezekiel 44:15-31 * K, R: Ezekiel 44:25-45:11

* Behar (25:1-26:2) (in most years, this parsha is combined with Bechukotai )

* A, S: Jeremiah 32:6-27 * AH: Jeremiah 32:6-22 * Y, I: Jeremiah 16:19-17:14 * K, R: Isaiah 24:2–23

* Behar - Bechukotai (in most years the Torah
Torah
portions for both parshot are read with the haftarah for Bechukotai )

* A, S: Jeremiah 16:19–17:14

* Bechukotai (26:3-27:34, end; after the reading of the final verse of Leviticus the entire congregation proclaims Hazak, hazak, v'nit'hazek ! - "Be strong, be strong, and may we all be strengthened!") (The person who reads the list of curses is not called up by name, and is supposed to read the curses in a whisper and as fast as possible) (In most years this parsha is combined with Behar )

* A, S, AH: Jeremiah 16:19–17:14 * Y: Ezekiel 34:1–27 * I: Ezekiel 34:1–15 * AP: Ezekiel 34:1–31 * K, R, Iraq: Isaiah 1:19–2:11

HAFTAROT FOR NUMBERS

* Bamidbar (1:1–4:20)

* Hosea 2:1–22

* Naso (4:21–7:89)

* A, S, I: Judges 13:2–25 * R: Hosea 4:14–6:2 * Y, K: Judges 13:2–24

* Behaalotecha (8:1–12:16) °

* A, S, I, R, K: Zechariah 2:14–4:7 * Y: Zechariah 2:14–4:9

* Libya: Zechariah 2:14–4:10 (° This haftarah, in all traditions, includes Zechariah 3:2, which contains the very rarely used cantillation accent of mercha kefula , under zeh - "this ".)

* Shlach (13:1–15:41)

* A, S, I, Y: Joshua 2:1–24 * R: Joshua 2:1–21 * K: Joshua 2:1–15

* Korach (16:1–18:32)

* A, S, Y: First Samuel 11:14–12:22 * R: Hosea 10:2–11:8 * K: Hosea 10:2–11:9

* Chukat (19:1-22:1)

* A, S, I: Judges 11:1–33 * Y: Judges 11:1–40 * R: Judges 11:1–21 * K: Judges 11:1–17

* Chukat - Balak (this occurs only when the Sabbath falls on the 12th of Tammuz)

* Micah 5:6–6:8 * I: Micah 5:4–6:8

* Balak (22:2–25:9)

* A, S, Y, R, K: Micah 5:6-6:8 * I: Micah 5:4-6:8

* Pinchas (25:10-30:1), if before 18 Tammuz (rarely read; read only in some of the years with a Second Adar) °

* A, S, I: First Kings 18:46-19:21 * R: First Kings 18:46-19:16

* K, some R, Syracuse (Sicily): Malachi 2:5-3:3 (Syracuse ends at 3:4, R ends 3:8) (° in most years Pinchas falls after 17 Tammuz, and the haftarot for Matot is read instead. The haftarah for Pinchas is read rarely - and only in some of the years that have a Second Adar, and - because of peculiarities in observing holy days in the Diaspora - is read in the Diaspora - as it is in the summers of 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2035, 2052, 2062, 2065, 2079, 2092 - only about half as often as it is read in Eretz Yisrael. See the note for the next Sabbath)

* Matot (30:2-32:42) °

* A, S, Y, R, K: Jeremiah 1:1-2:3

* I: Joshua 13:15-33 (° this Sabbath, or the preceding one, begins the three Sabbaths before the Fast of the 9th of Av (Tisha B\'Av ), the Three Sabbaths of Calamity, whose haftarot, at least for A and S, are two prophecies of Jeremiah, and one from Isaiah. In most years, Matot is combined with Masei and only the haftarah for Masei is read; only in the same years that Pinchas occurs before 18 Tammuz are Matot and Masei read on separate Sabbaths.)

* Matot - Masei °

* A: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 3:4 * S, AH: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 4:1-2 * I: Joshua 19:51-21:3 * R: Isaiah 1:1-27 * Y, some R: Jeremiah 1:1-19

* Algiers, some Y: Jeremiah 2:4-4:2 (° in most years Matot and Masei are combined in one Sabbath, and as customary only the second haftarah - the one for Masei - is read.)

* Masei (33:1-36:13, end; after the reading of the final verse of Numbers the entire congregation proclaims Hazak, hazak, v'nit'hazek ! - "Be strong, be strong, and may we all be strengthened!")

* A: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 3:4 * S, AH, R, Y: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 4:1-2 * (acc to Isr.Wikip.) Y: Joshua 1:1-20 * I: Joshua 19:51–21:3. * K: Joshua 20:1–9.

HAFTAROT FOR DEUTERONOMY

* Devarim (1:1-3:22) (this is always Shabbat
Shabbat
Hazon , the Sabbath preceding the Fast of Tisha B\'Av , the 9th of Av)

* A, S, I, R, K: Isaiah 1:1-27 (in some congregations this is chanted to the melody of the Scroll of Lamentations until verse 25) * Y: Isaiah 1:21-31 * Libya: Isaiah 22:1-13 * Djerba: Isaiah 22:1-14 (some Djerba add at end 1:27)

* Va\'etchanan (3:23–7:11) (it is customary for the congregation to stand while the Ten Commandments, 5:6-18, are read) (This is always Shabbat
Shabbat
Nahamu , the first Sabbath after the Fast of the 9th of Av (Tisha B\'Av ), and the first of the Seven Haftarot of Consolation)

* A, S, R, some I: Isaiah 40:1-26 * Y: Isaiah 40:1–27 otherwise Shabbat
Shabbat
Shuvah coincides with Netzavim and so the haftarah of Netzavim is shifted to the week of Vayelech. Several editions - e.g., Hirsch, Hertz, ArtScroll - have assigned the Shabbat
Shabbat
Shuva reading as the customary haftarah for Vayelech, some others - such as the IDF and JPS1985 - have no haftarah listed specifically for Vayelech.)

* A, S (acc to ArtScroll, JPS1917), I, Y, Algiers, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Syracuse: Isaiah 55:6-56:8 (This reading from Isaiah is also used as the afternoon (minchah ) haftarah for minor fast days, such as Gedaliah or Esther.)

* Haazinu (32:1-51)

* A, S, R: Second Samuel 22:1-51 * I, Y: Ezekiel 17:22-18:32 * Algiers: Isaiah 61:10–63:9 * K: Hosea 14:2–10

* V\'Zot HaBerachah (33:1–34:12, end; after the reading of the final verse of Deuteronomy the entire congregation proclaims Hazak, hazak, v'nit'hazek ! - "Be strong, be strong, and may we all be strengthened!") (The haftarah for this Parashah is seldom read because it coincides with Simhat Torah
Torah
which has its own special haftarah.)

* A (including Hertz), AH, I: Joshua 1:1–18 * S, (acc to Isr.Wikip.) K: Joshua 1:1–9 * Y: Joshua 1:1–9 and except Rosh Hashanah ( Torah
Torah
reading: Numbers 28:9-15, acc to JPS, Hirsch, Soncino Chumash; Numbers 28:1-15, acc to Hertz, ArtScroll)

* A, S, K: Isaiah 66:1–24 & repeat 66:23 * Y, AH: Isaiah 66:1–24 & repeat 66:23 * a few Djerba: Isaiah 66:5-24 29 (some R continue to verse 31:35) * Baghdad: Jeremiah 30:25-31:19

* Fast of Gedaliah , morning haftarah

* none

* Fast of Gedaliah, afternoon haftarah

* A, Y, AH, some S, some SM: Isaiah 55:6–56:8 (same as used on minchah of 9th of Av) * I: Hosea 14:2–10 * (acc to Dotan, most Sephardic congregations have no haftarah for Fast of Gedalia)

* Sabbath before Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
( Shabbat
Shabbat
Shuvah ) (usually the same week as Parsha Vayelech)

* Hosea 14:2-10. Also, some communities add either Joel 2:15 (or 2:11)–27 or Micah 7:18–20. Hirsch says, because the Hosea reading ends on a sad note, A added the passage from Joel, S added the one from Micah. However, many communities nowadays add both these passages. * R, (Y, acc to Jerusalem Crown): Hosea 14:2-10

* (acc to Hirsch as "prevalent custom") A, S: Hosea 14:2-10, Micah 7:18-20, Joel 2:11-27 (Dotan notes that this is done in "some communities" although contrary to the halachic practice) ( ArtScroll has Joel as second, Micah as last; Dotan notes this is used in "a few communities", Hirsch says this is the practice in Eretz Israel.) * (acc to Hertz) A, S: Hosea 14:2-10, Micah 7:18-20, Joel 2:15-27 * A (acc to Dotan, Koren, Hirsch, Jerusalem Crown, Lindo, & Isr.Wikip.): Hosea 14:2–10, and Joel 2:15–27 (Benisch lists this as the A haftarah for Haazinu) * S (acc to Dotan, Koren, Hirsch, Benisch, Lindo, & Jerusalem Crown), and some apply a more complex exchange of haftarot if there is - as often occurs - a Sabbath in the four days between Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
and the beginning of Sukkot;in which case that Sabbath is Parsha Haazinu.)

* Yom Kippur, morning haftarah ( Torah
Torah
reading: Leviticus chap. 16 and Numbers 29:7-11)

* A, S, AH: Isaiah 57:14–58:14 (R begin at 57:15) * Y, I: Isaiah 57:14-58:14 R end at 9:5) * K: Jonah (entire)

* Simhat Torah
Torah
( Torah
Torah
reading: Deuteronomy 33:1-34:12 ° and Genesis 1:1-2:3 and Numbers 29:35-30:1)

* A, AH, I: Joshua 1:1–18

* S, Y: Joshua 1:1–9 (Y add verse 6:27) (some S follow this with the haftarah used for a bridgegroom .) * R, some I: First Kings 8:22–53 (this is the reading originally assigned by the Talmud
Talmud
for this day.) ° (because, on the eve of the Simhat Torah, the Torah
Torah
scroll is removed from the Ark, some congregations also read Deuteronomy 33:1-26, the only time the scroll is read after dark)

* First (or only) Sabbath of Hanukkah
Hanukkah
°

* A, S, AH: Zechariah 2:14–4:7

* Y: Zechariah 2:14–4:9 (° This haftarah is recommended in the Talmud
Talmud
(Megillah 31a), in all traditions, includes Zechariah 3:2, which contains the very rarely used cantillation accent of mercha kefula , under zeh - "this ".) (It appears there was an ancient custom to read, or to read additionally, First Kings 7:51-8:21, describing the dedication of the first Temple.)

* Second Sabbath of Hanukkah
Hanukkah

* A, S, Y, I: First Kings 7:40–50 (this is also the A haftarah for Yayakhel, which is also very seldom read because it often coincides with Pekudei or with a special Sabbath, and in fact the two readings of this haftarah will never occur in the same year.) * R: First Kings 7:27–47

* Sabbath immediately preceding the second day of Adar (or of Second Adar ) (Sabbath of Parsha Shekalim ) ° ( Torah
Torah
reading: Exodus 30:11-16)

* A, Y: Second Kings 12:1–17 (this is the selection recommended in the Talmud, Megillah 29b) * S, AH: Second Kings 11:17–12:17

* R, K: Ezekiel 45:12-46:5 (° This is the first of four Sabbaths preceding Passover. It occurs on the Sabbath that either coincides with the New Moon, or precedes the New Moon that occurs during the following week, of the month of Second Adar — or of Adar in an ordinary year. These four Sabbaths may be the oldest assigned haftarot, from Tosefta, Megillah chap.4.)

* Sabbath immediately preceding Purim (Sabbath of Parsha Zachor ) ( Torah
Torah
reading: Deuteronomy 25:17-19)

* A, AH: First Samuel 15:2–34 * S: First Samuel 15:1–34 * Y: First Samuel 14:52–15:33

* Purim (not an actual haftarah)

* on the Eve of Purim in a festive atmosphere, and in many congregations on the morning of Purim in a more sedate mood, the entire Scroll of Esther is read, preceded by a special blessing of God "who commanded us to read the Scroll" (in Esther 9:21) and followed by another blessing of God "who avenges his people Yisrael"

* Sabbath Shushan Purim in cities that celebrate only ordinary Purim

* No special haftarah: the usual haftarah for that week's parsha is read.

* Sabbath Shushan Purim in cities that celebrate it (same as for Parsha Zachor )

* A, AH: First Samuel 15:2–34 * S: First Samuel 15:1–34 * Y: First Samuel 14:52–15:33

* Sabbath immediately following Shushan Purim (Sabbath of Parsha Parah ) ( Torah
Torah
reading: Numbers 19:1-22)

* A: Ezekiel 36:16–38 * S, AH, Y: Ezekiel 36:16–36

* Sabbath immediately preceding the second day of Nisan (Sabbath of Parsha Hahodesh ) ° ( Torah
Torah
reading: Exodus 12:1-20)

* A: Ezekiel 45:16–46:18

* S, AF (& AH acc to Dotan): Ezekiel 45:18–46:15

* AH: Ezekiel 45:18–46:16 * Algiers: Ezekiel 45:18-46:15 & 47:12

* Y: Ezekiel 45:9–46:11

* I: Ezekiel 45:18–46:18 (° If Rosh Hodesh for Nisan coincides with Parsha Hahodesh, then the haftarah for Hahodesh, not for Rosh Hodesh, is read because the obligation of this special parsha is greater. Dotan says that if Shabbat
Shabbat
Hahodesh coincides with Rosh Hodesh, then S and SZ add to the Hahodesh haftarah the first and last verses of the haftarah of Rosh Hodesh , if Shabbat
Shabbat
Hahodesh falls on the day before Rosh Hodesh, then they add the first and last verses of the haftarah for the Eve of Rosh Hodesh )

* Sabbath immediately preceding Passover
Passover
( Shabbat
Shabbat
HaGadol )

* Malachi 3:4-24 & repeat 3:23

* Y,some AH, AF, some SM: read the regular haftarah for that week ° ° Several sources report that "some communities" (including some A and Hassidic, including Chabad) read the special haftarah only when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbat
Shabbat
Hagadol (meaning the first seder is celebrated that Saturday night) - which occurs infrequently, and "other communities" (including some other A and Hassidic) read the special haftarah on Shabbat
Shabbat
HaGadol only if Erev Pesach falls on another day of the week. Erev Pesach falls on Shabbat
Shabbat
HaGadol in the spring of 1994, 2001, 2005, 2008, 2021, 2025, 2045, 2048, 2052, 2072, 2075, 2079, and 2099.

* First day of Passover
Passover
( Torah
Torah
reading: Exodus 12:21-51, and Numbers 28:16-25)

* Joshua 5:2-6:1 & 6:27

* AH, (and A, acc to Dotan, SCJ, and Benisch): Joshua 3:5–7, 5:2-6:1, & 6:27 (the Munkatcher Rebbe omitted verse 3:7), ('Hertz' omitted Joshua 3:5-7) * AF, R, and Perushim : Joshua 5:2–6:1

* Second day of Passover
Passover
(in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael ) ( Torah
Torah
reading: Leviticus 22:26-23:44 and Numbers 28:16-25)

* A, S, AH: Second Kings 23:1–9 & 23:21–25 ° (° many, perhaps most, skip verses 23:10-20, but the Vilna Gaon recommended that these verses be read - except verse 13, because it mentions a shameful deed by King Solomon. Some congregations begin the reading at 23:4.) * Y: Second Kings 22:1–7 & 23:21–25 * I: Second Kings 23:1–9 & 23:21–30 * K: Second Kings 23:21–30

* Sabbath of the intermediate days of Passover
Passover
( Shabbat
Shabbat
Hol Hamoed Pesach ) ° ( Torah
Torah
reading: Exodus 33:12-34:26 and Numbers 28:19-25)

* A, S: Ezekiel 37:1–17

* AH: Ezekiel 37:1–14

* Y: Ezekiel 36:37–37:14

* I, R (and A and S, acc to Benisch): Ezekiel 36:37–37:17 (acc to Benisch, S stop at 37:14) (° Although not an actual haftarah, it is a widespread practice to read the entire scroll of the Song of Songs , without any specific blessings, before the Torah
Torah
reading on the intermediate Sabbath of Passover, or, if there is no intermediate Sabbath, then on the seventh or eighth day of Passover, whichever is a Sabbath).

* Seventh day of Passover ( Torah
Torah
reading: Exodus 13:17-15:26 and Numbers 28:19-25)

* Second Samuel 22:1–51 (Aleppo begins at 21:15)

* Eighth day of Passover
Passover
(in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael ) ( Torah
Torah
reading: if not a Sabbath, Deuteronomy 15:19-16:17, if on a Sabbath Deuteronomy 14:22-16:17, and Numbers 28:19-25)

* Isaiah 10:32–12:6 (also read on Yom Ha\'atzmaut ) * I, K: Judges 5:1–31

* First day of Shavuot ( Torah
Torah
reading: Exodus 19:1-20:23 and Numbers 28:26-31)

* A, S, AH: Ezekiel 1:1–28 & 3:12 ° * Y: Ezekiel 1:1–2:2 & 3:12

* K: Habakkuk 1:1–3:19 (° The Shulchan Aruch directs the reading of Ezekiel 1:1 through 3:12 continuously, but most skip all or part of chapter 2 and skip to 3:12. Because the first chapter of Ezekiel describes the Heavenly Chariot, this haftarah is customarily read and expounded by a rabbi or an esteemed scholar, in keeping with the direction of the Mishna, Hagigah 2:1.) (Although not an actual haftarah, immediately before the Torah reading in the morning service of Shavuot in Israel - in the Diaspora, this is in the morning service of the second day of Shavuot - the entire scroll of Ruth is read, without special blessings.)

* Second day of Shavuot (in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael ) ( Torah
Torah
reading: if not a Sabbath Deuteronomy 15:19-16:17, if on a Sabbath Deuteronomy 14:22-16:17, and Numbers 28:26-31)

* Habakkuk 2:20–3:19 ° (° Many A congregations, after reading the first verse of the haftarah (namely 2:20), then read an Aramaic piyyut (poem), Yetziv Pisgam , extolling God's infinite power, after which the reading from Habakkuk resumes. A minority of congregations recite a different poem, Ata Vedugma, instead, and some do not interrupt the haftarah with any poem.) * R, some A: Habakkuk 3:1-3:19

* 9th of Av (Tisha B\'Av ), eve of (not an actual haftarah)

* the regular evening service on the eve of the Fast of Tisha B'Av, conducted in a funereal atmosphere, with the reading of the entire scroll of Lamentations , reading from a paper copy not from parchment, concluded with a repetition of verse 5:21, without any specific blessings before or after, followed by a collection of dirges (kinot ). Some congregations repeat the reading at the end of the morning service.

* 9th of Av (Tisha B\'Av ), morning haftarah ( Torah
Torah
reading: Deuteronomy 4:25-40) (Those called to read from the Torah
Torah
scroll are not given the usual congratulations for this honor)

* A, S, AH: Jeremiah 8:13–9:23 (chanted to the melody used for the Scroll of Lamentations) * Y: Jeremiah 6:16–17 some S read the entire Book of Job

* 9th of Av (Tisha B\'Av ), minchah (afternoon) haftarah

* A, AH: Isaiah 55:6–56:8

* most S: Hosea 14:2–10 (the reading from Hosea was first mentioned, as optional, for this service by Isaac Ibn Ghiyath, Spain ca. 1080, and is used by all except A) * Y, I: Hosea 14:2–10 afternoon haftarah ( Torah
Torah
reading: Exodus 32:11-14 and 34:1-10)

* A, and Algiers (acc to Dotan): Isaiah 55:6–56:8 (same as used on 9th of Av, afternoon) * S, Y: none * some SM (acc to Dotan): Hosea 14:2–10, and Micah 7:18–20.

* Sabbath coinciding with Rosh Hodesh of Elul
Elul
°

* Isaiah 66:1–24 Israel Abrahams, A Companion to the Authorised Daily Prayer Book (1922, rev. ed., London) pages clvi-clvii; Israel Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels (1917, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1st series) page 4-5; it appears that in antiquity the Sabbath service ended with the haftarah so that the congregation was dismissed and free to go home. The word haftaro - הפטרה - is used in Midrash Rabbah of Genesis, sec. 69 (last paragraph), for "farewell speech". * ^ Goswell argues that the arrangement "suggests we should understand the books of Joshua - Kings as illustrating and applying the theology and ethics of the Pentateuch ." Gregory Goswell, "The Hermeneutics of the Haftarot," Tyndale Bulletin 58 (2007), 100. * ^ A B Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs Samuel N. Hoenig, "Haftarah-Sidrah: Mirror Images" in Michael A. Schmidman, ed., Turim: Studies in Jewish History and Literature Presented to Dr. Bernard Lander (2007, L.A., Touro College Press) vol.1, page 59. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) pages 4-5. Among the reasons for doubting, ancient sources list many oppressive acts by Antiochus but none mentions this, the reading of Haftarot also dates from antiquity in places that Antiochus never ruled, and it seems doubtful that any anti-Jewish villain would be so punctilious as to forbid only the Mosaic books but permit the Prophetic books. Stephen Gabriel Rosenberg, The Haphtara Cycle (2000, NJ. Jason Aronson) page xxi, "But this is a doubtful proposition as the Book of Maccabees tells us that the Jews
Jews
were not permitted to even keep the Sabbath (I Macc. 1:45-50 and II Macc. 6:11) and that all scrolls of the Law were burnt (I Macc. 1:56). So all forms of Sabbath worship would have been prohibited in the Temple or outside of it. Josephus in his version of the events adds that all sacred books of the Law were destroyed (Antiquities XII:256). There is no reason to think therefore that the books of the Nevi'im
Nevi'im
would be allowed any more than the scrolls of the Law (Torah) themselves, and in any case it is hardly likely that such manuscripts were available to ordinary people." (emphasis in original). Also, Jacob Mann, "Changes in the Divine Service of the Synagogue
Synagogue
Due to Religious Persecutions", Hebrew Union College Annual vol. 4 (1927) pages 282-284. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs see Naomi G. Cohen, Philo's Scriptures: Citations from the Prophets and Writings, Evidence for a Haftarah Cycle in Second Temple Judaism
Judaism
(2007, Leiden, NL: E.J. Brill, Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, vol. 123) page 69. A fragment from the 11th or 12th century in Cairo lists a few haftarot not now in use -- but also shows that the Torah
Torah
readings used were different from what is now virtually universal (e.g. one Torah portion is Numbers 25:1-10, but the ubiquitous practice for the past several centuries is that one Torah
Torah
portion, Balak, ends with verse 9, and the next week's, Pinchas, begins with verse 10). E.N. Adler, "MS. of Haftaras of the Triennial Cycle", Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 8, nr. 3 (April 1896) page 529. * ^ Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146. * ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146. * ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146. * ^ Kesef Mishneh, Laws of Tefillah 12:12 * ^ Igrot Moshe, Orah Hayim Simanin 103. * ^ Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146. The first printed Humash was published in Brescia, Italy, in 1492; C. David Ginsburg , Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Editions of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(1897, London, Trinitarian Bible Soc.; reprinted 1966, NJ, KTAV Publ\'g ) pages 865-871 (its description as the first is in the index, page 1010, s.v. "Haphtaroth") - it was also the first Biblical publication of the famous Soncino family of Hebrew printers. * ^ See Binyomin Hamburger, Shorshei Minhag Ashkenaz, volume III, chapter "Sifra De'aftarta"; Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146. * ^ Aharon Ziegler, " Halachic Positions: Reading the Haftara", The Jewish Press, 20 March 1998; Hershel Schachter, "Lesser-Known Laws of Torah
Torah
Reading", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 7 (1984) page 7. * ^ Joseph H. Hertz, The Authorised Daily Prayer Book (NYC: Bloch Publ'g Co., rev.ed. 1948) page 497. A.Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development (NY: Henry Holt, 1932, reprinted NY: Dover Publ'ns, 1995) page 140, citing Soferim 13:9-14. * ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page p.27. * ^ Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 127; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113. * ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pages 279-280. * ^ Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" pages 113; Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 27; Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) page 270. * ^ Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) pages 143 and 146 (citing Sotah 39b); Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 114. * ^ Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 114; Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 27. * ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pages 270-280. Mentions of variants in the blessings are from this reference and from Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" pages 112-115, and Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) pages 147-148. * ^ A B Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 30. * ^ Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 129; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113. * ^ Abraham Benisch, The Pentateuch and the Haftaroth, newly translated (Rodelheim, 2nd ed. 1864) vol.1, Genesis page 227, Exodus page 195, etc.; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113; Rabbi Eliezer Toledano, The Orot Sephardic Shabbat
Shabbat
Siddur ("Siddur Kol Sassoon")(Lakewood, NJ, Orot, 1995) page 434. * ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) page 280. * ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) page 277. * ^ Joseph H. Hertz, The Authorised Daily Prayer Book (NYC: Bloch Publ'g Co., rev.ed. 1948) page 497. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 127. The Tosefta
Tosefta
mention is in Megillah 4:18. * ^ Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part ii)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 6, nr. 1 (Oct. 1893) page 2 (citing the Mishna of Megilla iv, 10, which discourages the use of 2nd Samuel, chap. 13 - the rape of Tamar - and Ezekiel, chap. 1 - the vision of the heavenly chariot. Also, Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) pages 117-123. * ^ See, generally, Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part i)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 5, nr. 31 (April 1892) pages 420-468 and "part ii)" (Oct. 1893) pages 1-73. * ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and in the edition of the Pentateuch and haftarot, published in Constantinople, 1522" (and theorizing the Romaniote readings were a perpetuation of the selections of early medieval Eretz Yisrael). Louis Finkelstein, "The Prophetic Readings According to the Palestinian, Byzantine, and Karaite Rites", Hebrew Union College Annual, vol. 17 (1942-1943) page 423; Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part ii)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 6, nr. 1 (Oct. 1893) pages 1-73, discusses in some detail evidence of very early choices of haftarot, particularly of the Karaites. * ^ Among the authorities used were editions of humashim by: Joseph H. Hertz ,(1937, 2nd ed. 1960 , London, Soncino Press)(cited as "Hertz"; Nosson Scherman , The Stone Edition (1993, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns, the ArtScroll Series)(cited as "ArtScroll"); Samson Raphael Hirsch , T'rumatch Tzvi, one-volume edition (1990, NY, Judaica Press)(cited as "Hirsch"); and lists appearing in editions of the Bible, including Jerusalem Crown : The Bible of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2000, Jerusalem)(cited as "Jerusalem Crown"); Umberto Cassuto (1969, Hebrew Univ. in Jerusalem)(cited as "Cassuto"); Koren Publishers (2006, Jerusalem)(cited as "Koren"); Elias Hiam Lindo, A Jewish Calendar for 64 Years (London, 1838)(cited as "Lindo", sets forth the 1838 list of major Sephardic and Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
("German") London congregations, his end verse numbers are invariably a verse beyond all the other sources so it appears that his end verse number is excluded rather than included. Lindo does not set forth any of the Special/Festival occasions nor the combined parshot); Bible Society in Israel (1991, Jerusalem)(cited as "Isr. Bible Soc."; Aron Dotan, Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia (2001, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publ'rs)(cited as "Dotan"); also by Aron Dotan, the Bible published for the chaplains and troops of the Israeli Defense Forces (1973, Tel Aviv)(cited as IDF); Jewish Publication Society translations in English (generally as "JPS"; specifically, the American Jewish Version cited as "JPS1917", and the JPS Tanakh
Tanakh
cited as "JPS1985"); Abraham Benisch , The Pentateuch and the Haftaroth, newly translated (Rodelheim, 2nd ed. 1864)(cited as "Benisch"); Rabbinical Assembly, United Synagogue
Synagogue
of Conservative Judaism
Judaism
(organization formerly known as United Synagagues of America), Etz Hayim: Torah
Torah
and Commentary (2001, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Society)(cited as "SCJ"; see article on Etz Hayim by Stein). And, of course, the very extensive list published as an appendix to volume 10 of the Encyclopedia Talmudit (1961, Tel Aviv) cols. 701-728. The 1854 book, A Jewish Calendar for Fifty Years from A.M. 5614 till A.M. 5664 by Jacques J. Lyons and Abraham De Sola (rabbis of similarly named synagogues, respectively Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
in New York and Sephardic in Montreal), which provided lists identified as the "German" and "Portuguese" custom, presumably the practice in their own congregations (cited as "Lyons"). All of these provided both Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
and Sephardic lists; Yemenite lists were provided in Koren, Cassuto, Jerusalem Crown, IDF; Italic lists were provided in Cassuto, Dotan; Mahgreb, Frankfurt-on-Main, and some others were provided in Hirsch, Dotan; the Encyclopedia Talmudit provided all of these and some others, citing more than a dozen sources. The Hebrew language version of this article, worked up by an Israeli team, as it read in the Spring of 2014 was also used (cited as "Isr.Wikip."). It is very probable that various lists represent the practices only temporarily favored, perhaps more than century ago, by only a few or even one congregation, possibly under the leadership of a particular rabbi or while using a particular humash then available, and therefore the lists were subject to change and might well have changed and changed again in the intervening decades. No two lists were entirely the same, and compiling such lists required different materials and expertise than used to edit or comment on the Bible. * ^ A B David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism
Judaism
vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint pages 1-2). * ^ David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism
Judaism
vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint page 2). * ^ A B Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) page 192. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) pages 187-190. * ^ A B David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism
Judaism
vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint pages 2-3). * ^ Exceptionally, on combined weeks Syrian Jews
Jews
used to read the haftarah for Behar. Those in the United States now follow the general Sephardic custom. * ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Rabbi Mosheh Lichtenstein, Shabbat
Shabbat
Shuva, the Israel Koschitzky Virtual Beit Midrash, http://www.vbm-torah.org/archive/haftara/54shuva.htm. It would appear these special rules have been long discarded, except perhaps by the intensely Orthodox; this calendar situation occurred in recent years in the week after Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
in 2005, 2008, 20012 and (will occur in) 2014, but checking the back issues of the liturgical calendars in the weekly Jewish Press (Brooklyn) and the Ezras Torah Fund annual luach and the Colelchabad luach for the Lubavitcher hassidim, as well the assortment of humashim and other resources used for writing this article, finds no mention of it. * ^ Hirsch and the additional pages to the revised edition of Hertz say Numbers 29:17-31, but JPS says the "daily portion from Numbers 29"; the Margolin Edition of The Torah
Torah
(1999, Jerusalem inside the Land of Israel: 2nd day Numbers 29:20-22, 4th day Numbers 29:26-28, 5th day Numbers 29:29-31. However, the ArtScroll Tikkun, Kestenbaum Edition (3rd ed. 2004, Brooklyn, Mesorah) has a different list: 1st day Numbers 29:17-22, 2nd day Numbers 29:20-25; 4th day Numbers 29:26-31 (presumably outside the Land of Israel). * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs and Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs because it mentions Solomon dedicating the Temple during Sukkos , but Rav Amram Gaon (9th century) instead preferred the first chapter of Joshua since it dealt with events following the completion of the Torah
Torah
and the death of Moses. * ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page p.29. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) pages 173-174, citing Massakhet Soferim 20:10. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) pages 139-140. * ^ This appears only in the second (not the first) edition of Hertz, meaning it was a reading added by someone other than Hertz, the inclusion of 6:27 - which the second edition of Hertz identifies in a footnote as a S reading - is based on a "few communities". David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism
Judaism
vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint page 2, and notes on pages 13-14). * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) page 140. * ^ Abraham P. Bloch, The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1980, NY, KTAV Publ'g) page 305. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) page 142. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Yetziv Pitgam" page 375. * ^ Israel Abrahams, Festival Studies (1906, London, Macmillan 1050 Jewish Customs and Their Sources (1998, NY, Feldheim) pages 554-555. * ^ Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A comprehensive history (Germany 1913, Engl. transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Soc.) page 148. * ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring) pages 34 and 149-150.

FURTHER READING

* Michael Fishbane . The JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2002. ISBN 0-8276-0691-5 . * Laura Suzanne Lieber. Study Guide to the JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2002. ISBN 0-8276-0718-0 . * David L. Leiber. "Etz Hayim: Torah
Torah
& Commentary" available from www.jewishpub.org, 2001. * Jacob Blumenthal Laws and Customs of the Torah
Torah
Service. A Guide for Gabba'im and Torah
Torah
Readers. ISBN 0-8381-0216-6 Available from the Book Service of www.USCJ.org, 2002 * Joseph Herman Hertz , The Pentateuch and Haftorahs, London: Soncino Press, 1937, 2nd ed. 1960. * Jewish Publication Society of America, The Holy Scriptures According to the Masoretic Text, 1917. * Shlomo Katz. The Haftarah: Laws, Customs, & History. Silver Spring, Maryland: Hamaayan/The Torah
Torah
Spring, 2000. * W. Gunther Plaut . The Haftarah Commentary. New York: URJ Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8074-0551-5 . * Indice dei contenuti audio/video del sito www.torah.it (Italian). Retrieved on 2008-08-03 * Adolf Buchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a triennial cycle", Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 5, pp. 420–268 (April 1893) ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Jewish prayer

List of Jewish prayers and blessings

SHACHARIT

PREPARATION

* Birkot hashachar * Akeida * Offerings

PESUKEI DEZIMRA

* Mizmor Shir ( Psalm
Psalm
30) * Barukh she\'amar * Songs of thanksgiving * ( Psalm
Psalm
100 ) * Yehi kevod * Hallel ( Ashrei * Psalms 146 * 147 * 148 * 149 * 150 ) * Baruch Adonai L\'Olam * Vayivarech David * Atah Hu Adonai L\'Vadecha * Az Yashir * Yishtabach

CORE PRAYERS

* Barechu * Yotzer ohr * Ahava rabbah * Shema * Emet Vayatziv * Amidah * Kedushah

CONCLUSION

* Tachanun * Torah
Torah
reading 1, 2, 3 * Ashrei * Psalm
Psalm
20 * Uva letzion * Aleinu * Shir shel yom * Kaddish * Ein Keloheinu 4

MINCHA

* Ashrei * Torah
Torah
reading 1, 5 * Amidah * Kedushah * Tachanun * Aleinu * Kaddish

MAARIV

* Barechu * Maariv
Maariv
Aravim * Ahavat Olam * Shema * Emet V\'Emunah * Hashkiveinu * Baruch Adonai L\'Olam * Half Kaddish * Amidah * Full Kaddish * Aleinu * Mourner\'s Kaddish

SHABBAT / HOLIDAY ADDITIONS

* Extended Pesukei dezimra (Psalms 19 * 34 * 90 * 91 * 135 * 136 * 33 * Lekhah Dodi * 92 * 93 ) * Nishmat * Shochen Ad * Hallel * Torah
Torah
reading * Yom Tov Torah
Torah
readings * Haftarah * Yekum Purkan * Av HaRachamim * Mussaf * Birkat Cohanim 6 * Anim Zemirot * Tzidkatcha * Al HaNissim * Adon Olam

SEASONAL ADDITIONS

* Psalm
Psalm
27 * Avinu Malkeinu * Selichot

OTHER PRAYERS

* Amen * Modeh Ani * Ma Tovu * Adon Olam * Yigdal * Al Netilat Yadayim * Asher Yatzar * Birkat HaMazon * El Malei Rachamim * Havdalah * Kiddush Levana * Tefilat HaDerech * Birkat Hachama

* 1 On Shabbat
Shabbat
* 2 On holidays * 3 On Mondays and Thursdays * 4 Only on Shabbat
Shabbat
and holidays, according to Nusach Ashkenaz in the diaspora * 5 On fast days * 6 Daily in Israel

* v * t * e

Shabbat
Shabbat
(שבת )

* Prayers * Rituals

* Jewish prayer * Yedid Nefesh * Lekhah Dodi * Shalom Aleichem * Kiddush * Zemirot * Baqashot * Torah
Torah
reading (Weekly Torah
Torah
portion * Shnayim mikra ve-echad targum ) * Maftir * Haftarah * Seudah Shlishit * Triennial cycle * Torah
Torah
study

FOOD

* Kosher wine * Challah * Chopped liver * Gefilte fish * Vorschmack * Cholent * Kugel
Kugel

OBJECTS

* Crock pot * Hot water urn * Shabbat
Shabbat
candles * Blech * Challah cover * Kiddush cup

LAWS

* Biblical mile * Biblical Sabbath * Driving * Electricity * Eruv * Eruv tavshilin * Eruv techumin * Food preparation * Muktzah * Prohibited activities (rabbinically prohibited ) * Chai Nosei Et Atzmo * Shabbos goy * Shomer Shabbat
Shabbat

INNOVATIONS

* KosherSwitch * Zomet Institute * Shabbat
Shabbat
elevator * Shabbat
Shabbat
lamp * Shabbat
Shabbat
microphone * Sabbath mode * Shabbat
Shabbat
pedestrian crossing

SPECIAL SHABBAT

* Shabbaton * Eve of Passover
Passover
on Shabbat
Shabbat

MOTZA\\'EI SHABBAT

* Kiddush levana * Havdalah * Melav

.