Hadrian's Wall (Latin: Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall,
Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive
fortification in the
Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in
the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River
Tyne near the North Sea to the
Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, and was
the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which
were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts.
It had a stone base and a stone wall. There were milecastles with two
turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles.
From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, wall, military way
and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds. It is thought the
milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had
fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's
defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts.
A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on
foot along the adjoining
Hadrian's Wall Path. The largest Roman
artefact anywhere, it runs a total of 73 miles (117.5 kilometres) in
northern England. Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's
Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions. It was
designated as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 1987. In comparison,
the Antonine wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall (the
Gillam hypothesis), was not declared a World Heritage site until
It is a common misconception that
Hadrian's Wall marks the boundary
between England and Scotland. In fact
Hadrian's Wall lies entirely
within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border.
While it is less than 0.6 miles (1.0 km) south of the border with
Scotland in the west at Bowness-on-Solway, in the east it is as much
as 68 miles (109 km) away.
3 Purpose of construction
4.1 "Broad Wall" and "Narrow Wall"
4.2 Turf wall
6 After Hadrian
6.1 Preservation by John Clayton
6.2 World Heritage Site
Hadrian's Wall Path
7 Roman-period names
8 In popular culture
9 See also
12 External links
Hadrian's Wall was 80 Roman miles or 117.5 km (73.0 mi)
long; its width and height varied according to the construction
materials available nearby. East of the River Irthing, the wall was
made from squared stone and measured 3 metres (10 feet) wide and 5 to
6 metres (16 to 20 feet) high, while west of the river the wall was
originally made from turf and measured 6 metres (20 feet) wide and 3.5
metres (11 feet) high; it was later rebuilt in stone. These dimensions
do not include the wall's ditches, berms and forts. The central
section measured eight Roman feet wide (7.8 ft or 2.4 m) on
a 3 m (10 ft) base. Some parts of this section of the wall
survive to a height of 3 m (10 ft).
Immediately south of the wall, a large ditch was dug, with adjoining
parallel mounds, one on either side. This is known today as the
Vallum, even though the word Vallum in Latin is the origin of the
English word wall, and does not refer to a ditch. In many places –
Limestone Corner – the Vallum is better preserved than
the wall, which has been robbed of much of its stone.
Route of Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall remain along the route, though much has
been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby
Hadrian's Wall extended west from
Wallsend on the River
Tyne, via Carlisle and Kirkandrews-on-Eden, to the shore of the Solway
Firth, ending a short but unknown distance west of the village of
Bowness-on-Solway. The A69 and B6318 roads follow the course of
the wall from
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle, then along the northern
Cumbria (south shore of the Solway Firth).
Although the curtain wall ends near Bowness-on-Solway, this does not
mark the end of the line of defensive structures. The system of
milecastles and turrets is known to have continued along the Cumbria
coast as far as Risehow, south of Maryport. For classification
purposes, the milecastles west of
Bowness-on-Solway are referred to as
Purpose of construction
Hadrian's Wall facing east towards Crag Lough
Hadrian's Wall was probably planned before Hadrian's visit to Britain
in AD 122. According to restored sandstone fragments found in Jarrow
which date from 118 or 119, it was Hadrian's wish to keep "intact the
empire", which had been imposed on him via "divine instruction".
Although Hadrian's biographer wrote "[Hadrian] was the first to build
a wall 80 miles long to separate the Romans from the barbarians",
reasons for the construction of the wall vary, and no recording of an
exact explanation survives. Theories have been presented by
historians, mostly of an expression of Roman power and Hadrian's
policy of defence before expansion. On his accession to the throne in
Hadrian had been experiencing rebellion in
Roman Britain and from
the peoples of various conquered lands across the Empire, including
Libya and Mauritania.
These troubles may have influenced Hadrian's plan to construct the
wall as well as his construction of limites in other areas of the
Empire, but to what extent is unknown. Scholars disagree over how much
of a threat the inhabitants of northern Britain really presented and
whether there was any economic advantage in defending and garrisoning
a fixed line of defences like the Wall, rather than conquering and
annexing what has become the
Scottish Lowlands and defending the
territory with a loose arrangement of forts.
The limites of Rome were never expected to stop tribes from migrating
or armies from invading, and while a frontier protected by a palisade
or stone wall would help curb cattle-raiders and the incursions of
other small groups, the economic viability of constructing and
keeping guarded a wall 72 miles (116 km) long along a sparsely
populated border to stop small-scale raiding is dubious.
Another possible explanation for the wall is the degree of control it
would have provided over immigration, smuggling and customs.
Limites did not strictly mark the boundaries of the empire: Roman
power and influence often extended beyond the walls. People within
and beyond the limes travelled through it each day when conducting
business, and organised check-points like those offered by Hadrian's
Wall provided good opportunities for taxation. With watch towers only
a short distance from gateways in the limes, patrolling legionaries
could have kept track of entering and exiting natives and Roman
citizens alike, charging customs dues and checking for
smuggling. Another theory is of a simpler
Hadrian's Wall was partly constructed to reflect the
power of Rome and was used as a political point by Hadrian. Once its
construction was finished, it is thought to have been covered in
plaster and then whitewashed: its shining surface reflected the
sunlight and was visible for miles around.
Construction started in AD 122 and was largely completed in six
years. Construction started in the east, between milecastles four
and seven, and proceeded westwards, with soldiers from all three of
the occupying Roman legions participating in the work. The route
chosen largely paralleled the nearby
Stanegate road from Luguvalium
(Carlisle) to Coria (Corbridge), upon which were situated a series of
forts, including Vindolanda. The wall in its central and
best-preserved section follows a hard, resistant igneous diabase rock
escarpment, known as the Whin Sill.
Roman fort and town at Corstopitum viewed along the Stanegate
The initial plan called for a ditch and wall with 80 small gated
milecastle fortlets, one placed every Roman mile, holding a few dozen
troops each, and pairs of evenly spaced intermediate turrets used for
observation and signalling. However, very few milecastles are actually
sited at exact
Roman mile divisions: they can be up to 200 yards east
or west because of landscape features or to improve signalling to the
Stanegate forts to the south. Local limestone was used in the
construction, except for the section to the west of the River Irthing
where turf was originally used instead, for unknown reasons; it was
later rebuilt in stone. Milecastles in this area were also built from
timber and earth rather than stone, but turrets were always made from
stone. The Broad Wall was initially built with a clay-bonded rubble
core and mortared dressed rubble facing stones, but this seems to have
made it vulnerable to collapse, and repair with a mortared core was
The milecastles and turrets were of three different designs, depending
Roman legion built them – inscriptions of the Second,
Sixth, and Twentieth Legions, show that all were involved in the
construction. The turrets were about 493 metres (539 yards) apart and
measured 14.02 square metres (150.9 square feet) internally.[citation
Construction was divided into lengths of about 5 miles (8.0 km).
One group of each legion would excavate the foundations and build the
milecastles and turrets and then other cohorts would follow with the
wall construction. The wall was finished in 128.
"Broad Wall" and "Narrow Wall"
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Hadrian's Wall near
Milecastle 42 (Cawfields)
Early in its construction, just after reaching the North Tyne, the
width of the wall was narrowed to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) or even
less (sometimes 1.8 metres) (the "Narrow Wall"). However, Broad Wall
foundations had already been laid as far as the River Irthing, where
the Turf Wall began, demonstrating that construction worked from east
to west. Many turrets and milecastles were optimistically provided
with wider stub "wing walls" in preparation for joining to the Broad
Wall, offering a handy reference for archaeologists trying to piece
together the construction chronology.
Within a few years it was decided to add a total of 14 to 17
(sources[which?] disagree) full-sized forts along the length of the
Vercovicium (Housesteads) and Banna (Birdoswald), each
holding between 500 and 1,000 auxiliary troops (no legions were posted
to the wall). The eastern end of the wall was extended further east
Pons Aelius (Newcastle) to
Segedunum (Wallsend) on the Tyne
estuary. Some of the larger forts along the wall, such as Cilurnum
Vercovicium (Housesteads), were built on top of the
footings of milecastles or turrets, showing the change of plan. An
inscription mentioning early governor
Aulus Platorius Nepos indicates
that the change of plans took place early on. Also, some time during
Hadrian's reign (before 138) the wall west of the Irthing was rebuilt
in sandstone to about the same dimensions as the limestone section to
Cross section of the works
After most of the forts had been added, the Vallum was built on the
southern side. The wall was thus part of a defensive system which,
from north to south, included:
A row of forts built 5 to 10 mi (8.0 to 16.1 km) north of
the wall, used for scouting and intelligence (e.g.
a glacis and a deep ditch
a berm with rows of pits holding entanglements
the curtain wall
a later military road (the Military Way)
Hadrian's Wall from
Housesteads showing the Knag Burn Gateway
in the valley
Milecastle 49 to the western terminus of the wall at
Bowness-on-Solway, the curtain wall was originally constructed from
turf, possibly due to the absence of limestone for the manufacture of
mortar. Subsequently, the Turf Wall was demolished and replaced
with a stone wall. This took place in two phases; the first (from the
River Irthing to a point west of
Milecastle 54), during the reign of
Hadrian, and the second following the reoccupation of Hadrian's Wall
subsequent to the abandonment of the
Antonine Wall (though it has also
been suggested that this second phase took place during the reign of
Septimius Severus). The line of the new stone wall follows the line of
the turf wall, apart from the stretch between
Milecastle 49 and
Milecastle 51, where the line of the stone wall is slightly further to
In the stretch around
Milecastle 50TW, it was built on a flat base
with three to four courses of turf blocks. A basal layer of
cobbles was used westwards from
Milecastle 72 (at Burgh-by-Sands) and
Milecastle 53. Where the underlying ground was boggy,
wooden piles were used.
At its base, the now-demolished turf wall was 6 metres (20 ft)
wide, and built in courses of turf blocks measuring 18 inches
(46 cm) long by 12 inches (30 cm) deep by 6 inches
(15 cm) high, to a height estimated at around 3.66 metres
(12.0 ft). The north face is thought to have had a slope of 75%,
whereas the south face is thought to have started vertical above the
foundation, quickly becoming much shallower.
Above the stone curtain wall's foundations, one or more footing
courses were laid. Offsets were introduced above these footing courses
(on both the north and south faces), which reduced the wall's width.
Where the width of the curtain wall is stated, it is in reference to
the width above the offset. Two standards of offset have been
identified: Standard A, where the offset occurs above the first
footing course, and Standard B, where the offset occurs after the
third (or sometimes fourth) footing course.
According to Sheppard Frere, the garrison reflected the political
rather than military purpose of the wall. The wall provided the
soldiers with an elevated platform from which they could safely
observe movement of the local population. It had "heavy provision of
cavalry" which could sally out from any of the milestone gates though
as mentioned earlier, the garrison was neither expected nor trained to
the level necessary to defend a city wall. Overall the fortifications
appear to have required additional strengthening after the initial
design and were stronger than their equivalent in Germany, probably
reflecting local resentment.
Frere believes that the milecastles, which would have needed
1000–1500 men, were held by a patrolling garrison of Numeri, though
he concedes that there are no inscriptions referring to Numeri in
Britain at the time. Command headquarters was at
called Stanwix) near Carlisle, where the Ala
Petriana was based. A
signalling system allowed communication in minutes between
Further information on the garrisoning of the wall has been provided
by the discovery of the
Vindolanda tablets, such as the record of an
inspection on 18 May between AD 92 and AD 97 where only 456 of the
full quota of 756 Dutch and Belgian troops were present, the rest
being sick or otherwise absent.
Leahill 51B is a typical example of the many turrets built into the
wall between the milecastles.
In the years after Hadrian's death in 138, the new emperor, Antoninus
Pius, essentially abandoned the wall, leaving it occupied in a support
role, and began building a new wall called the Antonine Wall, about
160 kilometres (100 mi) north, in what later became known as the
Scottish Lowlands, across the isthmus running west-south-west to
east-north-east, sometimes referred to as the
Central Belt or Central
Lowlands. This turf wall ran 40 Roman miles, or about 37.8 mi
(60.8 km), and had significantly more forts than Hadrian's Wall.
Antoninus was unable to conquer the northern tribes, so when Marcus
Aurelius became emperor, he abandoned the
Antonine Wall and reoccupied
Hadrian's Wall as the main defensive barrier in 164. In 208–211, the
Septimius Severus again tried to conquer
temporarily reoccupied the Antonine Wall. The campaign ended
inconclusively and the Romans eventually withdrew to Hadrian's Wall.
Bede, following Gildas, wrote in [AD 730]:
[the departing Romans] thinking that it might be some help to the
allies [Britons], whom they were forced to abandon, constructed a
strong stone wall from sea to sea, in a straight line between the
towns that had been there built for fear of the enemy, where Severus
also had formerly built a rampart.
— Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Book I Chapter 12
Bede obviously identified Gildas' stone wall as Hadrian's Wall
(actually built in the 120s) and he would appear to have deduced that
the ditch-and-mound barrier known as the Vallum (just to the south of
and contemporary with, Hadrian's Wall) was the rampart constructed by
Severus. Many centuries would pass before just who built what became
In the late 4th century, barbarian invasions, economic decline and
military coups loosened the Empire's hold on Britain. By 410, the
estimated End of Roman rule in Britain, the Roman administration and
its legions were gone and Britain was left to look to its own defences
and government. Archaeologists have revealed that some parts of the
wall remained occupied well into the 5th century. It has been
suggested that some forts continued to be garrisoned by local Britons
under the control of a
Coel Hen figure and former dux. Hadrian's Wall
fell into ruin and over the centuries the stone was reused in other
local buildings. Enough survived in the 8th century for spolia from
Hadrian's Wall to find their way into the construction of Jarrow
Painting by William Bell Scott; the face of the centurion is that of
John Clayton (Painting at Wallington Hall)
Hadrian's Wall near
Birdoswald Fort, with a man spraying weed-killer
to reduce biological weathering to the stones
The wall fascinated John Speed, who published a set of maps of England
and Wales by county at the start of the 17th century. He described it
Picts Wall" (or "Pictes"; he uses both spellings). A map of
Newecastle (sic), drawn in 1610 by William Matthew, described it as
"Severus' Wall", mistakenly giving it the name ascribed by
Bede to the
Antonine Wall. The maps for
Northumberland not only
show the wall as a major feature, but are ornamented with drawings of
Roman finds, together with, in the case of the
Cumberland map, a
cartouche in which he sets out a description of the wall itself.
Preservation by John Clayton
Much of the wall has now disappeared. Long sections of it were used
for roadbuilding in the 18th century, especially by General Wade
to build a military road (most of which lies beneath the present day
B6318 "Military Road") to move troops to crush the Jacobite
insurrection. The preservation of much of what remains can be credited
to John Clayton. He trained as a lawyer and became town clerk of
Newcastle in the 1830s. He became enthusiastic about preserving the
wall after a visit to Chesters. To prevent farmers taking stones from
the wall, he began buying some of the land on which the wall stood. In
1834, he started purchasing property around Steel Rigg near Crag
Lough. Eventually, he controlled land from Brunton to Cawfields. This
stretch included the sites of Chesters, Carrawburgh, Housesteads, and
Vindolanda. Clayton carried out excavation at the fort at
at Housesteads, and he excavated some milecastles.
Clayton managed the farms he had acquired and succeeded in improving
both the land and the livestock. His successful management produced a
cash-flow, which could be invested in future restoration work. Workmen
were employed to restore sections of the wall, generally up to a
height of seven courses. The best example of the Clayton Wall is at
Housesteads. After Clayton's death, the estate passed to relatives and
was soon lost at gambling. Eventually, the National Trust began
acquiring the land on which the wall stands. At Wallington Hall, near
Morpeth, there is a painting by William Bell Scott, which shows a
centurion supervising the building of the wall. The centurion has been
given the face of John Clayton.
World Heritage Site
Hadrian's Wall was declared a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 1987, and in 2005
it became part of the transnational "Frontiers of the Roman Empire"
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site which also includes sites in Germany.
Hadrian's Wall was declared a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 1987, it
remains unguarded, enabling visitors to climb and stand on the wall,
although this is not encouraged, as it could damage the historic
structure. On 13 March 2010, a public event Illuminating Hadrian's
Wall took place, which saw the route of the wall lit with 500 beacons.
On 31 August and 2 September 2012, there was a second illumination of
the wall as a digital art installation called "Connecting Light",
which was part of the London 2012 Festival.
Hadrian's Wall Path
Hadrian's Wall Path
In 2003, a
National Trail footpath was opened that follows the line of
the wall from
Wallsend to Bowness-on-Solway. Because of the
fragile landscape, walkers are asked to follow the path only in
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The remains of Castle Nick,
Milecastle 39, near Steel Rigg, between
Housesteads and the
Once Brewed Visitor Centre for the Northumberland
The remains of the fort at Housesteads
The Staffordshire Moorlands Pan, which may provide the ancient name of
Sycamore Gap (the "
Robin Hood Tree")
A volunteer stands inside Leahill
The only ancient source for its provenance is the Augustan History. No
sources survive to confirm what the wall was called in antiquity, and
no historical literary source gives it a name. However, the discovery
Staffordshire Moorlands Pan
Staffordshire Moorlands Pan in Staffordshire in 2003 has
provided a clue. This small enamelled bronze Roman trulla (ladle),
dating to the 2nd century AD, is inscribed with a series of names of
Roman forts along the western sector of the wall, together with a
personal name and phrase: MAIS COGGABATA VXELODVNVM CAMBOGLANNA RIGORE
VALI AELI DRACONIS.
Bowness (MAIS) is followed by Drumburgh-by-Sands (COGGABATA), until
now known only as CONGAVATA from the late Roman document, the Notitia
Dignitatum. Next comes
Stanwix (VXELODVNVM), then Castlesteads
(CAMBOGLANNA). These are the four of the westernmost forts on
Hadrian's Wall, but excluding Aballava.
RIGORE is the ablative singular form of the Latin word rigor. This can
mean several things, but one of its lesser-known meanings is "straight
line", "course", or "direction". This sense was used by Roman
surveyors and appears on several inscriptions to indicate a line
between places. So the meaning could be "according to the course".
There is no known word vali, but vallum was the Latin word for an
earthen wall, rampart, or fortification. In modern English usage
vallum is applied to the ditch and adjoining mounds dug by the Roman
army just south of the wall, but to the Romans a vallum was a wall and
not a ditch (it is the source of the English word 'wall'). The
genitive singular form of vallum is valli, so one of the most likely
meanings is VAL[L]I, "of the Wall". Omitting one of a pair of double
consonants is common on Roman inscriptions; moreover, an error in the
transcription of a written note could be the reason: another similar
bronze vessel, known as the
Rudge Cup (found in Wiltshire in the 18th
century) has VN missing from the name VXELODVNVM, for example,
although the letters appear on the Staffordshire Moorlands Pan. The
Rudge Cup only bears fort names.
The name AELI was Hadrian's nomen, his main family name, the gens
Aelia. The Roman bridge and fort at
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne was called
DRACONIS can be translated as "[by the hand – or property] of
Draco". It was normal for Roman manufacturers to give their names in
the genitive ("of"), and "by the hand" would be understood. The form
is common, for example, on Samian ware.
The translation, therefore, could be:
Mais, Coggabata, Uxelodunum, Camboglanna, according to the line of
Aelian wall. [By the hand or The property] of Draco.
Another possibility is that the individual's name was Aelius Draco,
which would only leave us with an unspecified vallum, "wall".
The Latin and Romano-Celtic names of all of the
Hadrian's Wall forts
are known, from the
Notitia Dignitatum and other evidence such as
Pons Aelius (Newcastle upon Tyne)
Hunnum (Halton Chesters)
Chesters aka Walwick Chesters)
Aesica (Great Chesters)
Uxelodunum (Stanwix. Also known as Petriana)
Turrets on the wall include:
Outpost forts beyond the wall include:
Bremenium (High Rochester)
Fanum Cocidi (Bewcastle) (north of Birdoswald)
Ad Fines (Chew Green)
Supply forts behind the wall include:
Arbeia (South Shields)
Chesters or Chesterholm)
In popular culture
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Nobel Prize–winning English author
Rudyard Kipling contributed to
the popular image of the "Great Pict Wall" in his short stories about
Parnesius, a Roman legionary who defended the Wall against the
Picts. These stories are a part of the Puck of Pook's
Hill cycle, published in 1906.
George R. R. Martin
George R. R. Martin has acknowledged that Hadrian's
Wall was the inspiration for The Wall in his best-selling series A
Song of Ice and Fire, dramatised in the fantasy TV series Game of
Thrones, which is also in the north of its country and stretches from
coast to coast.
In M J Trow's fictional Britannia series,
Hadrian's Wall is the
central location and portrays
Coel Hen and
Padarn Beisrudd as
The 1991 American romantic action adventure film Robin Hood: Prince of
Thieves in the location of Sycamore gap.
The wall has also been featured in recent films such as
The Eagle, and was a major focal point of the 2004
King Arthur in
which one of the primary gates is opened for the first time since the
wall's construction to allow Arthur and his knights passage into the
north for their quest. The climactic
Battle of Badon between the
Britons led by Arthur and his knights, and the Saxons led by Cerdic
and his son
Cynric took place in the film just inside the wall.
The 2007 action adventure film
The Last Legion
The Last Legion featured Hadrian's wall
as the place where the final battle takes place.
The 2008 science fiction film Doomsday featured Hadrian's wall rebuilt
to quarantine Scotland because of a deadly virus.
The 2015 film "Dragonheart 3: The Sorcerer's Curse" features Hadrian's
wall as a main thematic element.
The opening track from Maxim's first solo effort Hell's Kitchen is
named "Hadrian's Wall".
The second track on the English-American hard rock band Black Country
Communion second album is called "The Battle for Hadrian's Wall". The
lyrics reference outposts separated by a mile each, such as "We sit in
waiting every mile on Hadrian's Wall".
The final episode in the
Blackadder series is the television film
Blackadder: Back & Forth. In this episode,
Blackadder and Baldrick
attempt to collect significant historical souvenirs in order to win a
bet. During their adventures, they take note at their own ancestors,
one of which is a Roman defender of
Hadrian's Wall who makes slight
remarks of the wall's unimpressive (modern) height.
Billy Connolly World tour of England Ireland and Wales episode 4,
Billy left Ireland and came to
Northumberland on Roman road and he's
on Hadrian's wall on the rainy day before Billy came to Newcastle
On the NBC show "Grimm," in the 2015-2016 season, the protagonist
group that helps to fight the antagonist is called "H.W." short for
Barbarians and wolves attack Hadrian's Wall. Scene from the iOS game
Vindac, Version 1.0.
Vindac is a Latin Language preposition game set at Hadrian's Wall.
Gamers cast Latin preposition spells by gesture at barbaric foes.
W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden wrote a script for a BBC radio documentary
called Hadrian's Wall, which was broadcast on BBC's north-eastern
Regional Programme in 1937. Auden later published a poem from the
script, "Roman Wall Blues," in his book Another Time. The poem is a
brief monologue spoken in the voice of a lonely Roman soldier
stationed at the wall.
Hadrian's Wall is the name of a Barrier ICE card in the card game
In 2010, to commemorate the 1600th anniversary of the end of Roman
rule in Britain, a series of 500 beacons were lit along the length of
Anastasian Wall (in Turkey)
Athanaric's Wall (in Romania)
English Heritage properties
Great Wall (other)
Great Wall of China
Great Wall of Gorgan
Great Wall of Gorgan (in Iran)
Hadrian's Wall Path
History of Northumberland
History of Scotland
List of walls
Silesian Walls (in Poland)
Trajan's Wall (in Romania)
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Retrieved 22 September 2012.
^ "Hadrian's Wall: A horde of ancient treasures make for a compelling
new Cumbrian exhibition". The Independent. 8 November 2016.
^ "More than 25,000 people see
Hadrian's Wall lit up". BBC. 8 November
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^ "Wall gains World Heritage status'" BBC News. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
^ Frontiers of the
Roman Empire -
UNESCO World Heritage Centre
^ English Heritage. 30 Surprising Facts About
Hadrian's Wall Retrieved
18 March 2017.
^ "BBC – History –
Hadrian's Wall Gallery". Bbc.co.uk. 1 January
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^ a b c d e f g Anthony Everitt,
Hadrian and the Triumph of Rome
(2009), Random House, Inc, 448 pages; ISBN 0-8129-7814-5.
^ Unknown. "11.2". Scriptores Historiae Augustae. Vita Hadriani.
^ Stephen Johnson (2004) Hadrian's Wall, Sterling Publishing Company,
Inc, 128 pages, ISBN 0-7134-8840-9
^ Breeze, D.J.; Dobson, B. (2000).
Hadrian's Wall (4 ed.). London:
Penguin Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-0140271829.
^ Wilson, 271.
^ Woolliscroft, D., 1989, "Signalling and the design of Hadrian's
Wall", Archaeologia Aeliana 5th Series, Vol. XVII, pp. 5–20.
^ a b c d Breeze, David J (1934). Handbook to the Roman Wall (14th –
November 2006 ed.). Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne.
pp. 55–62. ISBN 0-901082-65-1.
^ Simpson, F G; Richmond, I A; St Joseph, K (1935), "Report of the
Cumberland Excavation Committee for 1934", Transactions of the
Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society,
new series, Titus Wilson & Son, 35: 220–32
^ Simpson, F G; MacIntyre, J (1933), "Report of the Cumberland
Excavation Committee for 1932", Transactions of the
Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, new series,
Titus Wilson & Son, 33: 262–70
^ Breeze, David J. (1934), Handbook to the Roman Wall (14th –
November 2006 ed.), Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne,
p. 53, ISBN 0-901082-65-1
Sheppard Frere (1980). Britannia. Routlege & Kegan Paul.
pp. 158–160. ISBN 0-7100-8916-3.
Simon Schama (2000). A History of Britain. BBC Worldwide Ltd.
pp. 34–37. ISBN 0-563-38497-2.
^ "Wall of Severus". Dot-domesday.me.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
^ "Hadrian's Wall". English-lakes.com. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Frontiers of the Roman Empire".
Retrieved 26 November 2007.
Hadrian's Wall Path". National Trails. Retrieved 26 November
^ "Every Footstep Counts – The Trail's Country Code". Hadrians Wall
Path National Trail. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
^ Sycamore Gap, a section of the wall between two crests just east of
Milecastle 39, is locally known as the "
Robin Hood Tree" for its use
in the 1991 film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991).
^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, vallum".
Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
^ a b c d e f g Note the suffix "chester", reflecting the presence of
a Roman castra.
^ "GENUKI: The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
– Northumberland". Genuki.bpears.org.uk. 3 August 2010. Archived
from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
^ Martin, George R.R. "A Conversation With George R.R. Martin". The SF
Site. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
^ "MAXIM : HELLS KITCHEN - the album, scans and info".
Nekozine.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
Hadrian's Wall - Core - Android: Netrunner LCG - Android: Netrunner
Card Spoilers". Cardgamedb.com. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
Hadrian's Wall Path. 2004 Aurum Press Ltd.
Davies, Hunter A Walk along the Wall, 1974 Wiedenfield and Nicolson:
London ISBN 0 297 76710 0.
de la Bédoyère, Guy. Hadrian's Wall: A History and Guide. Stroud:
Tempus, 1998. ISBN 0-7524-1407-0.
England's Roman Frontier: Discovering Carlisle and Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall Heritage Ltd and Carlisle Tourism Partnership.
Forde-Johnston, James L. Hadrian's Wall. London: Michael Joseph, 1978.
Hadrian's Wall Path
Hadrian's Wall Path (map). Harvey, 12–22 Main Street, Doune,
Perthshire FK16 6BJ. harveymaps.co.uk
Speed Maps – A set of Speed's maps were issued bound in a single
volume in 1988 in association with the British Library and with an
introduction by Nigel Nicolson as 'The Counties of Britain A Tudor
Atlas by John Speed'.
Moffat, Alistair, The Wall. 2008 Birlinn Limited Press.
Tomlin, R. S. O., "Inscriptions" in Britannia (2004), vol. xxxv,
pp. 344–5 (the Staffordshire Moorlands cup naming the Wall).
Wilson, Roger J.A., A Guide to the Roman Remains in Britain. London:
Constable & Company, 1980; ISBN 0-09-463260-X.
Charlotte Higgins (2014). Under Another Sky Chapter 7. London, UK:
Vintage. ISBN 978-0-099552-09-3.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hadrian's Wall.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hadrian's Wall.
In Our Time Radio series with Greg Woolf, Professor of Ancient History
at the University of St Andrews, David Breeze, Former Chief Inspector
of Ancient Monuments for Scotland and Visiting Professor of
Archaeology at the University of Durham and Lindsay Allason-Jones,
Former Reader in Roman Material Culture at the University of Newcastle
Hadrian's Wall on the Official
Northumberland Visitor website
Hadrian's Wall Discussion Forum
UNESCO Frontiers of the Roman Empire
News on the Wall path
English Lakes article
iRomans—website with interactive map of Cumbrian section of Hadrian
Connecting Light—art installation
Structures of Hadrian's Wall
Other structures on Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall section)
Knag Burn Gateway
Peel Gap Tower
Pike Hill Signal Tower
Regular and linear features
Hadrian's Wall Path
Forts of Hadrian's Wall
Wall Forts (East to West)
Castle Hill Boothby
Brampton Old Church
Cumbrian Coast Forts (North to South)
World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom
Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine's Abbey and St. Martin's Church
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape
Derwent Valley Mills
Durham Castle and Cathedral
Frontiers of the Roman Empire
Kew Royal Botanic Gardens
Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites
Studley Royal Park
Studley Royal Park and Fountains Abbey
Tower of London
Westminster Abbey and St. Margaret's Church
Edinburgh Old Town and New Town
Frontiers of the Roman Empire
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward I in Gwynedd
British Overseas Territories
Gorham's Cave Complex
Town of St. George and Related Fortifications
English Heritage sites in Cumbria
Dating from Neolithic/ Bronze Age
Castlerigg Stone Circle
King Arthur's Round Table
Dating from Roman Britain
Ambleside Roman Fort
Hadrian's Wall (including Banks East Turret,
Birdoswald Roman Fort,
Brougham Roman fort, Hare Hill, Harrows Scar
Milecastle and Wall,
King's Stables (
Milecastle 48), Leahill
Turret and Piper Sike Turret,
Pike Hill Signal Tower, Willowford Wall
Turrets and Bridge)
Hardknott Roman Fort
Ravenglass Roman Bath House
Dating from the Middle Ages
Wetheral Priory Gatehouse
Dating from the 17th Century onwards
Stott Park Bobbin Mill
Coordinates: 55°01′27″N 2°17′33″W / 55.02417°N
2.29250°W / 55.024