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The Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
(German: Habsburgermonarchie), also Austrian Monarchy
Monarchy
or Danube Monarchy, is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the kingdoms and countries in personal union with the Habsburg Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
between 1526 and 1804, when it was succeeded by the Austrian Empire. The Monarchy
Monarchy
was a composite state of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. (The dynastic composite states were the most common / dominant form of states on the European continent in the early modern era.[2]) The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611,[3] when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[4][5] The head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
was often elected Holy Roman Emperor: from 1452 until the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Charles VII of Bavaria
Bavaria
(1742–1745) was the only Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
who was not Habsburg ruler of Austria.[6][7] The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, and most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties. The Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
must not be confused with the Habsburg Empire,[8] another unofficial umbrella term for all the territories of the House of Habsburg, divided in 1556 between this Austrian branch and a Spanish branch after the abdication of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.[9]

Contents

1 Name 2 Origins and expansion 3 Terminology 4 Characteristics 5 Territories 6 Habsburg territories outside the Habsburg Monarchy 7 History 8 Rulers 1521–1918

8.1 Habsburg 8.2 Habsburg-Lorraine 8.3 Family tree

9 In literature 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Name[edit] The monarchy had no official name. Instead, various names included:

Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
(Habsburgermonarchie) Habsburg/Austrian Hereditary Lands (Habsburgische/Österreichische Erblande) Austrian Monarchy
Monarchy
(Österreichische Monarchie) Danubian Monarchy
Monarchy
(Donaumonarchie) Origins and expansion[edit] The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle
Habsburg Castle
in modern Switzerland, and after 1279 came to rule in Austria
Austria
("the Habsburg Hereditary Lands"). The Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor
Emperor
Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna
Vienna
in 1515, and the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
in 1526.[3] Following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks, his brother-in-law Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
Austria
was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary.[10]

Terminology[edit] Names of the territory that (with some exceptions) finally became Austria-Hungary:

Habsburg monarchy (1526–1867): This was an unofficial umbrella term, but very frequent, name even during that time. The entity had no official name. Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(1804–1867): This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i.e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, not just to a "widespreading domain". Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1867–1918): This name was commonly used in the international relations, though the official name (translated to English) was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.[11][12][13][14] An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy
Monarchy
(German: Donaumonarchie) also often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie ("Dual Monarchy") meaning two states under one crowned ruler. Crownlands or crown lands (Kronländer) (1849–1918): This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(1849–1867), and then of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
from 1867 on. The Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
(more exactly the Lands of the Hungarian Crown) was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council (Die im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder). The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy (St.) Stephen's Crown" (Länder der Heiligen Stephans Krone). The Bohemian (Czech) Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown" (Länder der Wenzels-Krone). Names of some smaller territories:

Austrian lands (Österreichische Länder) or "Archduchies of Austria" (Erzherzogtümer von Österreich) – Lands up and below the Enns (ober und unter der Enns) (996–1918): This is the historical name of the parts of the Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
that became the present-day Republic of Austria
Austria
(Republik Österreich) on 12 November 1918 (after Emperor
Emperor
Charles I had abdicated the throne). Modern day Austria
Austria
is a semi-federal republic of nine states (Bundesländer) that are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Tyrol, Styria, Salzburg, Carinthia, Vorarlberg and Burgenland
Burgenland
and the Capital of Vienna
Vienna
that is a state of its own. Burgenland
Burgenland
came to Austria
Austria
in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg
Salzburg
finally became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars (before it was ruled by prince-archbishops of Salzburg
Salzburg
as a sovereign territory). Vienna, Austria's capital became a state 1 January 1922, after being residence and capital of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(Reichshaupt und Residenzstadt Wien) for the Habsburg monarchs for centuries. Upper and Lower Austria, historically, were split into " Austria
Austria
above the Enns" and " Austria
Austria
below the Enns" (the Enns river is the state-border between Upper- and Lower Austria). Upper Austria
Austria
was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen
Treaty of Teschen
(1779) following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called Innviertel
Innviertel
("Inn Quarter"), formerly part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands (Erblande or Erbländer; mostly used Österreichische Erblande) or German Hereditary Lands (in the Austrian monarchy) or Austrian Hereditary Lands ( Middle Ages
Middle Ages
– 1849/1918): In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. basically the Austrian lands and Carniola
Carniola
(not Galicia, Italian territories or the Austrian Netherlands). In a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were also included in (from 1526; definitely from 1620/27) the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" (see above) in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was also used afterwards. The Erblande also included lots of small and smallest territories that were principalities, duchies or counties etc. some of them can namely be found in the reigning titles of the Habsburg monarchs like Graf (Earl/Count of) von Tyrol etc. Characteristics[edit] Within the early modern Habsburg Monarchy, each province was governed according to its own particular customs. Until the mid 17th century, not all of the provinces were even necessarily ruled by the same person—junior members of the family often ruled portions of the Hereditary Lands as private apanages. Serious attempts at centralization began under Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
and especially her son Joseph II in the mid to late 18th century, but many of these were abandoned following large scale resistance to Joseph's more radical reform attempts, although a more cautious policy of centralization continued during the revolutionary period and the Metternichian period that followed. Another attempt at centralization began in 1849 following the suppression of the various revolutions of 1848. For the first time, ministers tried to transform the monarchy into a centralized bureaucratic state ruled from Vienna. The Kingdom of Hungary, in particular, ceased to exist as a separate entity, being divided into a series of districts. Following the Habsburg defeats in the Wars of 1859 and 1866, this policy of net-absolutist centralization was abandoned. After experimentation in the early 1860s, the famous Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was arrived at, by which the so-called Dual Monarchy
Monarchy
of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
was set up. In this system, the Kingdom of Hungary was given sovereignty and a parliament, with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands. Although the non-Hungarian Habsburg lands, often, but erroneously, referred to as "Austria", received their own central parliament (the Reichsrat, or Imperial Council) and ministries, as their official name – the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council" – shows that they remained something less than a genuine unitary state. When Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed (after a long period of occupation and administration), it was not incorporated into either half of the monarchy. Instead, it was governed by the joint Ministry of Finance. Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
collapsed under the weight of the various unsolved ethnic problems that came to a head with its defeat in World War I. In the peace settlement that followed, significant territories were ceded to Romania and Italy, new republics of Austria
Austria
(the German-Austrian territories of the Hereditary lands) and Hungary (the Magyar core of the old kingdom) were created, and the remainder of the monarchy's territory was shared out among the new states of Poland, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), and Czechoslovakia.

Territories[edit] Growth of the Habsburg Monarchy The territories ruled by the branch changed over the centuries, but the core always consisted of four blocs:

The Hereditary Lands, which covered most of the modern states of Austria
Austria
and Slovenia, as well as territories in northeastern Italy
Italy
and (before 1797) southwestern Germany. To these were added in 1779 the Inn Quarter of Bavaria
Bavaria
and in 1803 the Bishoprics
Bishoprics
of Trent and Brixen. The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
caused disruptions where many parts of the Hereditary lands were lost, but all these, along with the former Archbishopric of Salzburg, which had previously been temporarily annexed between 1805 and 1809, were recovered at the peace in 1815, with the exception of the Vorlande. The Hereditary provinces included: Archduchy of Austria Upper Austria Lower Austria Inner Austria Duchy of Styria Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola The Adriatic port of Trieste Margraviate of Istria (although much of Istria was Venetian territory until 1797) Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
(although the Bishoprics
Bishoprics
of Trent and Brixen dominated what would become the South Tyrol before 1803) Further Austria, mostly ruled jointly with Tyrol. Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
(actually a collection of provinces, only united in the 19th century) The Vorlande, a group of territories in Breisgau
Breisgau
and elsewhere in southwestern Germany
Germany
lost in 1801 (although the Alsatian territories (Sundgau) which had formed a part of it had been lost as early as 1648) Grand Duchy of Salzburg
Salzburg
(only after 1805) Coronation of Maria Theresa in Pressburg, Kingdom of Hungary, 1741 The Lands of the Bohemian Crown. The Bohemian Diet (Czech: zemský sněm) elected Ferdinand, later Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I, as king in 1526. Initially consisting of the five lands: Kingdom of Bohemia Margraviate of Moravia Silesia, Most of Silesia
Silesia
was conquered by Prussia in 1740–1742 and the remnants which stayed under Habsburg sovereignty were ruled as Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia
Silesia
(Austrian Silesia). Lusatia, was ceded to Saxony
Saxony
in 1635. Upper Lusatia Lower Lusatia The Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
– two-thirds of the former territory that was administered by the medieval Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
was conquered by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Princes of vassal Ottoman Transylvania, while the Habsburg administration was restricted to the western and northern territories of the former kingdom, which remained to be officially referred as the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1699, at the end of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars, one part of the territories that were administered by the former medieval Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
came under Habsburg administration, with some other areas being picked up in 1718 (some of the territories that were part of medieval kingdom, notably those in the south of the Sava and Danube rivers, remained under Ottoman administration). Kingdom of Croatia Europa regina, symbolizing a Habsburg-dominated Europe. Soldiers of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
against the incursions of the Ottoman Turks, 1756 Over the course of its history, other lands were, at times, under Austrian Habsburg rule (some of these territories were secundogenitures, i.e. ruled by other lines of Habsburg dynasty):

Serbia occupation (1686–1691) Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
(1699–1868) Grand Principality of Transylvania, between 1699 (Treaty of Karlowitz) and 1867 (Ausgleich) Austrian Netherlands, consisting of most of modern Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(1713–1792) Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan
(1713–1797) Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(1713–1735) Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1713–1720) Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739) Banat of Temeswar
Banat of Temeswar
(1718–1778) Oltenia
Oltenia
(1718–1739 de facto, 1716–1737), as Grand-Voivodate (sometimes designated as Valachia Caesarea) Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
(1720–1735) Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
(1735–1748) Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, in modern Poland
Poland
and Ukraine (1772–1918) Duchy of Bukovina
Duchy of Bukovina
(1774–1918) Serbia occupation (1788–1792) New Galicia, the Polish lands, including Kraków, taken in the Third Partition (1795–1809) Venetia (1797–1805) Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
(1797–1805, 1814–1918) Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia
(1814–1859) Kraków, which was incorporated into Galicia (1846–1918) Serbian Vojvodina
Serbian Vojvodina
(1848–1849) de facto entity, officially unrecognized Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar
Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar
(1849–1860) Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
(1868–1918) Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
occupation (1878–1913) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1878–1918). The boundaries of some of these territories varied over the period indicated, and others were ruled by a subordinate (secundogeniture) Habsburg line. The Habsburgs also held the title of Holy Roman Emperor between 1438 and 1740, and again from 1745 to 1806.

Habsburg territories outside the Habsburg Monarchy[edit] See also: Spanish Empire Habsburg territories in 1700. The Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
is shown in yellow, while the territories of the senior Spanish Habsburgs are shown in red. The Habsburg monarchy should not be confused with various other territories ruled at different times by members of the Habsburg dynasty. The senior Spanish line of the Habsburgs ruled over Habsburg Spain and various other territories from 1516 until it became extinct in 1700. As part of the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
the Spanish Habsburgs also ruled over the Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
between 1580 and 1640. A junior line ruled over the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
between 1765 and 1801, and again from 1814 to 1859. While exiled from Tuscany, this line ruled at Salzburg
Salzburg
from 1803 to 1805, and in Grand Duchy of Würzburg
Grand Duchy of Würzburg
from 1805 to 1814. Another line ruled the Duchy of Modena
Duchy of Modena
from 1814 to 1859, while Empress Marie Louise, Napoleon's second wife and the daughter of Austrian Emperor
Austrian Emperor
Francis, ruled over the Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
between 1814 and 1847. Also, the Second Mexican Empire, from 1863 to 1867, was headed by Maximilian I of Mexico, the brother of Emperor
Emperor
Franz Josef of Austria.

History[edit] For a historical account, see:

History of Austria
Austria
in the Habsburg Monarchy History of Hungary under the Habsburg Monarchy Kingdom of Bohemia: 1526–1648, 1648–1867, 1867–1918. Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg); Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia; Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
(1538-1867) Kingdom of Serbia: 1718–1739, 1788–1791 History of Slovakia within the Habsburg Monarchy Economy of the Habsburg Monarchy History of the Balkans Rulers 1521–1918[edit] Main article: List of rulers of Austria Habsburg[edit] Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and his wife Infanta Maria of Spain with their children Ferdinand I 1521–1564 Maximilian II 1564–1576 Rudolf II 1576–1612 Matthias 1612–1619 Ferdinand II 1619–1637 Ferdinand III 1637–1657 Leopold I 1657–1705 Joseph I 1705–1711 Charles VI 1711–1740 "Karl VI." Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
1740–1780 (German: Maria Theresia) Habsburg-Lorraine[edit] Joseph II
Joseph II
1780–1790 known as "the great Reformer" Leopold II 1790–1792 from 1765 to 1790 "Grandduke of Tuscany" Francis II 1792–1835 correctly written "Franz" (became Emperor Francis I of Austria
Austria
in 1804, at which point numbering starts anew) Ferdinand I 1835–1848 known as "Ferdinand the Good" German: "Ferdinand der Gütige" Francis Joseph I 1848–1916 Brother of Emperor
Emperor
Maximilian of Mexico (ruled 1864–1867) Charles I 1916–1918 last reigning Monarch of Austria-Hungary Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen or sometimes called Otto von Österreich Crown Prince of Austria
Austria
to be found as Otto von Habsburg Family tree[edit] Habsburg family tree In literature[edit] The most famous memoir on the decline of the Habsburg Empire is Stefan Zweig's The World of Yesterday.[15]

References[edit]

^ "Smoldering Embers: Czech-German Cultural Competition, 1848–1948" by C. Brandon Hone. Utah State University.

^ Robert I. Frost (2018). The Oxford History of Poland-Lithuania: Volume I: The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, 1385–1569, Oxford History of Early Modern Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780192568144..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ a b "Czech Republic – Historic Centre of Prague
Prague
(1992)" Heindorffhus, August 2007, HeindorffHus-Czech Archived 2007-03-20 at Archive.today.

^ Vienna
Vienna
website; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2011-09-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Encyclopædia Britannica online article Austria-Hungary; http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44386/Austria-Hungary

^ Metropolitan Museum of Art; http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/habs/hd_habs.htm

^ University of Wisconsin; http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/holy%20roman%20empire.htm Archived 2016-05-12 at the Wayback Machine

^ [1]

^ [2]

^ "Ferdinand I". Encyclopædia Britannica.

^ Michael Kotulla – Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: Vom Alten Reich bis Weimar, p§ 32 II, =2008 Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-48705-0, https://books.google.de/books?id=mfjijA5t9bUC&pg=PA485

^ Simon Adams (30 July 2005). The Balkans. Black Rabbit Books. pp. 1974–. ISBN 978-1-58340-603-8.

^ Scott Lackey (30 October 1995). The Rebirth of the Habsburg Army: Friedrich Beck and the Rise of the General Staff. ABC-CLIO. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-313-03131-1.

^ Carl Cavanagh Hodge (2008). Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1914: A-K. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-0-313-33406-1.

^ Giorgio Manacorda (2010) Nota bibliografica in Roth La Marcia di Radetzky, Newton Classici quotation: .mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 Stefan Zweig, l'autore del più famoso libro sull'Impero asburgico, Die Welt von Gestern

Further reading[edit] Ingrao, Charles. The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618–1815 (2000) Ingrao, Charles. In Quest and Crisis: Emperor
Emperor
Joseph I and the Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
(1979) Judson, Pieter M. The Habsburg Empire: A New History (2016). Downplays the disruptive impact of ethnic nationalism. Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918 (U of California Press, 1974) Lieven, Dominic. Empire: The Russian empire and its rivals (Yale UP, 2002), comparisons with Russian, British, & Ottoman empires. excerpt Macartney, Carlile Aylmer The Habsburg Empire, 1790–1918, New York, Macmillan 1969. McCagg, Jr., William O. A History of the Habsburg Jews, 1670–1918 (Indiana University Press, 1989) Oakes, Elizabeth and Eric Roman. Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance
Renaissance
to the Present (2003) Robert John Weston Evans, The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation, Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-19-873085-3. Sked Alan The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815–1918, London: Longman, 1989. Steed, Henry Wickham; et al. (1914). A short history of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Poland. Taylor, A.J.P. The Habsburg monarchy, 1809–1918: a history of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and Austria-Hungary, (London: Penguin Books. 2nd ed. 1964) External links[edit] Habsburg in an email discussion list dealing with the culture and history of the Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
and its successor states in central Europe since 1500, with discussions, syllabi, book reviews, queries, conferences; edited daily by scholars since 1994.

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