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HANOI (/hæˈnɔɪ/ or US : /həˈnɔɪ/ ; Vietnamese : Hà Nội, ( listen ) ) is the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
and the country's second largest city by population. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts and 7 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế
Huế
, the imperial capital of Vietnam
Vietnam
during the Nguyễn Dynasty
Nguyễn Dynasty
(1802–1945), but Hanoi
Hanoi
served as the capital of French Indochina
French Indochina
from 1902 to 1954. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam
Vietnam
, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War .

The city lies on the right bank of the Red River . Hanoi
Hanoi
is 1,760 km (1,090 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
and 120 km (75 mi) west of Hai Phong city.

In 1873 Hanoi
Hanoi
was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels.

From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina
Indochina
and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi
Hanoi
the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city . The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural
Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural
is a 4 km ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names

* 2 History

* 2.1 Pre-Thăng Long period * 2.2 Thăng Long, Đông Đô, Đông Quan, Đông Kinh * 2.3 During Nguyễn Dynasty
Nguyễn Dynasty
and the French colonial period * 2.4 During two wars * 2.5 Modern Hanoi
Hanoi

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Location, topography * 3.2 Climate

* 4 Administrative divisions

* 4.1 List of local government divisions

* 5 Demographics * 6 Economy

* 7 Landmarks

* 7.1 Old Quarter * 7.2 Lakes * 7.3 Colonial Hanoi
Hanoi
* 7.4 Museums

* 8 Tourism

* 9 Entertainment

* 9.1 Shopping

* 10 Cuisine * 11 Education * 12 Transport * 13 Sports * 14 Health care and other facilities

* 15 International relations

* 15.1 Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities

* 16 Image gallery * 17 See also

* 18 References

* 18.1 Bibliography

* 19 External links

NAMES

Hanoi
Hanoi
(河內, "inside (the) river") has had many official and unofficial names throughout history.

* During the Chinese occupation of Vietnam, it was known first as LONG BIêN (龍邊, "dragon edge"), then TốNG BìNH (宋平, "Song peace") and LONG Đỗ (龍肚, "dragon belly"). Long Biên later gave its name to the famed Long Biên Bridge
Long Biên Bridge
, built during French colonial time, and more recently to a new district to the east of the Red River . Several older names of Hanoi
Hanoi
feature long (龍, "dragon"), which is linked to the curvy formation of the Red River around the city, which was symbolized as a dragon. * In 866, it was turned into a citadel and named ĐạI LA (大羅, "big net"). This gave it the nickname LA THàNH (羅城, "net citadel"). Both Đại La and La Thành are names of major streets in modern Hanoi. * When Lý Thái Tổ
Lý Thái Tổ
established the capital in the area in 1010, it was named THăNG LONG (昇龍, "rising dragon"). Thăng Long later became the name of a major bridge on the highway linking the city center to Noi Bai Airport
Noi Bai Airport
, and the Thăng Long Boulevard expressway in the southwest of the city center. In modern time, the city is usually referred to as Thăng Long – Hà Nội, when its long history is discussed. * During the Hồ dynasty
Hồ dynasty
, it was called ĐôNG Đô (東都, "eastern metropolis"). * During the Ming Chinese occupation , it was called ĐôNG QUAN (東關, "eastern gate"). * During the Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
, Hanoi
Hanoi
was known as ĐôNG KINH (東京, "eastern capital"). This gave the name to Tonkin
Tonkin
and Gulf of Tonkin
Tonkin
. A square adjacent to the Hoàn Kiếm lake
Hoàn Kiếm lake
was named Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục after the reformist Tonkin
Tonkin
Free School under French colonization. * After the end of the Tây Sơn dynasty
Tây Sơn dynasty
, when the country had expanded further south, the city was named BắC THàNH (北城, "northern citadel"). * Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
renamed the city Hà NộI (河內, "inside (the) river") in 1831. This has remained its official name until modern time. * Several unofficial names of Hanoi
Hanoi
include: Kẻ CHợ (marketplace), TRàNG AN (long peace), Hà THàNH (short for Thành phố Hà Nội, "city of Hanoi"), and THủ Đô (capital). * In modern tourism, it is sometimes nicknamed Paris of the Orient , or Paris of the East .

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Hanoi

PRE-THăNG LONG PERIOD

Hanoi
Hanoi
has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. The Cổ Loa Citadel in Dong Anh district served as the capital of the Âu Lạc kingdom founded by the Shu emigrant Thục Phán after his 258 BC conquest of the native Văn Lang
Văn Lang
.

In 197 BC, Âu Lạc Kingdom was annexed by Nanyue
Nanyue
, which ushered in more than a millennium of Chinese domination. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, the Liu Song Dynasty
Liu Song Dynasty
set up a new district (縣) called Songping (Tong Binh), which later became a commandery (郡), including two districts Yihuai (義懷) and Suining (綏寧) in the south of the Red River (now Từ Liêm and Hoài Đức districts) with a metropolis (the domination centre) in the present inner Hanoi. By the year 679, the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
changed the region's name into Annan (Pacified South), with Songping as its capital.

In order to defeat the people's uprisings, in the later half of the 8th century, Zhang Boyi (張伯儀), a Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
viceroy, built Luocheng (羅城, La Thanh or La citadel, from Thu Le to Quan Ngua in present-day Ba Dinh precinct). In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further built up and called Jincheng (金城, Kim Thanh or Kim Citadel). In 866, Gao Pian , the Chinese Jiedushi
Jiedushi
, consolidated and named it Daluocheng (大羅城, Dai La citadel , running from Quan Ngua to Bach Thao), the then-largest citadel of ancient Hanoi.

THăNG LONG, ĐôNG Đô, ĐôNG QUAN, ĐôNG KINH

In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ
Lý Thái Tổ
, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty
Lý Dynasty
, moved the capital of Đại Việt
Đại Việt
to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site THăNG LONG (昇龍, "Soaring Dragon") – a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa
, then known as Tây Đô (西都), the "Western Capital". Thăng Long then became ĐôNG Đô (東都), the "Eastern Capital."

In 1408, the Chinese Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to DONGGUAN (Chinese : 東關, Eastern Gateway), or Đông Quan in Sino-Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of Lê Lợi
Lê Lợi
, who later founded the Lê Dynasty
Lê Dynasty
and renamed Đông Quan ĐôNG KINH (東京, "Eastern Capital") or Tonkin
Tonkin
. Right after the end of the Tây Sơn Dynasty , it was named BắC THàNH (北城, "Northern Citadel").

DURING NGUYễN DYNASTY AND THE FRENCH COLONIAL PERIOD

The French attack the Hai Duong citadel People in Ha Noi, 1884 The stamp depicting election day in Hà Nội
Hà Nội
during French Indochina
French Indochina
, around 1910 Ha Noi, New Year's Day, 1973

In 1802, when the Nguyễn Dynasty
Nguyễn Dynasty
was established and moved the capital to Huế
Huế
, the old name Thăng Long was modified to become THăNG LONG (昇隆, "Soaring Dragon"). In 1831, the Nguyễn emperor Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
renamed it Hà Nội
Hà Nội
(河内, "Between Rivers" or "River Interior"). Hanoi
Hanoi
was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. As HANOï, it was located in the protectorate of Tonkin
Tonkin
became the capital of French Indochina
French Indochina
after 1887.

DURING TWO WARS

The city was occupied by the Imperial Japanese in 1940 and liberated in 1945, when it briefly became the seat of the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
government after Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
proclaimed the independence of Vietnam. However, the French returned and reoccupied the city in 1946. After nine years of fighting between the French and Viet Minh
Viet Minh
forces, Hanoi
Hanoi
became the capital of an independent North Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1954.

During the Vietnam
Vietnam
War , Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways. These were all, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi
Hanoi
became the capital of a reunified Vietnam
Vietnam
when North and South Vietnam
Vietnam
were reunited on 2 July 1976.

MODERN HANOI

On 29 May 2008, it was decided that Hà Tây Province , Vĩnh Phúc Province 's Mê Linh District and 4 communes of Lương Sơn District , Hòa Bình Province
Hòa Bình Province
be merged into the metropolitan area of Hanoi from 1 August 2008. Hanoi's total area then increased to 334,470 hectares in 29 subdivisions with the new population being 6,232,940., effectively tripling its size. The Hanoi Capital Region
Hanoi Capital Region
(Vùng Thủ đô Hà Nội), a metropolitan area covering Hanoi
Hanoi
and 6 surrounding provinces under its administration, will have an area of 13,436 square kilometres (5,188 sq mi) with 15 million people by 2020.

Hanoi
Hanoi
has experienced a rapid construction boom recently. Skyscrapers, popping up in new urban areas, have dramatically changed the cityscape and have formed a modern skyline outside the old city. In 2015, Hanoi
Hanoi
is ranked # 39 by Emporis
Emporis
in the list of world cities with most skyscrapers over 100 m; its two tallest buildings are Hanoi Landmark 72 Tower (336 m, tallest in Vietnam
Vietnam
and second tallest in southeast Asia after Malaysia's Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
) and Hanoi
Hanoi
Lotte Center (272 m, also, second tallest in Vietnam).

GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION, TOPOGRAPHY

Hanoi
Hanoi
is located in northern region of Vietnam, situated in the Vietnam's Red River delta, nearly 90 km (56 mi) away from the coastal area. Hanoi
Hanoi
contains three basic kind of terrain, which are the delta area, the midland area and mountainous zone. In general, the terrain is gradually lower from the north to the south and from the west to the east, with the average height ranging from 5 to 20 meters above the sea level. The hills and mountainous zones are located in the northern and western part of the city. The highest peak is at Ba Vi with 1281 m, located west of the city proper.

CLIMATE

Satellite view of Hanoi
Hanoi

Hanoi
Hanoi
features a warm humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with plentiful precipitation. The city experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, with 4 distinct seasons. Summer, from May until August, is characterized by hot and humid weather with abundant rainfall. September to October is fall, characterized by a decrease in temperature and precipitation. Winter, from November to January, is dry and cool by national standards. The city is usually cloudy and foggy in winter, averaging only 1.5 hours of sunshine per day in February and March.

Hanoi
Hanoi
averages 1,680 millimetres (66.1 in) of rainfall per year, the majority falling from May to September. There are an average of 114 days with rain.

The average annual temperature is 23.6 °C (74 °F) with a mean relative humidity of 79%. The highest recorded temperature was 42.8 °C (109 °F) on May 1926 while the lowest recorded temperature was 2.7 °C (37 °F) on January 1955.

CLIMATE DATA FOR HANOI (1898–1990)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 32.0 (89.6) 34.7 (94.5) 37.2 (99) 39.0 (102.2) 42.8 (109) 42.5 (108.5) 40.1 (104.2) 38.2 (100.8) 39.0 (102.2) 36.6 (97.9) 34.7 (94.5) 31.5 (88.7) 42.8 (109)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 19.3 (66.7) 19.9 (67.8) 22.8 (73) 27.0 (80.6) 31.5 (88.7) 32.6 (90.7) 32.9 (91.2) 31.9 (89.4) 30.9 (87.6) 28.6 (83.5) 25.2 (77.4) 21.8 (71.2) 27.03 (80.65)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 16.5 (61.7) 17.4 (63.3) 20.1 (68.2) 24.0 (75.2) 27.4 (81.3) 28.9 (84) 29.2 (84.6) 28.6 (83.5) 27.5 (81.5) 25.0 (77) 21.5 (70.7) 18.2 (64.8) 23.69 (74.64)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 13.7 (56.7) 15.0 (59) 18.1 (64.6) 21.4 (70.5) 24.3 (75.7) 25.8 (78.4) 26.1 (79) 25.7 (78.3) 24.7 (76.5) 21.9 (71.4) 18.5 (65.3) 15.3 (59.5) 20.88 (69.58)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 6.0 (42.8) 6.0 (42.8) 11.8 (53.2) 17.2 (63) 20.0 (68) 21.0 (69.8) 22.2 (72) 17.4 (63.3) 14.0 (57.2) 10.0 (50) 5.0 (41) 2.7 (36.9)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 18.6 (0.732) 26.2 (1.031) 43.8 (1.724) 90.1 (3.547) 188.5 (7.421) 239.9 (9.445) 288.2 (11.346) 318.0 (12.52) 265.4 (10.449) 130.7 (5.146) 43.4 (1.709) 23.4 (0.921) 1,676.2 (65.992)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 8.4 11.3 15.0 13.3 14.2 14.7 15.7 16.7 13.7 9.0 6.5 6.0 144.5

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 78 82 83 83 77 78 79 82 79 75 74 75 78.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 68.2 45.2 43.4 81.0 164.3 156.0 182.9 164.3 162.0 164.3 126.0 108.5 1,466.1

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
, BBC Weather (humidity)

Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (records), (May record high and January record low only), (sunshine hours only), Vietnamnet.vn (June record high only), Tutiempo.net (March and April record low only)

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Hà Nội
Hà Nội
is divided into 12 urban districts, 1 district-leveled town and 17 rural districts. When Hà Tây was merged into Hanoi
Hanoi
in 2008, Hà Đông
Hà Đông
was transformed into an urban district while Sơn Tây degraded to a district-leveled town. They are further subdivided into 22 commune-level towns (or townlets), 399 communes, and 145 wards. Administrative divisions of Hanoi
Hanoi

LIST OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT DIVISIONS

SUBDIVISIONS OF HANOI

PROVINCIAL CITIES/DISTRICTS WARDS AREA (KM2) POPULATION

1 town (Thị xã)

Sơn Tây
Sơn Tây
Town HT 15 113.474 181,831

12 urban districts (Quận)

Ba Đình District
Ba Đình District
14 9.224 228,352

Bắc Từ Liêm District 13 43.35 320,414

Cầu Giấy District
Cầu Giấy District
8 12.04 251,000

Đống Đa District 21 9.96 408,000

Hai Bà Trưng District 20 14.6 378,000

Hà Đông
Hà Đông
District HT 17 47.917 250,687

Hoàn Kiếm District
Hoàn Kiếm District
18 5.29 178,073

Hoàng Mai District 14 41.04 358,277

Long Biên District 14 60.38 273,706

Nam Từ Liêm District 10 32.27 232,894

Tây Hồ District
Tây Hồ District
8 24 115,163

Thanh Xuân District 11 9.11 259,000 (2011)

SUBTOTAL 145 233.56 3,435,394

17 rural districts (Huyện)

Ba Vì District
Ba Vì District
HT 31 + 1 town 428.0 242,600 (1999)

Chương Mỹ District
Chương Mỹ District
HT 30 + 2 towns 232.9 261,000 (2013)

Đan Phượng District HT 15 + 1 town 76.8 124,900

Đông Anh District 23 + 1 town 182.3 376,750 (2009)

Gia Lâm District 20 + 2 towns 114.0 251,275 (2011)

Hoài Đức District HT 19 + 1 town 95.3 188,800

Mê Linh District 16 + 2 towns 141.26 187,536 (2008)

Mỹ Đức District HT 21 + 1 town 230.0 167,700 (1999)

Phú Xuyên District HT 26 + 2 towns 171.1 181,500

Phúc Thọ District HT 25 + 1 town 113.2 154,800 (2001)

Quốc Oai District HT 20 + 1 town 136.0 (2001) 146,700 (2001)

Sóc Sơn District 25 + 1 town 306.51 254,000

Thanh Trì District 15 + 1 town 63.17 241,000 (2009)

Thanh Oai District HT 20 + 1 town 129.6 142,600 (2007)

Thạch Thất District HT 22 + 1 town 128.1 149,000 (2003)

Thường Tín District HT 28 + 1 town 127.7 208,000

Ứng Hòa District
Ứng Hòa District
HT 28 + 1 town 183.72 193,731 (2005)

SUBTOTAL 399 + 22 TOWNS 3,266.186 3,972,851

TOTAL 559 + 22 TOWNS 3,344.47 7,408,245

HT – formerly an administrative subdivision unit of the defunct Hà Tây Province

DEMOGRAPHICS

Hanoian women wearing traditional costume Áo dài
Áo dài
during APEC Summit 2006

Hanoi's population is constantly growing (about 3.5% per year), a reflection of the fact that the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's political centre. This population growth also puts a lot of pressure on the infrastructure , some of which is antiquated and dates back to the early 20th century.

The number of Hanoians who have settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small when compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds of years ago and consisted mostly of family businesses, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved into the adjoining house or moved out of the neighbourhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planning economic policies and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system.

Hanoi's telephone numbers have been increased to 8 digits to cope with demand (October 2008). Subscribers' telephone numbers have been changed in a haphazard way; however, mobile phones and SIM cards are readily available in Vietnam, with pre-paid mobile phone credit available in all areas of Hanoi.

ECONOMY

Hanoi
Hanoi
has the highest Human Development Index
Human Development Index
among the cities in Vietnam.According to a recent ranking by PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
, Hanoi
Hanoi
will be the fastest growing city in the world in terms of GDP growth from 2008 to 2025. In the year 2013, Hanoi
Hanoi
contributed 12.6% to GDP, exported 7.5% of total exports, contributed 17% to the national budget and attracted 22% investment capital of Vietnam. The city's nominal GDP at current prices reached 451,213 billion VND (21.48 billion USD) in 2013, which made per capita GDP stand at 63.3 million VND (3,000 USD). Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991–95, 15.9 percent from 1996–2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001–2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi
Hanoi
is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-state economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 48,000 businesses currently operating under the Enterprise Law (as of 3/2007). West Hanoi
Hanoi

Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi
Hanoi
had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996–2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003. The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism, finance, and banking now playing an increasingly important role. Hanoi's business districts are traditionally Hoàn Kiếm , Đống Đa District and the neighborhood; and a newly developing Cầu Giấy and Từ Liêm in the western part.

Similar to Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
, Hanoi
Hanoi
enjoys a rapidly developing real estate market. The current most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh, Mỹ Đình , the luxurious zones of The Manor , Ciputra and Times City .

Agriculture, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques.

Together with economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure
Infrastructure
is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system.

LANDMARKS

North gate of Hanoi Citadel
Hanoi Citadel
from inside (19th century)

As the capital of Vietnam
Vietnam
for almost a thousand years, Hanoi
Hanoi
is considered one of the main cultural centres of Vietnam, where most Vietnamese dynasties have left their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Even when the nation's capital moved to Huế
Huế
under the Nguyễn Dynasty
Nguyễn Dynasty
in 1802, the city of Hanoi
Hanoi
continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city hosts more cultural sites than any other city in Vietnam, and boasts more than 1,000 years of history; that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.

OLD QUARTER

Main article: Old Quarter, Hanoi

The Old Quarter, near Hoàn Kiếm Lake, maintains most of the original street layout and some of the architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century Hanoi
Hanoi
consisted of the "36 streets", the citadel, and some of the newer French buildings south of Hoàn Kiếm lake, most of which are now part of Hoàn Kiếm district. Each street had merchants and households specializing in a particular trade, such as silk, jewelry or even bamboo. The street names still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce. The area is famous for its specializations in trades such as traditional medicine and local handicrafts, including silk shops, bamboo carpenters, and tin smiths. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân Market
Đồng Xuân Market
) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.

Some other prominent places include the Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu), site of the oldest university in Vietnam
Vietnam
which was started in 1010, the One Pillar Pagoda
One Pillar Pagoda
(Chùa Một Cột) which was built based on the dream of king Lý Thái Tông (1028-1054) in 1049, and the Flag Tower of Hanoi
Hanoi
(Cột cờ Hà Nội). In 2004, a massive part of the 900-year-old Hanoi Citadel
Hanoi Citadel
was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Đình Square
Ba Đình Square
.

LAKES

A city between rivers built on lowlands, Hanoi
Hanoi
has many scenic lakes and is sometimes called the "city of lakes." Among its lakes, the most famous are Hoàn Kiếm Lake
Hoàn Kiếm Lake
, West Lake , and Bảy Mẫu Lake (inside Thống Nhất Park). Hoàn Kiếm Lake, also known as Sword Lake, is the historical and cultural center of Hanoi, and is linked to the legend of the magic sword . West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi,with many temples in the area. The lakeside road in the Nghi Tam – Quang Ba area is perfect for bicycling, jogging and viewing the cityscape or enjoying the lotus ponds in the summer. The best way to see the majestic beauty of a West Lake sunset is to view it from one of the many bars around the lake, especially from The Summit at Pan Pacific Hanoi
Hanoi
(formally known as Summit Lounge at Sofitel Plaza Hanoi).

COLONIAL HANOI

Hotel Metropole in colonial Hanoi
Hanoi

Under French rule, as an administrative centre for the French colony of Indochina, the French colonial architecture style became dominant, and many examples remain today: the tree-lined boulevards (e.g. Phan Dinh Phung street) and its many villas and mansions, Grand Opera House , State Bank of Vietnam
Vietnam
(formerly The Bank of Indochina), Presidential Palace (formerly the Palace of the Governor-General of French Indochina), St. Joseph\'s Cathedral , and the historic Hotel Metropole . Many of the colonial structures are an eclectic mixture of French and traditional Vietnamese architectural styles, such as the National Museum of Vietnamese History, the Vietnam
Vietnam
National Museum of Fine Arts and the old Indochina
Indochina
Medical College. Gouveneur-Général Paul Doumer (1898-1902) played a crucial role in colonial Hanoi's urban planning. Under his tenure there was a major construction boom.

Critical historians of empire have noted that French colonial rule imposed a system of white supremacy on the city. Vietnamese subjects supplied labor and tax revenue, but the privileges and comforts of the city went to the white population. French efforts at rat eradication revealed some of the colonial city's racial double-standards.

MUSEUMS

Hanoi
Hanoi
is home to a number of museums:

* National Museum of Vietnamese History
National Museum of Vietnamese History
* Vietnam
Vietnam
National Museum of Fine Arts * Vietnam
Vietnam
Museum of Ethnology * Vietnam
Vietnam
Museum of Revolution * Hỏa Lò Prison
Hỏa Lò Prison
( Hanoi
Hanoi
Hilton) * Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Museum * Hanoi Contemporary Arts Centre * Vietnam
Vietnam
Military History Museum * Hanoi Museum

TOURISM

Hanoi
Hanoi
is sometimes dubbed the "Paris of the East " for its French influences. With its tree-fringed boulevards, more than two dozen lakes and thousands of French colonial-era buildings, Hanoi
Hanoi
is a popular tourist destination.

Since 2014, Hanoi
Hanoi
has consistently been voted in the world's top ten destinations by TripAdvisor. It ranked 8th in 2014, 4th in 2015 and 8th in 2016.

Hanoi
Hanoi
is the most affordable international destination in TripAdvisor's annual TripIndex report.

ENTERTAINMENT

Performance of the water puppet theatre Thăng Long

A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi
Hanoi
can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. Hanoi
Hanoi
has been named one of the top 10 cities for shopping in Asia by Water Puppet Tours. The number of art galleries exhibiting Vietnamese art has dramatically increased in recent years, now including galleries such as "Nhat Huy" of Huynh Thong Nhat .

Nhà Triển Lãm at 29 Hang Bai street hosts regular photo, sculpture, and paint exhibitions in conjuncture with local artists and travelling international expositions.

A popular traditional form of entertainment is Water puppetry
Water puppetry
, which is shown, for example, at the Thăng Long Water Puppet Theatre.

SHOPPING

With rapid economic growth and extremely high population density, many modern shopping centers and megamalls have been opened in Hanoi.

Major malls are:

* Trang Tien Plaza
Trang Tien Plaza
, High-end Mall on Trang Tien street (right next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake), Hoàn Kiếm District
Hoàn Kiếm District
* Vincom Center , a modern mall with hi-end CGV cineplex, Ba Trieu Street (just 2 km from Hoan Kiem lake), Hai Bà Trưng District * Parkson Department Store, Tây Sơn Street, Đống Đa District ; * The Garden Shopping Center , Me Tri – Mỹ Đình , Từ Liêm District * Indochina
Indochina
Plaza, Xuan Thuy street, Cầu Giấy District
Cầu Giấy District
* Vincom Royal City Megamall, the largest underground mall in Asia with 230,000 square metres of shops, restaurants, cineplex, waterpark, ice skating rink; Nguyen Trai street (approx 6 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Thanh Xuân District * Vincom Times City Megamall, another megamall of 230,000 square metres including shops, restaurants, cineplex, huge musical fountain on central square and a giant aquarium; Minh Khai street (approx 5 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Hai Ba Trung district * Lotte Department Store, opened September 2014, Liễu Giai Street, Ba Đình District * Aeon Mall Long Bien opened last October 2015, Long Bien District

CUISINE

Hanoi
Hanoi
has rich culinary traditions. Many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as phở , chả cá , bánh cuốn and cốm are believed to have originated in Hanoi. Perhaps most widely known is Phở—a simple rice noodle soup often eaten as breakfast at home or at street-side cafes, but also served in restaurants as a meal. Two varieties dominate the Hanoi
Hanoi
scene: Phở
Phở
Bò, containing beef and Phở
Phở
Gà, containing chicken. Bún chả, a dish consisting of charcoal roasted pork served in a sweet/salty soup with rice noodle vermicelli and lettuce, is by far the most popular food item among locals. President Obama famously tried this dish at a Le Van Huu eatery with Anthony Bourdain in 2016, prompting the opening of a Bún chả restaurant bearing his name in the Old Quarter.

Vietnam's national dish phở has been named as one of the Top 5 street foods in the world by globalpost.

Hanoi
Hanoi
has a number of restaurants whose menus specifically offer dishes containing snake and various species of insects. Insect-inspired menus can be found at a number of restaurants in Khuong Thuong village, Hanoi. The signature dishes at these restaurant are those containing processed ant-eggs , often in the culinary styles of Thai people or Vietnam's Muong and Tay ethnic people . Hanoi
Hanoi
is also home to much of the dog eating culture of Vietnam, with several restaurants offering the dish in the Old Quarter and surrounding areas.

Bia Hoi, a local take on a Czech style beer allegedly introduced by guest engineers in post liberation Hanoi, is also a local specialty. This beer is light, gassy, with a very neutral pallet which agrees with the local diet quite well. It contains no preservatives and is therefore "fresh" beer. It is usually purchased for around 5-10,000 dong per glass or around 25 to 40 cents. The beer is produced by a variety of the local breweries and is the tent pole item for many local eateries generally referred to as "bia hoi" which serve a variety of local dishes.

EDUCATION

Indochina
Indochina
Medical College in the early 20th century, today the Hanoi Medical University

Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including: Indochina
Indochina
Medical College (1902) – now Hanoi Medical University , Indochina
Indochina
University (1904) – now Hanoi
Hanoi
National University (the largest), and École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de l'Indochine (1925) – now Hanoi University of Fine Art .

After the Communist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
took control of Hanoi
Hanoi
in 1954, many new universities were built, among them, Hanoi
Hanoi
University of Technology , still the largest technical university in Vietnam. Recently ULIS ( University of Languages and International Studies ) was rated as one of the top universities in south-east Asia for languages and language studies at the undergraduate level. Other universities that are not part of Vietnam
Vietnam
National University or Hanoi
Hanoi
University include Hanoi
Hanoi
School for Public Health and Hanoi
Hanoi
School of Agriculture and University of Transport and Communications .

Hanoi
Hanoi
is the largest center of education in Vietnam. It is estimated that 62% of the scientists in the whole country are living and working in Hanoi. Admissions to undergraduate study are through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open to everyone (who has successfully completed his/her secondary education) in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi
Hanoi
are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have begun operation. Thăng Long University , founded in 1988, by Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi
Hanoi
and France
France
was the first private university in Vietnam. Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi
Hanoi
for the annual entrance examination. Such events usually take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around the intense examination period. In recent years, these entrance exams have been centrally coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but entrance requirements are decided independently by each university.

Although there are state owned kindergartens , there are also many private ventures that serve both local and international needs. Pre-tertiary (elementary and secondary) schools in Hanoi
Hanoi
are generally state run, but there are also some independent schools. Education is equivalent to the K–12 system in the U.S., with elementary school between grades 1 and 5, middle school (or junior high) between grades 6 and 9, and high school from grades 10 to 12.

TRANSPORT

See also: Buses in Hanoi
Buses in Hanoi
Inside International Terminal

Hanoi
Hanoi
is served by Noi Bai International Airport
Noi Bai International Airport
, located in the Soc Son District, approximately 15 km (9 mi) north of Hanoi. The new international terminal (T2), designed and built by Japanese contractors, opened in January 2015 and is a big facelift for Noibai International Airport. In addition, a new highway and the new Nhat Tan cable-stay bridge connecting the airport and the city center opened at the same time, offering much more convenience than the old road (via Thanglong bridge). Taxis are plentiful and usually have meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from the airport to the city centre.

Hanoi
Hanoi
is also the origin or departure point for many Vietnam
Vietnam
Railways train routes in the country. The Reunification Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Hanoi
Hanoi
to Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
from Hanoi
Hanoi
station (formerly Hang Co station), with stops at cities and provinces along the line. Trains also depart Hanoi
Hanoi
frequently for Hai Phong
Hai Phong
and other northern cities. The Reunification Express line was established during French colonial rule and was completed over a period of nearly forty years, from 1899 to 1936. The Reunification Express between Hanoi
Hanoi
and Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
covers a distance of 1,726 km (1,072 mi) and takes approximately 33 hours. As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network, of which 191 were located along the North-South line. Hanoi Metro
Hanoi Metro
Map, none of the lines are in operation at the moment

The main means of transport within Hanoi
Hanoi
city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and a rising number of cars. In recent decades, motorbikes have overtaken bicycles as the main form of transportation. Cars however are probably the most notable change in the past five years as many Vietnamese people purchase the vehicles for the first time. The increased number of cars are the main cause gridlock as roads and infrastructure in the older parts of Hanoi
Hanoi
were not designed to accommodate them. On 4 July 2017, the Hanoi
Hanoi
government voted to ban motorbikes entirely by 2030, in order to reduce pollution, congestion, and encourage the expansion and use of public transport.

There are two metro lines under construction in Hanoi
Hanoi
now, as part of the master plan for the future Hanoi Metro
Hanoi Metro
system. The first line is expected to be operational in 2018, and the second in 2021.

Persons on their own or traveling in a pair who wish to make a fast trip around Hanoi
Hanoi
to avoid traffic jams or to travel at an irregular time or by way of an irregular route often use "xe ôm" (literally, "hug bike"). Motorbikes can also be rented from agents within the Old Quarter of Hanoi, although this falls inside a rather grey legal area.

SPORTS

Mỹ Đình National Stadium

There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Hanoi. The biggest ones are Mỹ Đình National Stadium (Lê Đức Thọ Boulevard), Quan Ngua Sporting Palace (Văn Cao Avenue), Hanoi Aquatics Sports Complex and Mỹ Đình Indoor Athletics Gymnasium . The others include Hà Nội
Hà Nội
Stadium (also known as Hàng Đẫy stadium). The third Asian Indoor Games were held in Hanoi
Hanoi
in 2009. The others are Hai Bà Trưng Gymnasium , Trịnh Hoài Đức Gymnasium , Vạn Bảo Sports Complex .

HEALTH CARE AND OTHER FACILITIES

Some medical facilities in Hanoi:

* Bạch Mai Hospital * Viet Duc Hospital * Saint Paul Hospital
Saint Paul Hospital
* 108 Hospital * Hôpital Français de Hanoi * International SOS
International SOS
* Hanoi Medical University Hospital * Thanh Nhan Hospital * Vinmec International Hospital

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Hanoi
Hanoi
is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21
Asian Network of Major Cities 21
and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group . See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Vietnam
Vietnam

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Hanoi
Hanoi
is twinned with:

* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
* Astana
Astana
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Ankara
Ankara
, Turkey
Turkey
* Warsaw
Warsaw
, Poland
Poland
* Toulouse
Toulouse
, France * Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
, Japan * Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand * Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
* Manila
Manila
, Philippines * Angoulême
Angoulême
, France
France
* Seoul
Seoul
, South Korea
South Korea
* Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
, Cambodia
Cambodia
* Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia * Isfahan
Isfahan
, Iran * Montreal, Quebec , Canada * Victoria , Seychelles
Seychelles

IMAGE GALLERY

*

Tháp Bút (Pen Tower) with a phrase "Tả thanh thiên" (meaning "Write on the sky") next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake
Hoàn Kiếm Lake
(2007) *

Presidential Palace, Hanoi
Presidential Palace, Hanoi
(formerly Place of The Governor-General of French Indochina) *

State Guest House *

The cathedral St-Joseph *

National Museum of Fine Art *

Park of Reunification (former Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
park) *

Parliament House

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HANOI .

* Vietnam
Vietnam
portal

* Gioi Market * Đồng Xuân Market
Đồng Xuân Market
* Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
* North–South Railway (Vietnam)
North–South Railway (Vietnam)
* List of historical capitals of Vietnam
Vietnam

* All pages with a title containing Hanoi
Hanoi

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Hanoi
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Hanoi
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Hanoi
Hanoi

* Boudarel, Georges (2002). Hanoi: City Of The Rising Dragon. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7425-1655-5 . * Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Vietnam
Vietnam
Past and Present: The North (History and culture of Hanoi
Hanoi
and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q. * Logan, William S. (2001). Hanoi: Biography of a City. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98014-1 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Official Site of Hanoi
Hanoi
Government * An article in New York Times about Hanoi * Hanoi
Hanoi
travel guide from Wikivoyage

PLACES ADJACENT TO HANOI

Vĩnh Phúc Province Thái Nguyên Province Bắc Giang Province
Bắc Giang Province

Phú Thọ Province
Phú Thọ Province
HANOI Bắc Ninh Province
Bắc Ninh Province

Hòa Bình Province
Hòa Bình Province
Hà Nam Province
Hà Nam Province
Hưng Yên Province

ARTICLES RELATED TO HANOI

* v * t * e

Hanoi
Hanoi

URBAN DISTRICTS

* Ba Đình * North Từ Liêm * Cầu Giấy * Đống Đa * Hà Đông
Hà Đông
* Hai Bà Trưng * Hoàn Kiếm * Hoàng Mai * Long Biên * South Từ Liêm * Tây Hồ * Thanh Xuân

PROVINCIAL TOWNS

* Sơn Tây
Sơn Tây

RURAL