HMS Ocean was an amphibious assault ship, the UK's helicopter carrier and the fleet flagship of the Royal Navy. She was designed to support amphibious landing operations and to support the staff of Commander UK Amphibious Force and Commander UK Landing Force. She was constructed in the mid-1990s by Kvaerner Govan on the River Clyde and fitted out by VSEL at Barrow-in-Furness prior to trials and subsequent acceptance in service. Ocean was commissioned in September 1998 at her home port HMNB Devonport, Plymouth. In December 2017, the Brazilian Navy confirmed the purchase of the ship for (GBP) £84.6 million. Following her decommissioning from Royal Navy service on 27 March 2018, she will undertake a period of maintenance and is expected to arrive in Rio de Janeiro by the end of 2018 with the intention of being commissioned and fully operational by 2020.
1 Background 2 Role 3 Operational history
3.1 1998–2000 3.2 2001–2010 3.3 2011–2018
4 Sale to Brazil 5 Affiliations 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External links
Background An invitation to tender for a new helicopter carrier was issued in February 1992. In February 1993 The Times reported that the carrier faced cancellation due to budgetary constraints. However, at approximately the same time, British forces were engaged in operations in the Balkans, which saw the Royal Fleet Auxiliary's aviation training ship RFA Argus pressed into service as an amphibious transport ship. Argus's accommodation and facilities proved inadequate for the needs of a large Embarked Military Force (EMF), which emphasised the need for a purpose-built platform. On 29 March 1993, the defence procurement minister announced that development of the new Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH) was proceeding. Two shipbuilders tendered for the contract – Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd (VSEL) and Swan Hunter. On 11 May 1993, the government announced that VSEL had won the contract. The build was to commercial standards, reducing costs significantly and leading to a construction spend of £154 million (£288 million in 2016),, comparable to that of a Type 23 frigate. VSEL, a warship manufacturer, sub-contracted the build phase to the commercial Kværner yard in Govan, Glasgow. The fact that VSEL's bid was £71 million lower than Swan Hunter's was the source of political controversy and led to a National Audit Office investigation to determine whether the competition was fair. The report, published on 29 July 1993, stated that, although VSEL did subsidise its bid, the MoD was right to award the contract to VSEL because the subsidy was much smaller than the difference between the two bids; VSEL's bid was £139.5 million compared to Swan Hunter's £210.6 million. The Times also suggested that the subsidy was as little as £10 million. In anticipation of the report, the Financial Times described the different philosophies adopted by the two bidders; while Swan Hunter viewed the ships as entirely military, "VSEL thought the design was basically a merchant ship with military hardware bolted on." VSEL's decision to sub-contract the build phase took advantage of lower overheads at a civilian yard as well as efficiency drives by its parent, Kværner. Launched on 11 October 1995, she was subsequently named at Barrow by Her Majesty the Queen on 20 February 1998, prior to delivery to Devonport. In her sea trial, she managed to reach a top speed of 20.6 knots (38.2 km/h; 23.7 mph); however, her usual top speed is 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). Role Ocean was designed to provide the amphibious assault capabilities last offered by Albion and Bulwark. She can deploy an Embarked Military Force (EMF) of a Royal Marines Commando Group from 3 Commando Brigade supported by aircraft and landing craft. The ship's company included 9 Assault Squadron (9 ASRM) from 1 Assault Group Royal Marines whose primary role is as an Amphibious Assault Squadron. Secondary tasks include boarding parties, beach reconnaissance and providing amphibious knowledge to the ships Command. Besides these roles they have responsibilities within the ship which include firefighting, watchkeeping and security. 9 ASRM is divided into a HQ unit, Landing Craft Troop, Signals detachment, Vehicle Deck Party and Assault Supply Team. HMS Ocean was also capable of limited anti-submarine warfare activities, supporting afloat training and acting as a base facility for other embarked forces including counter-terrorism units. The ship was capable of carrying four to six Apache AH1 helicopters operated by the Army Air Corps, as well as helicopters of the Royal Air Force, including the larger twin-rotor Chinook. Prior to their retirement, Ocean could transport up to fifteen fixed-wing Harrier aircraft of Joint Force Harrier in the ferry role, but was unable to operate as a fixed-wing aircraft carrier because she lacked the ski jump that is needed to launch a fully loaded Harrier. For the 2012 London Olympics, she carried an air arm of eight Army Air Corps and Fleet Air Arm Super Lynx helicopters, four from each service, to deploy special forces and conduct other missions in a security role. Four Landing Craft Vehicle and Personnel (LCVPs) are permanently embarked and manned by 9 Assault Squadron Royal Marines. Operational history 1998–2000
US Marines ride the forward aircraft lift into Ocean's hangar deck during an exercise in 1999.
Weeks after being commissioned, Ocean was undertaking the warm water element of her first-of-class trials, when she was deployed on short notice to the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua to provide humanitarian assistance in the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch. In early 1999, Ocean was scheduled to take part in an exercise in the Atlantic, but was diverted to the Mediterranean in readiness for possible deployment to Kosovo. During 2000, Ocean supported Operation Palliser in Sierra Leone, joining Illustrious in aiding the suppression of rebel activity with her own embarked force, and providing support facilities for the Spearhead battalion ashore. 2001–2010 On 17 February 2002, whilst under command of Captain Adrian Johns, a unit of Royal Marines from Ocean accidentally landed on the San Felipe beach in the Spanish town of La Linea instead of Gibraltar, causing a minor diplomatic incident as various media outlets labelled the mistake as an "invasion". Ocean was part of a large Royal Navy task force deployed for Operation Telic, the UK contribution to the 2003 Iraq War, for which she was awarded a new battle honour "Al Faw 2003". In the helicopter assault role she was accompanied by Ark Royal. In the summer of 2006, under the command of Captain Christopher Clayton, the ship was deployed as part of the task force involved in the Aurora exercises on the eastern seaboard of the United States. Clayton was later succeeded by Captain Tony Johnstone-Burt. In 2007, Ocean began her first long refit period. This was carried out by Devonport Management Limited at their Devonport Royal Dockyard facility and lasted around 12 months. Following this major period of maintenance and upgrading work, Ocean sailed from Plymouth on Wednesday 24 September 2008 to start sea trials. As part of that upgrade, a PyTEC pyrolysising waste recycling unit was fitted. On 18 February 2009, Ocean sailed from Devonport as part of the Taurus 09 deployment. She was joined on this deployment by the landing platform dock Bulwark, as the flagship of the group, which included Type 23 Frigates Argyll and Somerset and four ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. This exercise was filmed for the second series of the Channel 5 documentary Warship. In June 2009, Ocean took part in exercise Bersama Shield with Somerset and RFA Wave Ruler off the Malay Peninsula. During the air travel disruption after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Prime Minister Gordon Brown assigned Ocean and other units to rescue stranded travellers and army personnel across the English Channel in Operation Cunningham. In 2010, the ship was sent on a multi-purpose deployment. This started with exercise Auriga on the eastern coast of the USA. She then moved to Brazil to conduct an exercise with the Brazilian marines; whilst there a defence co-operation agreement was signed on board. She then crossed the Atlantic to Nigeria to participate in the "Nigeria at 50" presidential fleet review and provide training to the Nigerian navy as part of the African partnership programme. She returned to Devonport in November. 2011–2018 In April 2011, while under command of Captain Keith Blount, the ship was deployed as part of the RN's Response Force Task Group (RFTG) COUGAR 11 deployment. During this deployment, she took part in Exercise Cypriot Lion. In May 2011, she was detached from the COUGAR 11 deployment of the Response Force Task Group and sent with embarked Apaches to aid operations in Libya along with the attack helicopters aboard the French amphibious assault ship Tonnerre. This was the first time that Apache helicopters were sent directly into action from a Royal Navy ship. Her initial complement of three Apaches was bolstered by a fourth soon after, and later a fifth. The deployment included a large medical team, a sign of the ship's flexibility.
HMS Ocean deployed for the 2012 Olympic Games
On 4 May 2012, she moored at Greenwich to prepare for her role of providing logistics support, accommodation and a helicopter landing site during the London 2012 Olympic Games. From 24 to 28 May 2012, she visited Sunderland, her affiliated port, and made other port calls before returning to London on 13 July. After Olympic duty, Ocean returned to her home port of HMNB Devonport for a scheduled period of maintenance. The LPH role was provided by HMS Illustrious until 2014. On 22 July 2014, HMS Ocean took over the helicopter carrier role again, after her 15-month, £65 million refit, replacing HMS Illustrious, which then returned to her home port Portsmouth for the last time, being decommissioned on 28 August 2014. As part of the Response Force Task Group COUGAR 14 deployment, Ocean participated in exercises off Albania and France.
Apache and Chinook training on Ocean in November 2014 following her refit
In April 2015 Ocean took part in Exercise Joint Warrior 15-1 around the coast of Scotland, with Wildcat helicopters landing on her for the first time. She then stopped again in Sunderland where the ship's company exercised their right to the freedom of the city, with more than 300 officers and ratings parading through the city centre. Ocean became the Royal Navy Fleet Flagship in June 2015. In December 2015, she returned to port after Exercise COUGAR 15, an amphibious warfare exercise in the Mediterranean with the French Navy. At the end of August 2017, Ocean left Devonport for her final deployment, scheduled to take over as Standing NATO Maritime Group 2 flagship in the Mediterranean. Before she could relieve HMS Duncan with SNMG2, Ocean was redeployed to assist in disaster relief efforts following Hurricane Irma in the Caribbean, and then the subsequent Hurricane Maria. Ocean was decommissioned on 27 March 2018 at HMNB Devonport, with Queen Elizabeth II attending the ceremony. Sale to Brazil It was reported in 2017 that Brazil was interested in purchasing Ocean as a replacement for the NAe São Paulo (A12) which was withdrawn from service in 2017 following multiple mechanical failures. The Royal Navy released an asking price of £80.3 million ($105,800,871.00 USD), which the Brazilian Navy called "convenient". In November 2017, the Brazilian Ministry of Defense began formal negotiations for the acquisition of the ship. In December 2017, the Brazilian Navy confirmed the purchase of the ship for (GBP) £84.6 million, (equivalent to R$359.5M and USD $113.2M). Following her decommissioning from Royal Navy service in March 2018, she will undertake a period of maintenance in the United Kingdom and is expected to arrive in Rio de Janeiro by the end of 2018 with the intention of being commissioned and fully operational by 2020. Brazilian defence officials confirmed the purchase, as well as officials from the UK MoD, as of 17 February 2018. Affiliations
HMS Ocean (centre right) in a five-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea
Coldstream Guards No. 27 Squadron RAF No. 30 Squadron RAF 656 Squadron, Army Air Corps 657 Squadron, Army Air Corps Worshipful Company of Farriers City of Sunderland Bedford Modern School CCF Whitgift School The Britannia Association HMS Ocean Association Duke of York Military School Kings College Wimbledon CCF Training Ship King Alfred Merton Sea Cadet Corps- T.S. Trafalgar 11th Torbay Sea Scouts 6th Torbay Sea Scouts
Amphibious warfare ship List of amphibious warfare ships of the Royal Navy
Notes and references
^ a b c "The Queen visits Plymouth for HMS Ocean's decommissioning ceremony". plymouthherald.co.uk. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018. ^ "HMS Ocean". Royal Navy. Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^ a b c d e f The Royal Navy Handbook. Ministry of Defence. 2003. p. 92. ^ a b "HMS Ocean". Navy Matters. 7 May 2001. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2008. ^ Burgess, Matt. "A rare glimpse behind the scenes of UK warship HMS Ocean". ^ a b "HMS Ocean to assume Fleet Flagship role". Royal Navy. 27 May 2015. ^ "Queen decommissions major warship". 27 March 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk. ^ a b Corfield, Gareth (3 January 2018). "Brazil says it has bagged Royal Navy flagship HMS Ocean for £84m". The Register. Retrieved 3 January 2018. ^ a b "Brazil announces purchase of HMS Ocean for £84 million". ukdefencejournal.org.uk. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018. ^ a b "Corveta Classe Tamandaré e HMS Ocean para a Marinha do Brasil. (Corvette Class Tamandaré and HMS Ocean for the Brazilian Navy.)". marinha.mil.br. 24 December 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2018. ^ Fairhill, David (14 February 1992). "£500 million to be spent on new assault vessels". The Times. p. 15. access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Evans, Michael (3 February 1993). "Spending axe falls on £170m carrier". The Times. access-date= requires url= (help) ^ White, David; Tighe, Chris (30 March 1993). "MoD revives £170m helicopter carrier plan". Financial Times. p. 15. access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Duce, Richard (12 May 1993). "Barrow ship order dismays Tyneside". The Times. access-date= requires url= (help) ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 November 2017. ^ Tighe, Chris; Green, Daniel (30 June 1993). "VSEL subsidised Navy ship bid". The Times. p. 7. access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Green, Daniel (21 July 1993). "Strategy to win a sea battle: How a civilian shipyard helped VSEL cut costs and gain a Royal Navy order". Financial Times. access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Cyberpioneer – Weapon – Ruling over the oceans (Dec 07)". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^ RN Publication 15/370 ^ "UK's first helicopter attack ship sets sail". BBC News. 30 September 1998. Retrieved 26 May 2014. ^ Williams, Rob (4 May 2012). "Near miss as HMS Ocean squeezes through Thames Barrier". The Independent. London. ^ "HMS Ocean – 9 Assault Squadron". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. ^ "UK Navy saves Nicaraguans". BBC News. 11 November 1998. ^ "UK Navy's biggest ship prepares for action". BBC News. 2 May 1999. ^ A Short History of the Royal Air Force: Chapter 6 – Return to Expeditionary Warfare (PDF). Royal Air Force. p. 307. ^ "Tell it to the marines... we've invaded the wrong country". The Guardian. 19 February 2002. ^ "Battle and Theatre Honours". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Lords. 9 June 2005. ^ "Ocean back at sea after £30m refit". Ministry of Defence. 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. ^ Palmer, Jason (5 October 2009). "Energy from waste powers US army". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2009. ^ "TAURUS 09". Royal Navy. 2009. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. ^ "Task Force raises its shield". Navy News. [dead link] ^ "European Countries Agree to Resume Air Traffic". Fox News Channel. 19 April 2010. ^ "HMS Ocean Heads Across The Pond As Part of the Auriga Task Group". Royal Navy. 10 June 2010. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. ^ "HMS Ocean departs Rio de Janeiro after successful diplomatic visit". Royal Navy. 23 September 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2010. ^ "HMS Ocean Engages in Capacity Building with the Nigerian Navy". Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe-Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Africa. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. ^ "HMS Ocean during the Nigerian Fleet Review". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 2010-10-01. ^ "HMS Ocean welcomed home after world wide deployment". Ministry of Defence. 1 November 2010. ^ "Cougar 11". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. ^ "Apaches get ready to help protect Libyan civilians". Ministry of Defence. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^ "NATO Uses Attack Helicopters for First Time in Libya". Fox News Channel. 4 June 2011. ^ "HMS Ocean returns home". Ministry of Defence. 12 December 2011. ^ "Ocean and her gunships dispatched to Libya". Navy News. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. ^ McElroy, Damien; Kirkup, James; Harding, Thomas (23 May 2011). "Libya: British attack helicopters to be deployed". The Daily Telegraph. London. ^ "LIBYA: British Army details Apache's success". Flight International. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^ "HMS Ocean's medical team supports Apache crews flying over Libya". Ministry of Defence. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2013. ^ "Military support to 2012 Olympic Games announced". Ministry of Defence. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^ "HMS Ocean visits her affiliated city of Sunderland this weekend". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^ "HMS Ocean in London for Olympics". BBC News. 13 July 2012. ^ "HMS Ocean". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^ "HMS Ocean joins the French in Exercise Gabion". 19 September 2014. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014. ^ "Royal Marines launch final assualt [sic] on exercise Albanian Lion". Royal Navy. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2016. ^ "845 NAS on exercise Joint Warrior 15-1". Royal Navy. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2016. ^ "HMS Ocean conducts first-time operations of Wildcat helicopter". Naval Technology. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2016. ^ "HMS Ocean due into Sunderland for Freedom of the City and open to visitors". Royal Navy. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2016. ^ Daly, Patrick (19 March 2015). "The Queen in Plymouth – live coverage of Her Majesty's visit". Plymouth Herald. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2016. ^ "HMS Ocean returns home from Cougar deployment". Royal Navy. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2016. ^ "Closing sail". The Daily Telegraph. London. 30 August 2017. ^ "Update from Priti Patel on the UK's response to Hurricane Irma". gvo.uk. 8 September 2017. ^ Allison, George (12 April 2017). "Proposed sale price of HMS Ocean to Brazil revealed". ^ "EXCLUSIVO: Defesa autoriza o Comando da Marinha a comprar o porta-helicópteros Ocean – Poder Naval – A informação naval comentada e discutida". Poder Naval – A informação naval comentada e discutida (in Portuguese). 4 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. ^ "Brazil hopes to buy, commission UK's HMS Ocean by June 2018 - Jane's 360". www.janes.com. ^ "O Ocean é do Brasil! MB conclui a compra do porta-helicópteros por 84 milhões de libras e dá à Força um novo capitânia - Poder Naval - A informação naval comentada e discutida". 21 December 2017. ^ Defensa.com (22 December 2017). "La Marina de Brasil compra el portaviones HMS Ocean a la Royal Navy británica-noticia defensa.com". C1 control character in title= at position 48 (help) ^ "MoD sells Royal Navy flagship HMS Ocean to Brazil for £84m". The Daily Telegraph. 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018. ^ "Navy's flagship HMS Ocean sold to Brazil for £84 million". The Herald. Glasgow. 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018. ^ "HMS Ocean sale to Brazil 84m". plymouthherald.co.uk. 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018. ^ "Flagship HMS Ocean sold to Brazil for £84 million". bt.com. 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
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