The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly known
as the Humvee, is a four-wheel drive military light truck produced by
AM General. It has largely supplanted the roles previously
performed by the original jeep, and others such as the Vietnam War-era
M151 jeep, the M561 "Gama Goat", their M718A1 and M792 ambulance
Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle
Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV), and other light
trucks. Primarily used by the
United States military, it is also used
by numerous other countries and organizations and even in civilian
adaptations. The Humvee's widespread use in the
Gulf War of 1991,
where it negotiated the treacherous desert terrain, helped inspire
Hummer versions. After going through a replacement process,
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) was chosen as its successor.
1.1 Usage in combat
1.4 Replacement and future
2 Design features
3.1 Major HMMWV A0/A1/A2 versions
3.2 M1113 Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV)
3.3 International versions
3.4 Survivable Combat Tactical Vehicle
4.1 Civilian sales
6 Similar vehicles
7 See also
9 External links
Since the WWII era Bantam Reconnaissance Car, the
United States Army
had relied on jeeps to transport small groups of soldiers. The jeep
was built around a requirement for a compact vehicle with a folding
windshield that was actually shorter than the Volkswagen Beetle. It
seated three with a 660 lb (300 kg) payload and weighed just
over one ton. By the 1970s, the U.S. Army had tried larger militarized
civilian trucks, but even these no longer satisfied newer
requirements. In 1977,
Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in an
attempt to meet the Army contract specifications.
In 1979, the U.S. Army drafted final specifications for a High
Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), which was to replace
all the tactical vehicles in the 1/4 to 1 1/4-ton range, namely the
M151 quarter-ton jeep and M561 Gama Goat, as one "jack-of-all-trades"
light tactical vehicle to perform the role of several existing
trucks.[unreliable source?] The specification called for excellent
on and off-road performance, the ability to carry a large payload, and
improved survivability against indirect fire. Compared to the
jeep, it was larger and had a much wider track, with a 16 in
(410 mm) ground clearance, double that of most sport-utility
vehicles. The new truck was to climb a 60 percent incline and traverse
a 40 percent slope. The air intake was to be mounted flush on top of
the right fender (or to be raised on a stovepipe to roof level to ford
5 ft (1.5 m) of water and electronics waterproofed to
drive through 2.5 ft (0.76 m) of water were specified. The
radiator was to be mounted high, sloping over the engine on a
Out of 61 companies that showed interest, only three submitted
prototypes. In July 1979, AM General, a subsidiary of American
Motors Corporation began preliminary design work. Less than a year
later, the first prototype was in testing. Chrysler Defense and
Teledyne Continental also produced competing designs. In June 1981,
the Army awarded
AM General a contract for development of several more
prototype vehicles to be delivered to the government for another
series of tests. The original M998 A0 series had a curb weight of
5,200 lb (2,400 kg), a payload of 2,500 lb
(1,100 kg), a 6.2 L (380 cu in) V-8 diesel engine,
and a three-speed automatic transmission.
The three companies were chosen to design and build eleven HMMWV
prototypes, which covered over 600,000 miles in trials which included
off-road courses in desert and arctic conditions.
AM General was
awarded an initial contract in 1983 for 2,334 vehicles, the first
batch of a five-year contract that would see 55,000 vehicles delivered
to the U.S. military, including 39,000 vehicles for the Army; 72,000
vehicles had been delivered to U.S. and foreign customers by the
Gulf War of 1991, and 100,000 were delivered by the Humvee's
10th anniversary in 1995. Ft. Lewis, Washington and the 2nd
Battalion 1st Infantry, 9th Infantry Division was the testing unit to
employ HMMWV in the new concept of a motorized division. Yakima
Training Center in Yakima, Washington was the main testing grounds for
HMMWVs from 1985 through December 1991, when the motorized concept was
abandoned and the division inactivated.
Usage in combat
HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the U.S. invasion of
Panama in 1989.
The HMMWV was designed primarily for personnel and light cargo
transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle.
Like the previous jeep, the basic HMMWV has no armor or protection
against chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear threats.
Nevertheless, losses were relatively low in conventional operations,
such as the Gulf War. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage
and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993 due to the nature of
the urban engagement. However, the chassis survivability allowed the
majority of those crews to return to safety, though the HMMWV was
never designed to offer protection against intense small arms fire,
much less machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades. With the rise of
asymmetric warfare and low intensity conflicts, the HMMWV was pressed
into service in urban combat roles for which it was not originally
After Operation Restore Hope in Somalia, the military recognized a
need for a more protected HMMWV and
AM General developed the M1114, an
armored HMMWV to withstand small arms fire. The M1114 has been in
production since 1996, seeing limited use in the
deployment to the Middle East. This design is superior to the M998
with a larger, more powerful turbocharged engine, air conditioning,
and a strengthened suspension system. More importantly, it boasts a
fully armored passenger area protected by hardened steel and
bullet-resistant glass. With the increase in direct attacks and
guerrilla warfare in Iraq,
AM General diverted the majority of its
manufacturing power to producing these vehicles.
Humvees were sent into
Afghanistan following the 9/11 terrorist
attacks, where they proved invaluable during initial operations. In
the early years before IEDs became prevalent, the vehicle was liked by
troops for its ability to access rough, mountainous terrain. Some
soldiers would remove features from Humvees, including what little
armor it had and sometimes even entire doors, to make them lighter and
more maneuverable for off-road conditions and to increase visibility.
With the onset of the
Iraq War, Humvees proved very vulnerable to
IEDs; in the first four months of 2006, 67 U.S. troops died in
Humvees. To increase protection, the U.S. military hastily added-on
armor kits to the vehicles. Although this somewhat improved
survivability, bolting on armor made the
Humvee an "ungainly beast,"
increasing weight and putting strain on the chassis, which led to
unreliability. Armored doors that weighed hundreds of pounds were
difficult for troops to open and the newly armored turret made Humvees
top heavy and increased the danger of rollovers. The U.S. Marine Corps
decided to start replacing Humvees in combat with MRAPs in 2007, and
the U.S. Army stated that the vehicle was "no longer feasible for
combat" in 2012.
The HMMWV has become the vehicular backbone of U.S. forces around the
world. Over 10,000 HMMWVs were employed by coalition forces during the
Iraq War. The
Humvee has been described as "the right
capability for its era" to provide payload mobility in protected
areas, but that conflicts exposing it to full-spectrum threat
environments that it was never designed to operate or be survivable in
led to adding protection at the cost of mobility and payload.
A U.S. Marine Corps M1123 HMMWV in 2004, equipped with a bolt-on MAK
Bridgeport, California Mountain Warfare Training Center in
March 1997, a test HMMWV drives through the snow, equipped with
Humvee maintenance with engine exposed by
Czech Army in Afghanistan
In December 2004, Secretary of Defense
Donald Rumsfeld came under
criticism from U.S. troops and their families for not providing
better-equipped HMMWVs. Rumsfeld pointed out that, prior to the
war, armor kits were produced only in small numbers per year. As the
role of American forces in
Iraq changed from fighting the Iraqi Army
to suppressing the guerrilla insurgency, more armor kits were being
manufactured, though perhaps not as fast as production facilities were
capable. Even more advanced kits were also being developed. While
these kits are much more effective against all types of attacks, they
weigh from 1,500 to 2,200 lb (680 to 1,000 kg) and have some
of the same drawbacks as the improvised armor. Unlike similar-size
civilian cargo and tow trucks, which typically have dual rear wheels
to reduce sway, the HMMWV has single rear wheels due to its
independent rear suspension coupled with the body design.
A HMMWV equipped with
Raytheon surface-to-air missiles, on display at
Paris Air Show
Paris Air Show in June 2007.
Most up-armored HMMWVs hold up well against lateral attacks, when the
blast is distributed in all different directions, but offers little
protection from a mine blast below the truck, such as buried
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and land mines. Explosively formed
penetrators (EFPs) can also defeat the armor kits, causing casualties.
The armor kits fielded include the Armor Survivability Kit (ASK), the
FRAG 5, FRAG 6, as well as upgrade kits to the M1151. The ASK
was the first fielded, in October 2003, adding about 1,000 pounds
(450 kg) to the weight of the vehicle.
Armor Holdings fielded
an even lighter kit, adding only 750 pounds (340 kg) to the
vehicle's weight. The Marine Armor Kit (MAK), fielded in January
2005, offers more protection than the M1114, but also increases
weight. The FRAG 5 offered even more protection but was still
inadequate to stop EFP attacks. The FRAG 6 kit is designed to do
just that, however its increased protection adds over 1,000 lb
(450 kg) the vehicle over the FRAG 5 kit, and the width is
increased by 2 feet (61 cm). In addition, the doors may require a
mechanical assist device to open and close.
Another drawback of the up-armored HMMWVs occurs during an accident or
attack, when the heavily armored doors tend to jam shut, trapping the
troops inside. As a result, HMMWVs were fitted with hooks on their
doors, so that another vehicle can rip the door off, freeing the
troops inside. In addition, Vehicle Emergency Escape (VEE)
windows, developed by BAE Systems, were fielded for use on the M1114
uparmored HMMWV, with 1,000 kits ordered.
A U.S. military M997 ambulance, emblazoned with the Red Cross.
Soldiers of 3rd BCT/ 25th ID, use an M153 CROWS atop an M115A1 HMWVV
at the Battle Area Complex, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, 2017.
The soldier manning the exposed crew-served weapon on top of the
vehicle is extremely vulnerable. In response, many HMMWVs have been
fitted with basic gun shields or turrets, as was the case with M113
APCs after they were first deployed in Vietnam. The U.S. military is
currently evaluating a new form of protection, developed by BAE
Systems as well as systems designed by the Army, which are already in
theater. The new gunner's seat is protected by 1.5 to 2 feet (46
to 61 cm) high steel plates with bullet-proof glass windows.
Additionally, some HMMWVs have been fitted with a remotely operated
CROWS weapon station, which slaves the machine gun to controls in the
back seat so it can be fired without exposing the crew. The Boomerang
anti-sniper system was also fielded by some HMMWVs in
immediately give troops the location of insurgents firing on them.
Another weakness for the HMMWV has proven to be its size, which
limited its deployment in
Afghanistan because it is too wide for the
smallest roads and too large for many forms of air transport compared
to jeep or Land Rover-sized vehicles (which are nearly two feet
narrower). This size also limits the ability for the vehicle to be
manhandled out of situations.
The Army purchased a purpose-built armored car, the M1117 Armored
Security Vehicle also known as an armored personnel carrying vehicle
(APC), in limited numbers for use by the
United States Army
United States Army Military
Police Corps. In 2007, the Marine Corps announced an intention to
replace all HMMWVs in
Iraq with MRAPs due to high loss rates, and
issued contracts for the purchase of several thousand of these
vehicles, which include the International MaxxPro, the BAE OMC RG-31,
RG-33 and Caiman, and the Force Protection
Cougar, which were deployed primarily for mine
clearing duties. Heavier models of infantry mobility vehicles (IMV)
can also be used for patrol vehicles. The
MaxxPro Line has been
shown to have the highest rate of vehicle rollover accidents to its
very high center of gravity and immense weight. The massive weight of
these vehicles combined with their high center of gravity also greatly
reduces their utility in off-road situations versus the HMMWV, which
was the primary cause for the push for the
Oshkosh M-ATV to be
developed quickly.
Replacement and future
Humvee replacement process
Humvee replacement process
Humvee replacement process being undertaken by the U.S. military
focused on interim replacement with MRAPs and long-term replacement
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV). The HMMWV has evolved
several times since its introduction and was used in tactical roles
for which it was never originally intended. The military pursued
several initiatives to replace it, both in the short and long terms.
The short term replacement efforts utilized commercial off-the-shelf
vehicles as part of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP)
program. These vehicles were procured to replace Humvees in combat
theaters. The long term replacement for the
Humvee is the JLTV which
is designed from the ground up. The Future Tactical Truck Systems
(FTTS) program was initiated to make an analysis of potential
requirements for a
Humvee replacement. Various prototype vehicles such
as the MillenWorks Light Utility Vehicle, and the
ULTRA AP have been
constructed as part of these efforts. The JLTV contract was awarded to
Oshkosh in August 2015.
The U.S. Marine Corps issued a request for proposals (RFP) in 2013 for
Humvee sustainment modification initiative to upgrade 6,700
expanded capacity vehicles (ECVs). The Marines plan to field the JLTV,
but do not have enough funding to completely replace all Humvees, so
they decided to continue sustaining their fleet. Key areas of
improvement include upgrades to the suspension to reduce the amount of
force transferred to the chassis, upgrading the engine and
transmission for better fuel efficiency, enhancements to the cooling
system to prevent overheating, a central tire inflation system to
improve off-road mobility and ride quality, and increased underbody
survivability. Testing of upgraded Humvees was to occur in 2014, with
production and installation occurring from 2015 through 2018. Older A2
series Humvees make up half the current fleet, and 4,000 are to be
disposed of through foreign military sales and transfers. By 2017, the
Marines' light tactical vehicle fleet is to consist of 3,500 A2 series
Humvees, 9,500 ECV Humvees, and 5,000 JLTVs, with 18,000 vehicles in
total. Humvees in service with the Marine Corps will be upgraded
through 2030. The Marines shelved the
Humvee modernization effort
in March 2015 due to budget cuts.
Several companies are offering modifications to maintain the remaining
Oshkosh Corporation is offering Humvee
upgrades to the Marine Corps in addition to its JLTV offering, which
are modular and scalable solutions providing varying levels of
capabilities at a range of price points that can be provided
individually or as complete solutions. Their approach is centered
around the TAK-4 independent suspension system, which delivers greater
off-road profile capability, improved ride quality, an increase in
maximum speed, greater whole-vehicle durability, and restored payload
capacity and ground clearance.
Northrop Grumman developed a new
chassis and power train for the
Humvee that would combine the mobility
and payload capabilities of original vehicle variants while
maintaining the protection levels of up-armored versions. The cost to
Humvee with Northrop Grumman's features is
Textron has offered another
Humvee upgrade option
called the Survivable Combat Tactical Vehicle (SCTV) that not only
restores mobility but improves survivability over armored Humvee
levels. Although the SCTV costs more at $200,000 per vehicle, the
company claims it can restore the
Humvee for operational use,
combining Humvee-level mobility and transportability with MRAP-level
underbody protection as a transitional solution until the JLTV is
introduced in significant numbers.
One suggested future role for the
Humvee is as an autonomous unmanned
ground vehicle (UGV). If converted to a UGV, the vehicle could serve
as a mobile scout vehicle with armor features removed to enhance
mobility and terrain accessibility, since there would be no occupants
needed to protect. Because there will still be tens of thousands of
Humvees in the U.S. inventory after the JLTV enters service, it could
be a low-cost way to build an unmanned combat vehicle fleet. Autonomy
features would allow the Humvees to drive themselves and one soldier
to control a "swarm" of several vehicles.
Although the Army plans to buy 49,100 JLTVs and the Marine Corps
5,500, they are not a one-for-one replacement for the
Humvee and both
services will still be left operating large fleets. For the Marines,
69 JLTVs will replace the 74 Humvees in all active infantry battalions
to cover its expeditionary forces. The Marine JLTV order is planned to
be completed by 2022, leaving the remainder of the Corps'
Humvee force scattered around support organizations
while soft-skinned Humvees will provide support behind the forward
deployed Marine Expeditionary Unit. The Army does not plan to replace
Humvees in the Army National Guard, and is considering options on how
many of its 120,000 vehicles will be replaced, sustained, or
modernized. Even if half of the force is replaced by JLTVs, the entire
planned order will not be complete until 2040. If upgrades are chosen
for the remaining Humvees, the cost would likely have to not exceed
$100,000 per vehicle. The
Humvee is expected to remain in U.S.
military service until at least 2050.
Ambulance variants of the
Humvee will especially remain in active use, as the JLTV couldn't be
modified to serve as one due to weight issues.
A U.S. Air Force airman in
Southwest Asia stands in the ringmount of a
FRAG 6-reinforced HMMWV, 2010.
Humvee seats 4 with an available fully enclosed metal cabin with a
vertical windshield. The body is constructed from lightweight and
rust-resistant aluminum, instead of conventional steel. It has
all-wheel drive with an independent suspension and helical
gear-reduction hubs similar to portal axles which attach towards the
top rather than center of each wheel to allow the drivetrain shafts to
be raised for a full 16 in (410 mm) of ground clearance. The
body is mounted on a narrow steel frame with boxed rails and five
cross members for rigidity. The rails act as sliders to protect the
drivetrain which is nestled between and above the rails. Raising
the drivetrain into the cabin area and lowering the seats into the
frame creates a massive chest-high transmission hump which separates
passengers on each side and lowers the overall center of gravity
compared to most trucks where the body and passengers are above the
frame. The vehicle also has disc brakes on all 4 wheels, and
Portal axle double-wishbone suspension. The brake discs are
not mounted at the wheels as on conventional automobiles, but are
inboard, attached to the outside of each differential. The front and
rear differentials are
Torsen type, and the center differential is a
regular, lockable type. Torque-biasing differentials allows forward
movement as long as at least one wheel has traction. It runs on
specialized 37 × 12.5 radial tires with low-profile runflat devices.
Some HMMWVs are equipped with an optional central tire inflation
system (CTIS), which enables pressure to be lowered for soft ground or
raised for hard pavement. While it is optimized for off-road mobility,
it can drive at highway speeds of 55 mph (89 km/h) at
maximum weight with a top speed of 70 mph (110 km/h).
HMMWVs are well suited for air mobile operations as they are
transportable by C-130 or larger combat transports, droppable by
parachute, and can be sling-loaded from helicopters, though there are
smaller vehicles such as the Growler which were designed to fit into
smaller craft such as the V-22. In combat conditions, the HMMWV can be
delivered by the
Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System
Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System which pulls
the vehicle out of the open rear ramp just above the ground without
the aircraft having to land.
There are at least 17 variants of the HMMWV in service with the U.S.
military. HMMWVs serve as cargo/troop carriers, automatic weapons
platforms, ambulances (four litter patients or eight ambulatory
patients), M220 TOW missile carriers,
M119 howitzer prime movers,
M1097 Avenger Pedestal Mounted Stinger platforms, MRQ-12 direct air
support vehicles, S250 shelter carriers, and other roles. The HMMWV is
capable of fording 2.5 ft (76 cm) normally, or 5 ft
(1.5 m) with the deep-water fording kits installed.
A U.S. Army HMMWV firing a
BGM-71 TOW missile.
Optional equipment includes a winch (maximum load capacity
6,000 lb (2,700 kg) and supplemental armor. The M1025/M1026
and M1043/M1044 armament carriers provide mounting and firing
capabilities for the M134 Minigun, the Mk 19 grenade launcher, the M2
heavy machine gun, the M240G/B machine gun and M249 LMG.
The M1114 "up-armored" HMMWV, introduced in 1996, also features a
similar weapons mount. In addition, some M1114 and M1116
M1117 Armored Security Vehicle
M1117 Armored Security Vehicle models feature a Common
Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS), which allows the gunner to
operate from inside the vehicle, and/or the Boomerang anti-sniper
detection system. Recent improvements have also led to the development
M1151 model, which quickly rendered the previous models
obsolete. By replacing the M1114, M1116, and earlier armored HMMWV
types with a single model, the U.S. Army hopes to lower maintenance
The latest iteration of the
Humvee series can be seen in the M1151A1
and later up-armored A1-versions. It has a stronger suspension and
larger 6.5 liter turbo-diesel engine to accommodate the weight of up
to 680 kg (1,500 lb) of additional armor. The armor
protection can be installed or taken off depending on the operating
environment, so the vehicles can move more efficiently without armor
when there is no threat of attack. There is some underbody armor that
moderately protects against mines and roadside bombs. Other
improvements include Vehicle Emergency Escape (VEE) windows that can
be quickly removed so troops inside can escape in the event of a
rollover, jammed door, or the vehicle catching fire, and a blast
chimney that vents the force of a bomb blast upwards and away from the
occupants. The M1151A1 has a crew of four, can carry 2,000 lb
(910 kg) of payload, and can tow a 4,000 lb (1,800 kg)
load. On roads, it has a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) and a
range of 480 km (300 mi).
HMMWV with a Phoenix satellite communications dish
Major HMMWV A0/A1/A2 versions
With the introduction of the A1 series the number of models was
reduced, with further designation revisions when the A2 series was
M56/M56A1 Coyote Smoke Generator Carrier (mounted on a HMMWV; not a
Type Classified HMMWV)
M707 Knight (replaced, originally mounted on a M1025A2 HMMWV; not a
Type Classified HMMWV)
M966/M966A1 TOW Missile Carrier, basic armor, without winch
M996 Mini-ambulance, two-litter, hard top (type classified but not
M997/M977A1/M977A2 Maxi-ambulance, four-litter, basic armor
M998/M998A1 Cargo/troop Carrier without winch
M998 HMMWV Avenger (mounted on a HMMWV; not a Type Classified HMMWV)
M1025/M1025A1 Armament Carrier, basic armor, without winch
M1025A2 Armament/TOW Missile Carrier, basic armor
M1026/M1026A1 Armament Carrier, basic armor, with winch
M1035/M1035A1/M1035A2 Soft top Ambulance, two-litter
M1036 TOW Missile Carrier, basic armor, with winch
M1037 Shelter Carrier, without winch
M1037 Shelter Carrier MSE
M1038/M1038A1 Cargo/troop Carrier with winch
M1042 Shelter Carrier, with winch
M1043/M1043A1 Armament Carrier, supplemental armor, without winch
M1043A2 Armament Carrier, supplemental armor
M1044/M1044A1 Armament Carrier, supplemental armor, with winch
M1045/M1045A1 TOW Missile Carrier, supplemental armor, without winch
M1045A2 TOW Missile Carrier, supplemental armor
M1046/M1046A1 TOW Missile Carrier, supplemental armor, with winch
M1069 Tractor for M119 105-mm Gun
Hummer Variant (HHV)
M1097A2 base platform
M1097A2 Cargo/Troop Carrier/Prime Mover (replacing the M998A1)
M1097A2 Shelter Carrier
M1097 Heavy HMMWV Avenger (mounted on a HMMWV; not a Type Classified
Packhorse – Attachment to convert an M1097 to tractor version for
XM1109 Up-Armored Heavy
Hummer Variant (UA-HHV) (replaced by M1114)
M1123 Troop/cargo (U.S. Marines specific M1097A2)
Active Denial System (mounted on a HMMWV)
Ground Mobility Vehicle (special ops variant)
IMETS (mounted on a HMMWV; not a Type Classified HMMWV)
ZEUS-HLONS (mounted on a HMMWV; not a Type Classified HMMWV)
Scorpion – Version fitted with
2B9 Vasilek 82 mm automatic
mortar. This is a heavy chassis HMMWV developed in 2004 by engineers
at the U.S. Army's Picatinny Arsenal. The mortar itself can fire on
single shots or on automatic using 4 round clips. Range for direct
fire is 1,000m and indirect fire is 4,000m. It is also intended to
provide another means of destroying roadside bombs but at a safer
standoff range. Only one has been produced.
M1113 Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV)
Under contract to the US Army,
AM General developed the M1113 Expanded
Capacity Vehicle (ECV). The M1097A2 is the basis for the Expanded
Capacity Vehicle (ECV). The ECV provided the payload capacity
allowing for larger and heavier communications shelters, improved
armor protection level for scouts, military police, security police,
and explosive ordnance disposal platforms.
An M1114 with a Kevlar Wrapped Turret returns from a Combat Logistics
Patrol (CLP) mission to CAMP Adder
In late 1995, production of the M1114 based on the improved ECV
chassis began. The M1114 meets Army requirements for a scout, military
police, and explosive ordnance disposal vehicle with improved
ballistic protection levels. The M1114 provides protection against
7.62 mm armor-piercing projectiles, 155 mm artillery air
bursts and 12 lb (5.4 kg) anti-tank mine blasts.
In June 1996, the U.S. Army purchased an initial 390 M1114s for
operations in Bosnia. The U.S. Air Force has a number of M1114
vehicles that differ in detail from the U.S. Army model. Under the
designation M1116, the type was specifically designed and tailored to
the needs of the U.S. Air Force. The M1116 features an expanded
cargo area, armored housing for the turret gunner, and increased
interior heating and air conditioning system. The M1114 and M1116
received armor at O'Gara-Hess & Eisenhardt Armoring Company of
Fairfield, Ohio. The M1145 offers the protection of the M1114 and
M1116 for Air Force Air Support Operations Squadrons (ASOS). Designed
to protect Forward Air Controllers, modifications include perimeter
ballistic protection, overhead burst protection, IED protection, mine
blast protection, and 'white glass' transparent armor. Prior to
the introduction of the latest armored HMMWV variants, and between
1993 and June 2006,
Armor Holdings produced more than 17,500 armored
HMMWVs (more than 14,000 between 2003-2007), all but about 160 of the
earliest models were M1114, with smaller numbers of M1116 and
M1045. These extended capacity HMMWVs can drive over an 18 in
(460 mm) vertical wall and carry a 6,820 lb (3,090 kg)
M1113 Shelter Carrier - base for special operations vehicles and
communications shelter carriers
M1114 Up-Armored Armament Carrier
M1115 TOW Carrier (no evidence of fielding)
M1116 U.S. Air Force Up-Armored Armament Carrier
M1121 TOW Carrier
M1145 U.S. Air Force FAC
M1151 Enhanced Armament Carrier (Up-Armored Capable)
M1152 Enhanced Troop/Cargo/Shelter Carrier (Up-Armored Capable)
M1165 Up-Armored HMMWV
M1167 Up-Armored TOW Carrier
Humvee chassis-mounted XM1124 Hybrid-Electric diesel-series
hybrid-powered HMMWV, September 2009.
Composite HMMWV – A prototype developed by
TPI Composites of Rhode
Island and AM General. The purpose of the concept vehicle is to
reduce the vehicle's weight so that it may more easily carry an up
armor kit. TPI's all-composite HMMWV saves approximately 900
pounds (410 kg) when compared to a current steel and aluminum
A prototype XM1124 Hybrid-Electric
Humvee on an M1113
powered by a diesel-series hybrid featuring an all-electric drive
train has been developed by RDECOM/TARDEC. The vehicle has a 6 mi
(9.7 km) full-electric range for silent operations. It may
have less emissions, save fuel in the battlefield, and can increase
the survival rate in emergencies such as if one of the engines is
destroyed or fails.
A Dongfeng (lit. "Eastwind")
EQ2050 at the People's Revolution
Military Museum of China in August 2007, during the 'Our Troops
towards the Sky' exhibition.
Greek Army M1114GR HMMWV with the ability to mount a
9M133 Kornet on
top, April 2007.
Bulgaria – Bulgarian HMMWVs have been fitted with PKS general
purpose machine guns.
Bulgaria usually replaces Western machine guns
on its vehicles to simplify maintenance, since the country is an
active producer of Russian weapons.
EQ2050/SQF2040 – Chinese versions of the HMMWV. There are at least
two Chinese automobile manufacturers building HMMWV copies. Both HMMWV
copies rely heavily on imported U.S.-made parts, including the
chassis, gear box, and diesel engine. Both manufacturers claimed that
they will be able to gradually increase the percentage of
indigenous-made content on the vehicles in the future, since the PLA
is unlikely to accept any equipment that relies largely on foreign
Egypt – AOI equips HMMWVs with anti-armor weaponry, including: TOW,
Milan, or HOT missiles.
Georgia – Georgian HMMWVs have been fitted with PK general purpose
Greece – Greek HMMWVs, built entirely by
ELVO in Greece, are
equipped to fire the Russian
9M133 Kornet ATGM. They have storage room
for 10 missiles. Another version, the M1115GR, is equipped with the HK
GMG 40. Israel's
Plasan has developed armored versions of the HMMWV,
Greece as the M1114GR, M1115GR and M1118GR.
ELVO also produced the
Ambulance version, a SOF version, and an
engineering version of the HMMWV for the Hellenic Army.
Plasan has also designed and supplied an HMMWV armored
protection kit for the Portuguese Army, and a different version
Automotive Industries in Nazareth for the
Mexico – The Dirección General de Industria Militar (DGIM), the
Mexican Army's prime wholly owned military manufacturer, builds the
HMMWV under license in Mexico after a small amount of
American-built Humvees proved to be reliable within the Mexican army.
Mexican HMMWVs are similar to the American built models but are
slightly longer. They feature a standard selective shift automatic
transmission connected to a Mercedes Benz diesel engine and an
anti-spalling layer in the passenger cabin. Many are equipped with
bulletproof windows and a layer of armor unique to these Mexican
HMMWVs. In 2010,
Mexico displayed a wagon variant with a second gun
hatch to cover the rear of the vehicle. This version also featured
a more powerful
V-12 engine and civilian road wheels to increase top
speed capabilities in urban areas.
Poland – Polish Land Forces operate 222 HMMWVs (5 unknown variants
are operated by special forces). Over 200 are used by the 18th
Airborne Battalion which is a part of the 6th Air Assault Brigade. The
used variants are designated as follows: Tumak-2 – M1043A2, Tumak-3
– M1025A2, Tumak-4 – M1097A2, Tumak-5 – M1045A2, Tumak-6 –
M1097A2 (variant used for transport of special containers), Tumak-7
– M1035A2. All vehicles are modified to meet Polish road regulations
and are equipped with Polish communication devices. 140 HMMWVs are
equipped with Fonet digital internal communication device. 120
Tumak-2s and Tumak-3s have a rotatable mount which can be fitted with
either the UKM-2000P 7.62 mm general purpose machine gun or the
NSW-B 12.7 mm heavy machine gun. Tumak-5s are used by anti-tank
subunits and are armed with a dismountable Spike missile.
Additionally Polish forces of ISAF operate 120 HMMWVs on loan from the
Switzerland – Early
MOWAG Eagle light armored vehicles utilized the
HMMWV chassis, although the latest uses a
Duro III chassis. The Eagle
is an NBC-tight, air conditioned and armor protected vehicle. It is in
service and available in several configurations with varying levels of
armor protection. The Eagle can be fitted with a wide assortment of
Otokar Cobra – is a wheeled armoured vehicle developed by
Turkish firm Otokar which uses some mechanical components, sub-systems
and some parts of the HMMWV.
Survivable Combat Tactical Vehicle
Textron's Survivable Combat Tactical Vehicle (SCTV) is a protective
capsule that can increase
Humvee survivability to
MRAP levels while
significantly improving mobility; the modifications come in five kits,
but all five need to be installed before the vehicle can be properly
called an SCTV. The vehicle features a monocoque V-shaped hull and
angled sides to help deflect rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) with
scalable levels of protection. It has greater engine power, replacing
the 6.5 liter diesel engine with a
Cummins 6.7 liter diesel and
Allison 6-speed transmission, as well as a stronger transmission and
suspension, improved brakes, higher ground clearance, and new onboard
instrumentation. Fuel capacity is increased from 27 gallons to 40 and
the battery and fuel cells are moved from under the rear seat to the
rear of the vehicle. Also included are a powerful air conditioner and
heating system, run-flat tires, a thermal guard liner under the roof,
sharp edges removed from inside the cabin, blast attenuating seats,
and a folding gunner's turret allowing rapid deployment from a cargo
aircraft or shipboard below deck. Although heavier than the Humvee,
the SCTV is half the weight and costs $150,000 less than a comparably
survivable MRAP. The basic version is a four-passenger armament
carrier, but it can be configured as a nine-passenger troop carrier,
air-defense vehicle, flatbed cargo truck, or field ambulance depending
on the type of
Humvee it is converted from.
Work began on the SCTV in 2008 in anticipation of U.S. military
upgrades, but it was shelved once they made the JLTV a priority.
Textron then focused on selling the SCTV upgrade package to up to 25
countries operating the global fleet, a potential market of up to
10,000 vehicles. The upgrade can enhance survivability of previously
soft-skinned versions, sometimes sold by the U.S. as Excess Defense
Articles, while costing and weighing less than a comparable MRAP. By
Colombia had installed the SCTV into three Humvees for testing,
Ukraine had shown interest in upgrading their old-model Humvees
recently supplied by the U.S.
Ukraine ordered three SCTVs
in February 2016.
Humvee manufacturing in China § Operators
HMMWV operator map: dark blue shows original HMMWV operators, light
blue shows copied PRC HMMWV operators
U.S. Marine Corps HMMWVs in the
Philippines deliver food packs after
Typhoon Ketsana, 2009.
A HMMWV firing an
AGM-114 Hellfire missile.
U.S. Marines pushing an M1114 HMMWV during a '
competition, in 2016.
A Spanish Navy Marines M-966 equipped with
BGM-71 TOW anti-tank
The Mars Institute's Moon-1 HMMWV Rover waits for C-130 airlift at
Canada in 2009.
Afghanistan has ordered 3,334 more in 2010 and
2011 for its National Police, National Guard and other military.
950 M1114 vehicles delivered to the army by November 2012.
Albania – 248 on order, gifted by US
Azerbaijan – 100+ HMMWV use by Azerbaijani army and
Bahrain – Vehicles sold under the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina – 25 in 2010 and 44 donated by the
U.S. in 2017.
Bulgaria – 52 vehicles, 50 are the up-armored M1114 variant,
and two are ambulances.
Canada – small numbers (M1113 and M1117) in use by Joint Task
Force 2 (JTF-2) and
Special Operations Regiment (CSOR). Used in
Chad – Vehicles sold under the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
Czech Republic – Mainly 601st
Special Forces Group.
Denmark – 30
Djibouti – Vehicles sold under the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
Ethiopia – Vehicles sold under the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
Honduras – Vehicles procured via the U.S. Foreign Military
Iraq – During the
Iraq War, stockpiled U.S. military HMMWVs
were given to the Iraqi Army, Iraqi Security Forces. The Iraqi
Military has more than 10,000+ Humvees. Some of these have been
captured by the Islamic State in
Iraq and the Levant in the 2014
Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant – 2,300
Kenya – Several vehicles in use by security forces.
Kuwait – Vehicles sold via the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
Lebanon – 1,300+ vehicles
Libya – 200 donated by the U.S. Army in July 2013.
Macedonia - 10 to 90, modified at Eurokompozit, armed with
Moldova – 90 vehicles
Mexico – Vehicles sold via the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
program. 3,000 vehicles in service.
Montenegro[content verification needed]
New Zealand – Borrowed U.S. vehicles in
Afghanistan were modified
Special Air Service replaced by Pinzgauer. The Army used a small
number of U.S. either free/leased vehicles in
Oman – Vehicles sold via the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
Peru – 34 vehicles (12 M-1151A1 deployed in Haiti as part of
the UN peacekeeping contingent, 22 M-1165A1
Special Ops operated by
the 19th Commando Battalion). Possible upcoming purchase of 100
Romania M1113: 100, M1114: 22
Russia Many M1113 and M1151/52 obtained in Poti Senaki Gori etc.
during 2008 war, undisclosed amount used previous in Caucasus Wars,
tested Kornet and other systems (KBP).
Saudi Arabia – Vehicles were sold to
Saudi Arabia by the U.S.
Foreign Military Sales program.
Senegal – 23 vehicles donated by the U.S. seen in action as
recently as 2017.
Spain - 123 vehicles, used only by the Infantería de
Marina and the Guardia Civil. The Spanish Army, the Spanish Air
Force and the
Spanish National Police
Spanish National Police they use the URO VAMTAC, a
similar vehicle, produced in Spain.
Serbia – 40 vehicles, 17 unarmored and 4 armored vehicles,
donated to the Serbian Armed Forces by the US government in 2013, 19
more donated in 2017.
Sudan – Vehicles sold by the U.S. under the Foreign Military
Syria – Captured from ISIS
Taiwan – Vehicles sold via the U.S. Foreign Military Sales
program. 7,000+ vehicles
Tanzania – Vehicles sold by the U.S. under the Foreign
Military Sales program.
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago – 6+ Dongfeng EQ2050
Tunisia – 52 vehicles donated by the U.S. in May 2015 and some
sold via the U.S.
Foreign Military Sales program.
Ukraine – ~110 vehicles (since 2001) at the 95th Airmobile
Brigade, 10 vehicles were donated to the Polish–Ukrainian Peace
Force Battalion (POLUKRBAT). Reports say that after the Battle of
Debaltseve insurgents were seen driving around in 'Humvee-like'
United States - 230,000 
Thailand: Royal Thai Army
Lithuania 200 vehicles
In December 2014, the Department of Defense began auctioning off some
4,000 used Humvees to the public. While some have been transferred to
domestic law enforcement agencies, this is the first time the military
vehicles have been made available for civilian ownership. The idea is
to sell them with starting bids at $10,000 each, for off-road use
only, rather than simply scrapping them as a way to save money and
repurpose them. M998, M998A1, M1038, and M1038A1 model Humvees are
available, which are out of U.S. service and lack armor. AM General
has been opposed to resale of military Humvees to the general public,
primarily because surplus government vehicles would have cut into
sales related to the civilian
Hummer model, whose production ended in
2010. The first sales from auction occurred on 17 December 2014
for 25 of the Humvees. Bids ranged from $21,500 for a 1989 M1038 to
$41,000 for a 1994
AM General M998A1. The average bid was around
$30,000 and the sale of the 25 vehicles netted $744,000 total.
Kits have been produced for the general market to turn a sedan into a
Humvee lookalike. An alternative is to buy a preconstructed (or
"turnkey") wombat. Various kits exist, but one of the more well known
is the Volkswagen Beetle-based "Wombat". This was previously named
"HummBug", until the threat of a lawsuit from General Motors forced
changes to the name and the grill design to make it look less like the
real thing. It can be purchased/built for about US$18,000;
this puts it considerably cheaper than the actual HMMWV ($56,000), or
In Australia, a Gold Coast-based company called Rhino Buggies produces
replicas of the
Hummer H1 based on the
Nissan Patrol 4WD vehicle for
In the U.S., there are four companies that offered Hummer-look-alike
rebody kits that can be mated to GM fullsize trucks and Suburban
chassis and, in some cases, Ford, Dodge, and even Cadillac
applications. Some models are; Urban Gorilla from Urban Manufacturing,
Endeavor SB400 and SB4x400 from Forever Off-Road, the Jurassic Truck
Corporation T-Rex, and the Bummer from Tatonka Products An additional
company offers plans so for chassis building. The kits range from
two-door fiberglass models to steel tube and sheet metal
Hummer H1, H2, and H3. The H1 is a civilian derivative of the HMMWV,
while the H2 and H3 are based on regular GM truck chassis and styled
Humvee C-Series – Civilian version developed and made by AM General.
It is planned for release worldwide in 2015
Agrale Marruá – Brazil
AMZ Tur Polish military vehicle. In middle future AMZ Turs can replace
all of Polish Tumaks.
Dongfeng EQ2050 - Chinese military vehicle
Dozor-B – Ukrainian military vehicle
GAZ Tigr – Russian military vehicle, currently in service.
Hawkei - Australian military vehicle
Iveco LMV – Italian military vehicle
KM1 Kia Light Tactical Vehicle – South Korea military vehicle, KM1
will be in service with the
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Army with production in
Kohkidohsha ("high-mobility car") the military version of the Toyota
Mega Cruiser. The Kohkidohsha is in service with the Japan Self
Komatsu LAV - Japanese military vehicle
BJ2022 – Chinese military vehicle, currently in service.
LSV (Light Specialist Vehicle) is a new vehicle built by Tata Motors
and is undergoing trials for the Indian Army.
Mahindra Axe is a vehicle planned to be manufactured by Mahindra in
Marine Multi-Purpose Vehicle (MMPV) – Philippines
MOWAG Eagle – Swiss military vehicle
Oshkosh L-ATV – U.S. military vehicle
Pindad Komodo – Indonesian military vehicle
Renault Sherpa French military vehicle
Tiuna – Venezuelan military vehicle
T-98 Kombat – Russian civilian SUV
VLEGA Gaucho – Argentinian-Brazilian military vehicle
URO VAMTAC (Vehículo de Alta Movilidad Táctico) Spanish four-wheeled
military vehicle manufactured by UROVESA.
SPECTRE light vehicle
SPECTRE light vehicle – U.S. light air-portable utility/special
forces-type vehicle that was at one time promoted as a possible HMMWV
List of "M" series military vehicles.
Dongfeng Motor Corporation EQ2050, a Chinese derivative.
Iveco LMV – an Italian four-wheel drive military vehicle, similar to
Humvee in appearance and design.
Lamborghini Cheetah, an Italian prototype contender for the original
Otokar Cobra, a light armoured vehicle utilizing HMMWV parts.
Sandstorm, a HMMWV modified into an autonomous vehicle.
URO VAMTAC – a Spanish four-wheel drive military vehicle, similar to
Humvee in appearance and design.
Toyota Mega Cruiser
Toyota Mega Cruiser – a Japanese four-wheel drive military vehicle,
similar to the
Humvee in appearance and design.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Humvees.
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M35 2½ ton cargo truck
Humvee replacement process
MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings
Equipment of the
United States Air Force
Active service &
A - Attack
A/OA-10A/C Thunderbolt II
AC-130H/U/J/W Spectre/Spooky II/Ghostrider/Stinger II
B - Strategic bomber
C - Cargo transport
C-5M Super Galaxy
C-17A Globemaster III
C-20B Gulfstream III
C-20H Gulfstream IV
C-37A Gulfstream V
E - Electronic warfare
E-8C Joint STARS
EC-130H Compass Call
EC-130J Commando Solo
F - Air superiority &
F-15E Strike Eagle
F-16C/D Fighting Falcon
F-35A Lightning II
H - Search and rescue
HC-130J Combat King II
HH-60G/MH-60G Pave Hawk
K - Tanker
L - Cold weather
M - Multi-mission
MC-130E/H/J/P Combat Talon I/Combat Talon II/Commando II/Combat Shadow
O - Observation
OC-135B Open Skies
Q - Remotely Piloted
RQ-4A Global Hawk
R - Reconnaissance
RC-135S/U/V/W COBRA BALL/Combat Sent/Rivet Joint
RU-2S Dragon Lady
T - Trainer
T-6A Texan II
(A)T-38A/B/C Talon II
U - Utility
UV-18A/B Twin Otter
V – VIP/staff transport
VC-25A (Air Force One)
C-32A/B (Air Force Two)
W – Weather reconnaissance
WC-135W Constant Phoenix
An-26 (6th SOS)
CN-235-100 (427th SOS)
Mi-8 (6th SOS)
Advanced Extremely High Frequency
Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF)
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)
Defense Satellite Communications System
Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS)
Defense Support Program
Defense Support Program (DSP)
Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Milstar Satellite Communications System
Space-Based Infrared System
Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS)
Wideband Global SATCOM
AN/FPQ-16 Perimeter Acquisition Attack Characterization System (PARCS)
AN/FPS-123 Early Warning Radar (EWR)
AN/FPS-132 Upgraded Early Warning Radar (UEWR)
Air Force Space Surveillance System
Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS)
AN/FSQ-114 Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance
AN/FSQ-224 Morón Optical Space Surveillance (MOSS)
Rapid Attack, Identification, Detection, and Reporting System (RAIDRS)
GBU-10 Paveway II
GBU-12 Paveway II
GBU-24 Paveway III
GBU-27 Paveway III
GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb
GBU-44/B Viper Strike
Small Diameter Bomb
Small Diameter Bomb II
GBU-54 Laser JDAM
CBU-87 Combined Effects Munition
CBU-97 Sensor Fuzed Weapon
BLU-116 Bunker Buster
B61 Nuclear Bomb
B83 Nuclear Bomb
LGM-30G Minuteman III
AGM-84E Standoff Land Attack Missile
AGM-84H/K Standoff Land Attack Missile - Expanded Response
AGM-86B/C/D Air-Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM)
AGM-88A/B/C High-speed Anti-radiation Missile (HARM)
AGM-114 Hellfire Air-to-Surface Missile (ASM)
AIM-120B/C Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)
AGM-130 Powered Standoff Weapon
AGM-154A Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW)
AGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM)
BQM-167 Subscale Aerial Target
QF-4 Aerial Target
MP5 submachine gun
USAF Pilot's Survival Knife
M14 Stand-off Munitions Disruptor (SMUD)
Sniper Weapon System
M107 Long Range
Mk 14 Mod 0 Enhanced Battle Rifle
M60 machine gun
M2HB Browning machine gun
M240B Medium Machine Gun
M249 light machine gun
Remington 870 MCS shotgun
AT4 Light Anti-tank Weapon
M18A1 Claymore Mine
M67 Fragmentation Grenade
M72 Light Anti-tank Weapon (LAW)
M79 grenade launcher
MK-19 automatic grenade launcher
Airman Battle Uniform
Airman Battle Uniform (ABU)
Airman Combat Uniform (ACU)
Physical Training Uniform
Service Dress Uniform