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GWENLLIAN FERCH GRUFFYDD (Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffydd, c. 1100 – 1136) was Princess consort
Princess consort
of Deheubarth
Deheubarth
in Wales, and married to Gruffydd ap Rhys , Prince of Deheubarth
Prince of Deheubarth
. Gwenllian was the daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan
Gruffudd ap Cynan
(1055–1137), Prince of Gwynedd and Angharad ferch Owain, and a member of the princely Aberffraw
Aberffraw
family of Gwynedd. Gwenllian's "patriotic revolt" and subsequent death in battle at Kidwelly Castle contributed to the Great Revolt of 1136 .

There are several notable artistic depictions of Gwenllian, often depicting her with a sword in hand, or riding a chariot into battle in the style of Boudicca
Boudicca
. She is sometimes confused with Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn , who lived two centuries later.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Great Revolt 1136 * 3 Legacy * 4 Authorship of the Mabinogi * 5 Ancestry * 6 Sources * 7 References

EARLY LIFE

Gwenllian was the youngest daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan
Gruffudd ap Cynan
, Prince of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
, and his wife, Angharad. She was born on Ynys Môn at the family seat at Aberffraw
Aberffraw
, and was the youngest of eight children; four older sisters: Mared, Rhiannell, Susanna, and Annest, and three older brothers: Cadwallon, Owain and Cadwaladr. She was the great-great-great-granddaughter of Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig , High King of Ireland .

Gwenllian grew to be strikingly beautiful. After Gruffydd ap Rhys , the Prince of Deheubarth
Prince of Deheubarth
, ventured to Gwynedd
Gwynedd
around 1113 to meet her father, Gwenllian and Deheubarth's prince became romantically involved and eloped . Gwenllian and Gruffydd had the following children:

* Morgan ap Gruffydd (c. 1116, Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
– 1136) * Maelgwyn ap Gruffydd (c. 1119, Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
– 1136?) * Rhys "Fychan" ap Gruffydd (c. 1132, Dynevor Castle , Llandeilo
Llandeilo
, Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
– after 24 April 1197)

Gwenllian joined her husband at his family seat of Dinefwr in Deheubarth
Deheubarth
. Deheubarth
Deheubarth
was struggling against the Norman invasion in South Wales
South Wales
, with Norman , English, and Flemish colonists in footholds throughout the country. While the conflict between the Normans
Normans
and the Welsh continued, the princely family were often displaced, with Gwenllian joining her husband in mountainous and forested strongholds. From here, she and Gruffydd ap Rhys led retalitory strikes , aka "lightning raids" against Norman-held positions in Deheubarth.

GREAT REVOLT 1136

See also: Wales and the Normans: 1067–1283

By 1136 an opportunity arose for the Welsh to recover lands lost to the Marcher Lords when Stephen de Blois displaced his cousin, Empress Matilda , from succeeding her father to the English throne the year prior, sparking the Anarchy in England. The usurpation and conflict it caused eroded central authority in England. The revolt began in South Wales, as Hywel ap Maredudd , Lord of Brycheiniog ( Brecknockshire
Brecknockshire
), gathered his men and marched to the Gower , defeating the Norman and English colonists there at the Battle of Llwchwr . Inspired by Hywel of Brycheiniog's success, Gruffydd ap Rhys hastened to meet with Gruffudd ap Cynan
Gruffudd ap Cynan
of Gwynedd, his father-in-law, to enlist his aid in the revolt.

While her husband was in Gwynedd
Gwynedd
seeking an alliance with her father against the Normans, Maurice of London and other Normans
Normans
led raids against Deheubarth's Welsh and Gwenllian was compelled to raise an army for their defence. In a battle fought near Kidwelly Castle , Gwenllian's army was routed, she was captured in battle and beheaded by the Normans. In the battle her son Morgan was also slain and another son, Maelgwyn captured and executed.

Though defeated, her patriotic revolt inspired others in South Wales to rise. The Welsh of Gwent , led by Iowerth ab Owain (grandson of Caradog ap Gruffydd , Gwent's Welsh ruler displaced by the Norman invasions), ambushed and slew Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare , the Norman lord who controlled Ceredigion
Ceredigion
.

When word reached Gwynedd
Gwynedd
of Gwenllain's death and the revolt in Gwent, Gwenllian's brothers Owain and Cadwaladr invaded Norman controlled Ceredigion
Ceredigion
, taking Llanfihangel , Aberystwyth
Aberystwyth
, and Llanbadarn .

LEGACY

Gwenllian's actions can be compared to another Celtic leader: Boadicea
Boadicea
(Buddug). This is the only known example of a medieval period woman leading a Welsh army into battle. The field where the battle is believed to have taken place, close to Kidwelly Castle and north of the town, is known as Maes Gwenllian (Welsh : Field of Gwenllian). A spring in the field is also named after her, supposedly welling up on the spot where she died.

For centuries after her death, Welshmen cried-out Revenge for Gwenllian when engaging in battle. Gwenllian and her husband also harassed Norman, English, and Flemish colonists in Deheubarth, taking goods and money and redistributed them among the Deheubarth
Deheubarth
Welsh who were themselves dispossessed by those colonizers, like a pair of "Robin Hoods of Wales", as historian and author Philip Warner writes.

Gwenllian's youngest son went on to become a notable leader of Deheubarth, The Lord Rhys
The Lord Rhys
.

AUTHORSHIP OF THE MABINOGI

Dr Andrew Breeze has argued that Gwenllian could have been the author of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi .

ANCESTRY

16. Idwal ap Meurig ap Idwal Foel

8. Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig

4. Cynan ab Iago

2. Gruffudd ap Cynan
Gruffudd ap Cynan

20. Sigtrygg Silkbeard
Sigtrygg Silkbeard

10. Amlaíb mac Sitriuc

21. Sláine daughter of Brian Boru
Brian Boru

5. Ragnhilda of Ireland

1. GWENLLIAN FERCH GRUFFYDD

24. Einion ab Owain

12. Edwin ab Einion

6. Owain ab Edwin

3. Angharad ferch Owain

SOURCES

* Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-014581-8 . * Lloyd, J.E (2004). A History of Wales; From the Norman Invasion to the Edwardian Conquest. New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7607-5241-9 . * Lloyd, J.E (1935). A History of Carmarthenshire. Cardiff. * Warner, Philip (1997). Famous Welsh Battles. New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7607-0466-X . * Spring, Helen (2010). Memories of the Curlew. United Kingdom: youwriteon,. ISBN 978-1-84923-490-0 .

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Gwenllian verch Gruffydd (1085–1136) – Mathematical.com. Accessed 19 April 2013. * ^ Brian Boru
Brian Boru
-> Sláine ingen Briain -> Óláfr Sigtryggsson -> Ragnhilda Olafsdottir -> Gruffydd ap Cynan -> Gwenllian verch Gruffyd * ^ A B C D E F Warner, Philip. Famous Welsh Battles, pg 79. 1997. Barnes and Noble, Inc. * ^ A B C D E F G H I Lloyd, J.E. A History of Wales; From the Norman Invasion to the Edwardian Conquest, Barnes border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 171946570 * LCCN : no

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