Guyana (pronounced or ),
officially the Cooperative Republic of Guyana,
is a country on the northern mainland of South America
and the capital city is Georgetown. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
to the north, Brazil
to the south and southwest, Venezuela
to the west, and Suriname
to the east. With , Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state
by area in mainland South America after Uruguay
; it is also the second-least populous sovereign state in South America
The region known as "the Guianas
" consists of the large shield landmass
north of the Amazon River
and east of the Orinoco River
known as the "land of many waters". There are nine indigenous
tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai
. Historically dominated by the Lokono and Kalina tribes, Guyana was colonised by the Dutch before coming under British control
in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana
, with a mostly plantation-style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966, and officially became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations
in 1970. The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian
, other European
, and various multiracial groups. In 2017, 41% of the population of Guyana lived below the poverty line
Guyana is the only South American nation in which English is the official language. The majority of the population, however, speak Guyanese Creole
, an English-based creole language
, as a first language. Guyana is part of the Anglophone Caribbean
. It is part of the mainland Caribbean region
maintaining strong cultural, historical, and political ties with other Caribbean
countries as well as headquarters
for the Caribbean Community
(CARICOM). In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations
as a founding member.
The name "Guyana" derives from ''Guiana'', the original name for the region that formerly included Guyana (British Guiana), Suriname (Dutch Guiana
), French Guiana, and parts of Colombia
, Venezuela and Brazil. According to the ''Oxford English Dictionary
'', "Guyana" comes from an indigenous Amerindian language and means "land of many waters". ''The Co‑operative Republic'' in the official name referred to co-operative socialism
There are nine indigenous
tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai
. Historically, the Lokono and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus
was the first European to sight Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498), and Sir Walter Raleigh
wrote an account in 1596, the Dutch
were the first Europeans to establish colonies: Pomeroon
(1627), and Demerara
(1752). After the British
assumed control in 1796, the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana
Since its independence in 1824, Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River
. Simón Bolívar
wrote to the British government warning against the Berbice and Demerara settlers settling on land which the Venezuelans, as assumed heirs of Spanish claims on the area dating to the sixteenth century, claimed was theirs. In 1899 an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to Great Britain. The British territorial claim stemmed from Dutch involvement and colonization of the area also dating to the sixteenth century, which was ceded to the British.
Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom as a dominion on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth. Shortly after independence, Venezuela
began to take diplomatic, economic and military action against Guyana in order to enforce its territorial claim to the Guayana Esequiba
The US State Department
and the US Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA), along with the British government, also played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time. The American government supported Forbes Burnham
during the early years of independence because Cheddi Jagan
was identified as a Marxist
. They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Burnham's People's National Congress
, to the detriment of the Jagan-led People's Progressive Party
, which was mostly supported by Guyanese of East Indian background.
In 1974, the Guyana government leased of land to Peoples Temple
, an American new religious movement, led by pastor Jim Jones
. The settlement, informally called "Jonestown
", eventually grew to a population of about 1,000 people, mostly emigrated from the United States. In 1978, Guyana received worldwide attention when 909 people died in a mass murder/suicide in Jonestown by drinking cyanide-laced Flavor Aid
. A day prior, U.S. congressman Leo Ryan
had visited and toured the settlement as part of an investigation. As he was preparing to leave at the Port Kaituma
airstrip, a group of Peoples Temple members pulled up and opened fire on the visiting delegation, killing Ryan and four other people.
In May 2008, President Bharrat Jagdeo
was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty
of the Union of South American Nations. The Guyanese government officially ratified the treaty in 2010.
The territory controlled by Guyana lies between latitudes 1°
, and longitudes 56°
, and is one of the world's most sparsely populated countries.
The country can be divided into five natural regions; a narrow and fertile marshy plain along the Atlantic coast (low coastal plain) where most of the population lives; a white sand belt more inland (hilly sand and clay region), containing most of Guyana's mineral deposits; the dense rain forest
s (Forested Highland Region) in the southern part of the country; the drier savannah
areas in the south-west; and the smallest interior lowlands (interior savannah) consisting mostly of mountains that gradually rise to the Brazilian border.
Some of Guyana's highest mountains are Mount Ayanganna
(), Monte Caburaí
() and Mount Roraima
( – the highest mountain in Guyana) on the Brazil-Guyana-Venezuela tripoint
border, part of the Pakaraima
range. Mount Roraima and Guyana's table-top mountains (tepui
s) are said to have been the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
's 1912 novel ''The Lost World
''. There are also many volcanic escarpment
s and waterfalls, including Kaieteur Falls
which is believed to be the largest single-drop waterfall in the world.
North of the Rupununi River
lies the Rupununi savannah
, south of which lie the Kanuku Mountains
The four longest rivers are the Essequibo at long, the Courentyne River
at , the Berbice
at , and the Demerara
at . The Courentyne river forms the border with Suriname. At the mouth of the Essequibo are several large islands, including the wide Shell Beach
along the northwest coast, which is also a major breeding area for sea turtle
s (mainly leatherbacks
) and other wildlife.
The local climate is tropical
and generally hot and humid, though moderated by northeast trade winds
along the coast. There are two rainy seasons, the first from May to mid-August, the second from mid-November to mid-January.
Guyana has one of the largest unspoiled rainforest
s in South America, some parts of which are almost inaccessible by humans. The rich natural history of Guyana was described by early explorers Sir Walter Raleigh
and Charles Waterton
and later by naturalists Sir David Attenborough
and Gerald Durrell
. In 2008, the BBC
broadcast a three-part programme called ''Lost Land of the Jaguar'' which highlighted the huge diversity of wildlife, including undiscovered species and rare species such as the giant otter
and harpy eagle
In 2012, Guyana received a $45 million reward from Norway for its rainforest protection efforts. This stems from a 2009 agreement between the nations for a total of $250 million for protecting and maintaining the natural habitat. Thus far, the country has received $115 million of the total grant.
Environment and biodiversity
Guyana is home to more than 900 species of birds; 225 species of mammals; 880 species of reptiles and more than 6,500 different species of plants. Among these wildlife categories the most notably famous are the Arapaima
, which is the world's largest scaled freshwater fish, giant anteater
, the largest anteater, giant otter
, the world's largest and rarest river otter and lastly the most notably famous of birds, cock of the rock (''Rupicola rupicola
is the national bird of Guyana.]]
The following habitats have been categorised for Guyana: coastal, marine, littoral, estuarine palustrine, mangrove, riverine, lacustrine, swamp, savanna, white sand forest, brown sand forest, montane, cloud forest, moist lowland and dry evergreen scrub forests (NBAP, 1999). About 14 areas of biological interest have been identified as possible hotspots for a National Protected Area System.
More than 80% of Guyana is still covered by forests, those forest also contains the world's rarest orchids
ranging from dry evergreen and seasonal forests to montane and lowland evergreen rain forests. These forests are home to more than a thousand species of trees. Guyana's tropical climate, unique geology, and relatively pristine ecosystems support extensive areas of species-rich rain forests and natural habitats with high levels of endemism
. Approximately eight thousand species of plants occur in Guyana, half of which are found nowhere else.
Guyana has one of the highest levels of biodiversity
in the world. With 1,168 vertebrate
species and 814 bird species, it boasts one of the richest mammalian fauna assemblages of any comparably sized area in the world. Guyana is home to six ecoregions: Guayanan Highlands moist forests
, Guianan moist forests
, Orinoco Delta swamp forests
, Guianan savanna
, and Guianan mangroves
The Guiana Shield region is little known and extremely rich biologically. Unlike other areas of South America, over 70% of the natural habitat remains pristine. Guyana ranks third in the world with a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index
mean score of 9.58/10.
The rich natural history of British Guiana was described by early explorers Sir Walter Raleigh and Charles Waterton and later by naturalists Sir David Attenborough and Gerald Durrell.
Southern Guyana is host to some of the most pristine expanses of evergreen forests in the northern part of South America. Most of the forests found are tall, evergreen hill-land and lower montane forests, with large expanses of flooded forest along major rivers. Thanks to the very low human population density of the area, most of these forests are still intact. The Smithsonian Institution has identified nearly 2,700 species of plants from this region, representing 239 distinct families, and there are certainly additional species still to be recorded. The diversity of plants supports diverse animal life, recently documented by a biological survey organised by Conservation International. The reportedly clean, unpolluted waters of the Essequibo watershed support a remarkable diversity of fish and aquatic invertebrates, and are home to giant otters
, and several species of caimans
On land, large mammals, such as jaguar
, bush dog
s, giant anteater
s, and saki monkey
s are still common. Over 400 species of birds have been reported from the region, and the reptile and amphibian faunas are similarly rich.
In February 2004, the Government of Guyana issued a title to more than of land in the Konashen Indigenous District as the Kanashen
Community-Owned Conservation Area, managed by the Wai Wai
, and the world's largest community-owned conservation Area. The Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development
was also created for the protection and sustainable use of the Iwokrama forest area.
The main economic activities in Guyana are agriculture (rice and Demerara sugar
and gold mining, timber, shrimp fishing and minerals. The discovery of major crude oil reserves off the Atlantic coast has since made a large impact on Guyana's GDP since drilling began in 2019. Preservation of Guyana's pristine forests has been a key component for receiving international aid through REDD
* GDP - US$4.121 billion ($5,252 per capita, 2019 est.)
* GDP growth rate - 86.7% (2020)
* Inflation - 12.3%
* Unemployment - 21.5% (2017)
* Arable land - 2%
* Labour force - 324,943 (2019)
* Agricultural produce - sugar, rice, vegetable oils, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products, fish, shrimp
* Industrial production - bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining
* Exports - US$1.439 billion, Canada 24.9%, US 16.5%, Panama 9.6%, UK 7.7%, Jamaica 5.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 5% (2017)
* Imports - US$1.626 billion, Trinidad and Tobago 27.5%, US 26.5%, China 8.9%, Suriname 6.1% (2017)
The earliest residents of Guyana, the Amerindians
of various tribes, employed a variety of agricultural practices for subsistence living but also had extensive networks of trade, dealing in items such as blow pipes, curare
, cassava graters, and other essentials. These trade networks were important even at the time of the earliest European contact, and Dutch traders were inclined to gift the local peoples in order to maintain successful settlements.
After the initial rush to find gold in the New World waned, the Dutch found the climate to be suitable for growing sugar cane, converting large tracts of the Guyanese coast into plantations
and supplying with labor from the Atlantic slave trade
. The country and economy were run by a small European planter elite which continued on when the colonies of the territory were merged and the land was given over to the British Empire
in 1814. Upon emancipation in 1838, almost all of the former slaves abandoned the plantations, and Indians were brought to the country under indenture contracts from 1838 until the end of the system in 1917.
The production of balatá
) was once big business in Guyana. Most of the balata bleeding in Guyana took place in the foothills of the Kanuku Mountains
in the Rupununi savannah
. Early exploitation also took place in the North West District, but most of the trees in the area were destroyed by illicit bleeding methods that involved cutting down the trees rather than making incisions in them. Uses of balatá included the making of cricket
balls, temporary dental fillings, and the crafting of figurines and other decorative items (particularly by the Macushi
When the country gained independence from British rule, a policy of nationalization was enacted by Forbes Burnham
to address the inequities that were established by plantation-based colonial rule. All large scale industries such as foreign-owned bauxite mining (Reynolds Metals
and Rio Tinto's
Alcan) and sugar (GuySuCo
) operations were taken over by the government. However, the economy under nationalization was plagued by problems; political instability leading to an exodus of skilled labor, inexperienced management, aging infrastructure, as well as poor international market conditions expanded the country's debt.
The Guyanese economy rebounded slightly and exhibited moderate economic growth after 1999, due to expansion in the agricultural and mining sectors, a more favourable atmosphere for business initiatives, a more realistic exchange rate, fairly low inflation, and the continued support of international organisations. Guyana held huge amounts of debt which have been written off through various international agencies. In 2003 Guyana qualified for US$329 million of debt relief, in addition to the US$256 million from the original World Bank plan for assisting heavily indebted poor countries
in 1999. The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative in 2006/7 wrote off about US$611 million of Guyana’s debt by the International Monetary Fund
, the World Bank
and the Inter-American Development Bank
. In 2006, Japan finalized its bilateral debt cancellation agreement, in 2007, US$15 million was written off by China and in 2008, Venezuela cancelled US$12.5 million.
In 2008, the economy witnessed a 3% increase in growth amid the global economic crisis
. It grew 5.4% in 2011 and 3.7% in 2012. IMF projected economic growth to be 53% in 2020 following the completion of the first off-shore oil project.
The government initiated a major overhaul of the tax code in early 2007. A Value Added Tax
(VAT) replaced six different taxes. Prior to the implementation of the VAT, it had been relatively easy to evade sales tax, and many businesses were in violation of tax code. Many businesses opposed VAT introduction because of the extra paperwork required; however, the Government has remained firm on the VAT. Replacing several taxes with one flat tax rate, it will also be easier for government auditors to spot embezzlement
. This was prevalent under the former PPP/C government who authorised the VAT to be equal to 50% of the value of the good.
Major private sector
organisations include the Private Sector Commission (PSC) and the Georgetown Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI);
The chief majority (about 90%) of Guyana's 744,000 population lives along a narrow coastal strip which ranges from a width of inland and which makes up approximately only 10% of the nation's total land area.
The present population of Guyana is racially and ethnically heterogeneous, with ethnic groups originating from India
, and China
, as well as indigenous or aboriginal peoples. Despite their diverse ethnic backgrounds, these groups share two common languages: English and Creole.
The largest ethnic group is the Indo-Guyanese
(also known as East Indians
), the descendants of indentured laborers from India, who make up 43.5% of the population, according to the 2002 census. They are followed by the Afro-Guyanese
, the descendants of slaves from Africa, who constitute 30.2%. The Guyanese of mixed heritage make up 16.7%, while the indigenous peoples (known locally as Amerindians
) make up 9.1%. The indigenous groups include the Arawaks
, the Wai Wai
, the Caribs, the Akawaio
, the Arecuna
, the Patamona
, the Wapixana
, the Macushi
and the Warao
The two largest groups, the Indo-Guyanese and Afro-Guyanese, have experienced some racial tension.
Most Indo-Guyanese are descended from indentured laborers who migrated from North India
, especially the Bhojpur
regions of the Hindi Belt
in the present day states of Uttar Pradesh
. A significant minority of Indo-Guyanese are also descended from indentured migrants who came from the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh
English is the official language of Guyana and is used for education, government, media, and services. The vast majority of the population speaks Guyanese Creole
, an English-based creole with slight African, Indian, and Amerindian influence, as their native tongue.
Indigenous Cariban languages
, and Macushi
) are spoken by a small minority of Amerindians.
is spoken by the older generation of the Indo-Guyanese community, but younger Guyanese use English or Guyanese Creole.
In 2012 the population was 63% Christian, 25% Hindu
, 7% Muslim
Religion is an important aspect of identity in Guyana, and reflects the various external influences of colonialism and immigrant groups. Christianity was considered the prestige religion, transmitting European culture and representing upward mobility in the colonial society. Missionaries and churches built schools, and until nationalization in the 1970s, nearly all schools were denominational. When Indians were brought to the country as indentured labor, Hindu and Islam gained prominence, but for some decades neither were acknowledged for legal marriage.
Some traditional African and Amerindian folks beliefs remain alongside the dominant religions.
Government and politics
thumb|left|Guyana's parliament building since 1834
The politics of Guyana
takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic
, in which the President of Guyana
is both head of state
and head of government
, and of a multi-party system
. Executive power
is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power
is vested in both the President and the National Assembly of Guyana
. Historically, politics are a source of tension in the country, and violent riots have often broken out during elections. During the 1970s and 1980s, the political landscape was dominated by the People's National Congress.
In 1992, the first constitutional elections were overseen by former United States President Jimmy Carter
, and the People's Progressive Party led the country until 2015. The two parties are principally organised along ethnic lines and as a result often clash on issues related to the allocation of resources. In the General Elections held on 28 November 2011, the People's Progressive Party (PPP) retained a majority, and their presidential candidate Donald Ramotar
was elected as president.
On 11 May 2015, early general elections were held. A coalition of the A Partnership for National Unity-Alliance for Change (APNU-AFC) parties won 33 of the 65 seats in the National Assembly. On 16 May 2015, retired army general David A. Granger
became the eighth President of Guyana. However, on 21 December 2018, a vote of confidence was called for, regarding terms under which the government granted a franchise for offshore oil exploration. Legislator Charrandass Persaud defected from the coalition and the vote failed, requiring new elections. The governing coalition litigated this result for the entire 90 days allowed for new elections. New elections were held on March 2, 2020 and results were declared on August 3, 2020, with the People's Progressive Party/Civic as the winner. Mohamed Irfaan Ali
became the ninth President of Guyana.
in Guyana is overseen by the Public Procurement Commission, appointed under the Public Procurement Commission Act 2003. Due to lengthy delay in identifying and agreeing commission members, the commission was not appointed until 2016.
The Guyana Defence Force (GDF) is the military service of Guyana.
acts, as well as anal
and oral sex
are illegal in Guyana. It is currently the only country in South America that prohibits such acts. Engaging in such acts can warrant life imprisonment
, though it is not enforced
. These laws can be difficult to alter, as Guyana's Constitution
protects laws inherited from the British Empire
from constitutional review. However, cross-dressing
has been legal since 2018, when a ban was struck down by Guyana's court of last resort, the Caribbean Court of Justice
. President David A. Granger
(2015–2020) expressed support for these efforts.
Regions and Neighbourhood Councils
Guyana is divided into 10 regions:
The regions are divided into 27 neighbourhood councils.
International and regional relations
Guyana is in border disputes
with both Suriname, which claims the area east of the left bank of the Corentyne River
and the New River in southwestern Suriname, and Venezuela which claims the land west of the Essequibo River, once the Dutch colony of Essequibo
as part of Venezuela's Guayana Essequiba
The maritime component of the territorial dispute with Suriname was arbitrated by the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea
, and a ruling was announced on 21 September 2007. The ruling concerning the Caribbean Sea
north of both nations found both parties violated treaty obligations and declined to order any compensation to either party.
When the British surveyed British Guiana in 1840, they included the entire Cuyuni River
basin within the colony. Venezuela did not agree with this as it claimed all lands west of the Essequibo River. In 1898, at Venezuela's request, an international arbitration tribunal
was convened, and in 1899 the tribunal issued an award giving about 94% of the disputed territory to British Guiana. The arbitration was concluded, settled and accepted into International law by both Venezuela and the U.K. Venezuela brought up again the settled claim, during the 1960s cold war period, and during Guyana's Independence period. This issue is now governed by the Treaty of Geneva of 1966, which was signed by the Governments of Guyana, Great Britain and Venezuela, and Venezuela continues to claim Guayana Esequiba
[Ishmael, Odeen (1998, rev. 2006) "The Trail Of Diplomacy: A Documentary History of the Guyana-Venezuela Border Issue"](_blank)
Dr. Ishmael was Ambassador of Guyana to Venezuela when this was written.
Venezuela calls this region "Zona en Reclamación" (Reclamation Zone) and Venezuelan maps of the national territory routinely include it, drawing it in with dashed lines.
Specific small disputed areas involving Guyana are Ankoko Island
with Venezuela; Corentyne River with Suriname; and Tigri Area
or New River Triangle
with Suriname. In 1967 a Surinamese survey team was found in the New River Triangle and was forcibly removed. In August 1969 a patrol of the Guyana Defence Force
found a survey camp and a partially completed airstrip inside the triangle, and documented evidence of the Surinamese intention to occupy the entire disputed area. After an exchange of gunfire, the Surinamese
were driven from the triangle.
The Organisation of American States (OAS)
Guyana entered the Organisation of American States
Indigenous Leaders Summits of America (ILSA)
With Guyana having many groups of indigenous persons and given the geographical location of the country, the contributions of the Guyanese to the OAS respecting indigenous people may be significant.
The position of the OAS respecting indigenous persons developed over the years. "The "OAS has supported and participated in the organisation of Indigenous Leaders Summits of Americas (ILSA)"
The Draft American Declaration of the Rights of the Indigenous Persons appears to be a working document
Agreements which affect financial relationships
The Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty 1994
At a CARICOM Meeting, representatives of Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana respectively signed The Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty 1994 on 19 August 1994.
This treaty covered taxes, residence, tax jurisdictions, capital gains, business profits, interest, dividends, royalties and other areas.
On 30 June 2014, Guyana signed a Model 1 agreement with the United States of America in relation to the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
This Model 1 agreement includes a reference to the Tax Information Exchange Agreement (Clause 3) which was signed on 22 July 1992 in Georgetown, Guyana intending to exchange Tax information on an automatic basis.
Infrastructure and telecommunications
There are a total of of railway, all dedicated to ore transport. There are of highway, of which are paved. Navigable waterways extend , including the Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers.
There are ports at Georgetown, Port Kaituma, and New Amsterdam
. There are two international airports (Cheddi Jagan International Airport
, Timehri and Eugene F. Correira International Airport (formerly Ogle Airport
); along with about 90 airstrips, nine of which have paved runways. Guyana, Suriname and the Falkland Islands
are the only three regions in South America which drive on the left
The electricity sector in Guyana is dominated by Guyana Power and Light
(GPL), the state-owned vertically integrated utility. Although the country has a large potential for hydroelectric and bagasse
-fueled power generation, most of its 226 MW
of installed capacity correspond to diesel-engine driven generators.
Several initiatives are in place to improve energy access in the hinterland
. Guyana is endowed with renewable energy resources and is likely to benefit greatly from the energy transition. It is ranked no. 3 among 156 countries in the index of geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition (GeGaLo Index).
at birth is estimated to be 69.5 years as of 2020
The PAHO/ WHO Global Health Report 2014 (using statistics of 2012) ranked the country as having the highest suicide
rate in the world, with a mortality rate of 44.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. According to 2011 estimates from the WHO
, HIV prevalence
is 1.2% of the teen/adult population (ages 15–49).
Education is Guyana was primarily introduced and operated by missionizing Christian denominations. The wealthy planter elite often sent their children for education abroad in England, but as schools improved in Guyana, they also modeled after the former British education
system. Primary education became compulsory in 1876, although the need for children to assist in agricultural labor kept many children from schooling. In the 1960s, the government took over control of all schools in the country. Fees were removed, new schools were opened in rural areas, and the University of Guyana was established so students no longer were required to go abroad for tertiary education.
Guyana's literacy was one of the highest in the Caribbean, by estimated literacy rate of 96 percent in 1990.
In a 2014 UNESCO estimate, literacy is 96.7 in the 15-24 year old age group. However, the functional literacy may be only as high as 70%.
Students are expected to take the NGSA (National Grade Six Assessment) for entrance into high school in grade 7. They take the CXC
at the end of high school. Schools have introduced the CAPE
exams which all other Caribbean countries have introduced. The A-level system
, inherited from the British era, is offered only in a few schools.
Infrastructure challenges impact access to education, especially students in the hinterland. A World Bank assessment showed roughly 50% of teachers were "untrained, operated with inadequate teaching materials, and served children of parents with low levels of adult literacy".
Guyana's culture is very similar to that of the English-speaking Caribbean, and has historically been tied to the English-speaking Caribbean as part of the British Empire when it became a possession in the nineteenth century.
Guyanese culture developed as forced and voluntary immigrants adapted and converged with the dominant British culture. Slavery eradicated much of the distinction between differing African cultures, encouraging the adoption of Christianity and the values of British colonists, which laid the foundations of today's Afro-Guyanese culture. Arriving later and under somewhat more favorable circumstances, Indian immigrants were subjected less assimilation, and preserving more aspects of Indian culture.
Guyana's geographical location, its sparsely populated rain-forest regions, and its substantial Amerindian population differentiate it from English-speaking Caribbean countries. Its blend of Indo-Guyanese and Afro-Guyanese cultures gives it similarities to Trinidad
and distinguishes it from other parts of the Americas. Guyana shares similar interests with the islands in the West Indies, such as food, festive events, music, sports, etc.
Events include Mashramani
), and Deepavali
* St George's Anglican Cathedral
: A historic Anglican Cathedral made of wood.
* Demerara Harbour Bridge
: The world's fourth-longest floating bridge.
* Berbice Bridge
: The world's sixth-longest floating bridge.
* Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Building
: Houses the headquarters of the largest and most powerful economic union in the Caribbean.
* Providence Stadium
: Situated on Providence on the north bank of the Demerara River and built in time for the ICC World Cup 2007, it is the largest sports stadium in the country. It is also near the Providence Mall, forming a major spot for leisure in Guyana.
* Arthur Chung
Presented as a gift from the People's Republic of China to the Government of Guyana. It is the only one of its kind in the country.
* Stabroek Market
: A large cast-iron colonial structure that looked like a statue was located next to the Demerara River.
* City Hall
: A beautiful wooden structure also from the colonial era.
* Takutu River Bridge
: A bridge across the Takutu River, connecting Lethem in Guyana to Bonfim in Brazil.
* Umana Yana
: An Amerindian benab, that is a national monument built in 1972, for a meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Non-Aligned nations (It was rebuilt in 2016).
* Shell Beach
: Approximately 140 km long beach. In some parts beach consists of pure shells, very high biological diversity. Important nesting site for 8 species of sea turtles.
The major sports in Guyana are cricket
(Guyana is part of the West Indies cricket team
for international cricket purposes), basketball
, and volleyball. Minor sports include softball cricket (beach cricket)
, field hockey, netball
, lawn tennis
, table tennis, boxing
, horse racing
and a few others.
Guyana played host to international cricket
matches as part of the 2007 Cricket World Cup
(CWC 2007). The new 15,000-seat Providence Stadium
, also referred to as Guyana National Stadium, was built in time for the World Cup and was ready for the beginning of play on 28 March. At the first international game of CWC 2007 at the stadium, Lasith Malinga
of the Sri Lankan team
took four wickets in four consecutive deliveries.
Guyana's national basketball team
has traditionally been one of the top contenders at the CaribeBasket
, the top international basketball tournament for countries in the Caribbean
For international football purposes, Guyana
is part of CONCACAF. The highest league in their club system is the GFF Elite League
. Guyana's national football team
has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup
, however they qualified for the Caribbean Cup
, finishing fourth, and 2007
. In 2019, they qualified for the CONCACAF Gold Cup
for the first time, after finishing 7th in the qualifiers
. They finished 3rd in Group D, having lost two matches and drawn one.
Guyana also has five courses for horse racing.
* Index of Guyana-related articles
* Outline of Guyana
* Petroleum exploration in Guyana
* Donald Haack, ''Bush Pilot in Diamond Country''
* Hamish MacInnes
, ''Climb to the Lost World'' (1974)
* Andrew Salkey, ''Georgetown Journal'' (1970)
* Marion Morrison, ''Guyana'' (Enchantment of the World Series)
* Bob Temple, ''Guyana''
* Noel C. Bacchus, ''Guyana Farewell: A Recollection of Childhood in a Faraway Place''
* Marcus Colchester, ''Guyana: Fragile Frontier''
* Matthew French Young, ''Guyana: My Fifty Years in the Guyanese Wilds''
* Margaret Bacon, ''Journey to Guyana''
* Father Andrew Morrison SJ, ''Justice: The Struggle For Democracy in Guyana 1952–1992''
* D. Graham Burnett
, ''Masters of All They Surveyed: Exploration, Geography and a British El Dorado''
* Ovid Abrams, ''Metegee: The History and Culture of Guyana''
* Gerald Durrell, ''Three Singles To Adventure''
* Cheddi Jagan. ''The West on Trial: My Fight for Guyana's Freedom''
* Cheddi Jagan. ''My Fight For Guyana's Freedom: With Reflections on My Father by Nadira Jagan-Brancier''.
* Colin Henfrey, ''Through Indian Eyes: A Journey Among the Indian Tribes of Guiana''.
* Stephen G. Rabe, ''US Intervention in British Guiana: A Cold War Story''.
* Charles Waterton, ''Wanderings in South America''.
* David Attenborough, ''Zoo Quest to Guiana'' (Lutterworth Press, London: 1956).
* John Gimlette, ''Wild Coast: Travels on South America's Untamed Edge'', 2011.
Office of the President, Republic of Guyana
Parliament of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana
''The World Factbook
''. Central Intelligence Agency
from the BBC News
from the ''Encyclopædia Britannica
at ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''.
* The State of the World's MidwiferyGuyana Country Profile
Key Development Forecasts for Guyana
from International Futures
Category:Countries in South America
Category:Small Island Developing States
Category:English-speaking countries and territories
Category:Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas
Category:Former monarchies of South America
Category:Member states of the Caribbean Community
Category:Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations
Category:Member states of the Union of South American Nations
Category:Member states of the United Nations
Category:States and territories established in 1966
Category:1966 establishments in South America