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Coordinates : 5°00′N 58°45′W / 5°N 58.75°W / 5; -58.75

Co-operative Republic
Republic
of Guyana

_ Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: "One People, One Nation, One Destiny"

ANTHEM: Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains _

Capital and largest city Georgetown 6°46′N 58°10′W / 6.767°N 58.167°W / 6.767; -58.167

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES English

RECOGNISED REGIONAL LANGUAGES 9 languages

* Akawaio * Macushi * Waiwai * Arawak * Patamona * Warrau * Carib * Wapishana * Arekuna

Vernacular language Guyanese Creole

OTHER LANGUAGES 6 languages

* Guyanese Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) * Tamil * Chinese * Portuguese * Spanish * Yoruba

ETHNIC GROUPS (2002)

* 43.45% Indian * 30.2% Black (African) * 16.73% Mixed * 9.16% Amerindian * 0.2% Portuguese * 0.19% Chinese * 0.06% European * 0.01% Others

RELIGION

* 57.4% Christian
Christian
* 28.4% Hindu * 7.2% Muslim * 0.5% Rastafarian * 0.1% Bahá\'í * 1.3% Other * 0.9% Not Stated * 1.4% None

DEMONYM Guyanese

GOVERNMENT Unitary presidential republic

• PRESIDENT David Granger

• PRIME MINISTER Moses Nagamootoo

LEGISLATURE National Assembly

FORMATION

• DUTCH GUIANA 1667–1814

• BRITISH GUIANA 1814–1966

• INDEPENDENCE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM 26 May 1966

• REPUBLIC 23 February 1970

• CURRENT CONSTITUTION 6 October 1980

AREA

• TOTAL 214,970 km2 (83,000 sq mi) (85th )

• WATER (%) 8.4

POPULATION

• 2016 ESTIMATE 735,909 (165th )

• 2012 CENSUS 747,884

• DENSITY 3.502/km2 (9.1/sq mi) (232nd or 8th least-densely populated in the world )

GDP (PPP ) 2016 estimate

• TOTAL $6.093 billion

• PER CAPITA $7,919

GDP (NOMINAL) 2016 estimate

• TOTAL $3.456 billion

• PER CAPITA $4,492

GINI (1998) 44.5 medium

HDI (2015) 0.638 medium · 127th

CURRENCY Guyanese dollar
Guyanese dollar
(GYD )

TIME ZONE GYT ( Guyana
Guyana
Time) (UTC -4)

DRIVES ON THE left

CALLING CODE +592
+592

ISO 3166 CODE GY

INTERNET TLD .gy

GUYANA (pronounced /ɡaɪˈɑːnə/ or /ɡaɪˈænə/ ), officially the CO-OPERATIVE REPUBLIC OF GUYANA, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America
South America
. It is, however, included in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Region due to its strong cultural, historical, and political ties with other Anglo Caribbean
Caribbean
countries and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Guyana
Guyana
is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the north, Brazil
Brazil
to the south and southwest, Suriname
Suriname
to the east and Venezuela
Venezuela
to the west. With 215,000 square kilometres (83,000 sq mi), Guyana
Guyana
is the fourth-smallest country on mainland South America
South America
after Uruguay
Uruguay
, Suriname
Suriname
and French Guiana
French Guiana
(an overseas region of France
France
).

The region known as "the Guianas " consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River
Amazon River
and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Originally inhabited by several indigenous groups, Guyana
Guyana
was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana , with mostly a plantation style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966, and officially became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
in 1970. The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian , African, Amerindian, and multiracial groups.

Guyana
Guyana
is the only South American nation in which English is the official language. The majority of the population, however, speak Guyanese Creole , an English-based creole language , as a first language. In addition to being part of the Anglophone Caribbean
Caribbean
, Guyana
Guyana
is one of the few Caribbean
Caribbean
countries that is not an island in the West Indies
West Indies
. CARICOM, of which Guyana
Guyana
is a member, is headquartered in Guyana's capital and largest city, Georgetown . In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Regions and Neighbourhood Councils * 3.2 Boundary disputes * 3.3 Environment and biodiversity * 3.4 World Heritage sites * 3.5 Landmarks

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Summary

* 5 International and regional relations

* 5.1 The Organisation of American States (OAS)

* 5.1.1 Summits of the Americas

* 5.1.1.1 Indigenous Leaders Summits of Americas
Americas
(ILSA)

* 5.2 Agreements which impact on Financial Relationships

* 5.2.1 The Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty 1994 * 5.2.2 FATCA

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Largest cities * 6.2 Language * 6.3 Religion

* 7 Government and politics

* 7.1 Public procurement * 7.2 Military * 7.3 Human rights

* 8 Infrastructure and telecommunications

* 8.1 Transport * 8.2 Electricity * 8.3 Water supply and sanitation

* 8.4 Telecommunications

* 8.4.1 Telephone system * 8.4.2 Radio broadcast stations * 8.4.3 Television broadcast stations * 8.4.4 Satellite television * 8.4.5 Internet system

* 9 Health * 10 Education * 11 Culture * 12 Wildlife * 13 Sports * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Guyana" is derived from _Guiana_, the original name for the region that formerly included Guyana
Guyana
(British Guiana), Suriname
Suriname
(Dutch Guiana ), French Guiana, and parts of Colombia
Colombia
, Venezuela
Venezuela
and Brazil. According to the _ Oxford English Dictionary ,_ Guyana
Guyana
is derived from an Indigenous Amerindian language and means "land of many waters".

HISTORY

Main article: History of Guyana A map of Dutch Guiana 1667–1814 Map of British Guiana
British Guiana

There are nine indigenous tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai , Macushi , Patamona , Lokono
Lokono
, Kalina , Wapishana , Pemon , Akawaio and Warao . Historically the Lokono
Lokono
and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
sighted Guyana
Guyana
during his third voyage (in 1498), the Dutch were the first to establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). After the British assumed control in 1796, the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana. In 1838, some Indians, who served as lower-caste indentured servants, were transported from Indian villages in South Asia to Guyana, where they intermixed with the Guyanese and formed half of today's Guyanese population. Georgetown in 1823

Since its Independence
Independence
in 1824 Venezuela
Venezuela
has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River . Simón Bolívar wrote to the British government warning against the Berbice and Demerara settlers settling on land which the Venezuelans, as assumed heirs of Spanish claims on the area dating to the sixteenth century, claimed was theirs. In 1899 an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to Great Britain. The British territorial claim stemmed from Dutch involvement and colonization of the area also dating to the sixteenth century, which was ceded to the British.

Guyana
Guyana
achieved independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth. The US State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana
Guyana
during this time. The American government supported Forbes Burnham
Forbes Burnham
during the early years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was identified as a Marxist . They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Burnham's People\'s National Congress , to the detriment of the Jagan-led People\'s Progressive Party , which was mostly supported by Guyanese of East Indian background.

In 1978, Guyana
Guyana
received international notice when 918 members of the American cult, Peoples Temple
Peoples Temple
, died in a mass murder/suicide drinking cyanide laced Kool Aid. However, most of the suicides were by Americans and not Guyanese. More than 300 children were killed; the people were members of a group led by Jim Jones
Jim Jones
in Jonestown
Jonestown
, the settlement which they had created. Jim Jones's bodyguards had earlier attacked people taking off at a small remote airstrip close to Jonestown, killing five people, including Leo Ryan
Leo Ryan
, a US congressman .

In May 2008, President Bharrat Jagdeo
Bharrat Jagdeo
was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Guyana
Guyana
has ratified the treaty.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Guyana
Geography of Guyana
Rupununi Savannah
Rupununi Savannah

The territory controlled by Guyana
Guyana
lies between latitudes 1° and 9°N , and longitudes 56° and 62°W .

The country can be divided into five natural regions; a narrow and fertile marshy plain along the Atlantic coast (low coastal plain) where most of the population lives; a white sand belt more inland (hilly sand and clay region), containing most of Guyana's mineral deposits; the dense rain forests (Forested Highland Region) in the southern part of the country; the desert savannah in the southern west; and the smallest interior lowlands (interior savannah) consisting mostly of mountains that gradually rise to the Brazilian border.

Some of Guyana's highest mountains are Mount Ayanganna (2,042 metres or 6,699 feet), Monte Caburaí
Monte Caburaí
(1,465 metres or 4,806 feet) and Mount Roraima (2,772 metres or 9,094 feet – the highest mountain in Guyana) on the Brazil-Guyana- Venezuela
Venezuela
tripoint border, part of the Pakaraima
Pakaraima
range. Mount Roraima and Guyana's table-top mountains (tepuis ) are said to have been the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 's 1912 novel _The Lost World _. There are also many volcanic escarpments and waterfalls, including Kaieteur Falls which is believed to be the largest water drop in the world. North of the Rupununi River lies the Rupununi savannah
Rupununi savannah
, south of which lie the Kanuku Mountains .

The four longest rivers are the Essequibo at 1,010 kilometres (628 mi) long, the Courantyne River at 724 kilometres (450 mi), the Berbice at 595 kilometres (370 mi), and the Demerara at 346 kilometres (215 mi). The Corentyne river forms the border with Suriname. At the mouth of the Essequibo are several large islands, including the 145 km (90 mi) wide Shell Beach lies along the northwest coast, which is also a major breeding area for sea turtles (mainly leatherbacks ) and other wildlife.

The local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, though moderated by northeast trade winds along the coast. There are two rainy seasons, the first from May to mid-August, the second from mid-November to mid-January.

Guyana
Guyana
has one of the largest unspoiled rainforests in South America, some parts of which are almost inaccessible by humans. The rich natural history of Guyana
Guyana
was described by early explorers Sir Walter Raleigh and Charles Waterton
Charles Waterton
and later by naturalists Sir David Attenborough and Gerald Durrell . In 2008, the BBC
BBC
broadcast a three-part programme called _Lost Land of the Jaguar_ which highlighted the huge diversity of wildlife, including undiscovered species and rare species such as the giant otter and harpy eagle .

In 2012, Guyana
Guyana
received a $45 million reward from Norway for its rainforest protection efforts. This stems from a 2009 agreement between the nations for a total of $250 million for protecting and maintaining the natural habitat. Thus far, the country has received $115 million of the total grant.

REGIONS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD COUNCILS

Main articles: Regions of Guyana and Neighbourhood Councils of Guyana

Guyana
Guyana
is divided into 10 regions:

NO REGION AREA KM2 POPULATION (2012 CENSUS) Population(2012 Census) per km2

1 Barima-Waini 20,339 26,941 1.32

2 Pomeroon-Supenaam 6,195 46,810 7.56

3 Essequibo Islands-West Demerara 3,755 107,416 28.61

4 Demerara-Mahaica 2,232 313,429 140.43

5 Mahaica- Berbice 4,190 49,723 11.87

6 East Berbice-Corentyne 36,234 109,431 3.02

7 Cuyuni-Mazaruni 47,213 20,280 0.43

8 Potaro-Siparuni 20,051 10,190 0.51

9 Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo 57,750 24,212 0.42

10 Upper Demerara- Berbice 17,040 39,452 2.32

GUYANA 214,999 747,884 3.48

The regions are divided into 27 neighbourhood councils.

BOUNDARY DISPUTES

See also: Schomburgk Line and Borders of Suriname
Suriname

Guyana
Guyana
is in border disputes with both Suriname, which claims the area east of the left bank of the Corentyne River and the New River in southwestern Suriname, and Venezuela
Venezuela
which claims the land west of the Essequibo River, once the Dutch colony of Essequibo as part of Venezuela's Guayana Essequiba
Guayana Essequiba
. The maritime component of the territorial dispute with Suriname
Suriname
was arbitrated by the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea , and a ruling was announced on 21 September 2007. The ruling concerning the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea north of both nations found both parties violated treaty obligations and declined to order any compensation to either party.

When the British surveyed British Guiana
British Guiana
in 1840, they included the entire Cuyuni River basin within the colony. Venezuela
Venezuela
did not agree with this as it claimed all lands west of the Essequibo River. In 1898, at Venezuela's request, an international arbitration tribunal was convened, and in 1899 the tribunal issued an award giving about 94% of the disputed territory to British Guiana. The arbitration was concluded, settled and accepted into International law by both Venezuela
Venezuela
and the U.K. Venezuela
Venezuela
brought up again the settled claim, during the 1960s cold war period, and during Guyana's Independence period. This issue is now governed by the Treaty of Geneva of 1966, which was signed by the Governments of Guyana, Great Britain and Venezuela, and Venezuela
Venezuela
continues to claim Guayana Esequiba . Venezuela
Venezuela
calls this region "Zona en Reclamación" (Reclamation Zone) and Venezuelan maps of the national territory routinely include it, drawing it in with dashed lines.

Specific small disputed areas involving Guyana
Guyana
are Ankoko Island
Ankoko Island
with Venezuela; Corentyne River with Suriname; and Tigri Area or New River Triangle with Suriname. In 1967 a Surinamese survey team was found in the New River Triangle and was forcibly removed. In August 1969 a patrol of the Guyana Defence Force found a survey camp and a partially completed airstrip inside the triangle, and documented evidence of the Surinamese intention to occupy the entire disputed area. After an exchange of gunfire, the Surinamese were driven from the triangle.

ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

See also: Category:Flora of Guyana
Guyana
, Category:Fauna of Guyana
Guyana
, and Category:Orchids_of_ Guyana
Guyana
_ Satellite image of Guyana
Guyana
from 2004 Anomaloglossus beebei_ (Kaieteur), specific to the Guianas The hoatzin is the national bird of Guyana
Guyana

The following habitats have been categorised for Guyana: coastal, marine, littoral, estuarine palustrine, mangrove, riverine, lacustrine, swamp, savanna, white sand forest, brown sand forest, montane, cloud forest, moist lowland and dry evergreen scrub forests (NBAP, 1999). About 14 areas of biological interest have been identified as possible hotspots for a National Protected Area System. More than 80% of Guyana
Guyana
is still covered by forests, those forest also contains the worlds rarest orchids ranging from dry evergreen and seasonal forests to montane and lowland evergreen rain forests. These forests are home to more than a thousand species of trees. Guyana's tropical climate, unique geology, and relatively pristine ecosystems support extensive areas of species-rich rain forests and natural habitats with high levels of endemism . Approximately eight thousand species of plants occur in Guyana, half of which are found nowhere else.

Guyana
Guyana
has one of the highest levels of biodiversity in the world. Guyana, with 1,168 vertebrate species, 814 bird species, boasts one of the richest mammalian fauna assemblages of any comparably sized area in the world. The Guiana Shield region is little known and extremely rich biologically. Unlike other areas of South America, over 70% of the natural habitat remains pristine.

The rich natural history of British Guiana
British Guiana
was described by early explorers Sir Walter Raleigh and Charles Waterton
Charles Waterton
and later by naturalists Sir David Attenborough and Gerald Durrell.

In February 2004, the Government of Guyana issued a title to more than 1 million acres (4,000 km2) of land in the Konashen Indigenous District declaring this land as the Konashen Community-Owned Conservation Area (COCA), to be managed by the Wai Wai . In doing so Guyana
Guyana
created the world's largest Community-Owned Conservation Area.

This important event followed a request made by the Wai Wai community to the government of Guyana
Guyana
and Conservation International Guyana (CIG) for assistance in developing a sustainable plan for their lands in Konashen. The three parties signed a Memorandum of Cooperation which outlines a plan for sustainable use of the Konashen COCA's biological resources, identifies threats to the area's biodiversity, and helps develop projects to increase awareness of the COCA as well as generate the income necessary to maintain its protected status.

The Konashen Indigenous District of Southern Guyana
Guyana
houses the headwaters of the Essequibo River, Guyana's principal water source, and drains the Kassikaityu, Kamoa, Sipu and Chodikar rivers. Southern Guyana
Guyana
is host to some of the most pristine expanses of evergreen forests in the northern part of South America. Most of the forests found here are tall, evergreen hill-land and lower montane forests, with large expanses of flooded forest along major rivers. Thanks to the very low human population density of the area, most of these forests are still intact. The Smithsonian Institution has identified nearly 2,700 species of plants from this region, representing 239 distinct families, and there are certainly additional species still to be recorded.

Such incredible diversity of plants supports even more impressive diversity of animal life, recently documented by a biological survey organised by Conservation International. The clean, unpolluted waters of the Essequibo watershed support a remarkable diversity of fish and aquatic invertebrates, and are home to giant otters , capybaras , and several species of caimans .

On land, large mammals, such as jaguars , tapirs , bush dogs , giant anteaters , and saki monkeys are still common. Over 400 species of birds have been reported from the region, and the reptile and amphibian faunas are similarly rich. The Konashen COCA forests are also home to countless species of insects, arachnids, and other invertebrates, many of which are still undiscovered and unnamed.

The Konashen COCA is relatively unique in that it contains a high level of biological diversity and richness that remains in nearly pristine condition; such places have become rare on earth. This fact has given rise to various non-exploitative, environmentally sustainable industries such as ecotourism, successfully capitalising on the biological wealth of the Konashen COCA with comparatively little enduring impact.

WORLD HERITAGE SITES

Kaieteur Falls is the world's largest single-drop waterfall by volume

Guyana
Guyana
signed the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage treaty in 1977, the first Caribbean country to do so. In the mid-1990s, Guyana
Guyana
began the process of selecting sites for World Heritage nomination, and three sites were considered: Kaieteur National Park
Kaieteur National Park
, Shell Beach and Historic Georgetown. By 1997, work on Kaieteur National Park
Kaieteur National Park
was started, and in 1998 work on Historic Georgetown was begun. To date, however, Guyana
Guyana
has not made a successful nomination.

Guyana
Guyana
submitted the Kaieteur National Park, including the Kaieteur Falls, to UNESCO as its first World Heritage Site nomination. The proposed area and surrounds have some of Guyana's most diversified life zones with one of the highest levels of endemic species found in South America. The Kaieteur Falls are the most spectacular feature of the park, falling a distance of 226 metres. The nomination of Kaieteur National Park as a World Heritage Site was not successful, primarily because the area was seen by the evaluators as being too small, especially when compared with the Central Suriname
Suriname
Nature Reserve that had just been nominated as a World Heritage Site (2000). The dossier was thus returned to Guyana
Guyana
for revision.

Guyana
Guyana
continues in its bid for a World Heritage Site. Work continues, after a period of hiatus, on the nomination dossier for Historic Georgetown. A tentative list indicating an intention to nominate Historic Georgetown was submitted to UNESCO in December 2004. In April 2005, two Dutch experts in conservation spent two weeks in Georgetown supervising architecture staff and students of the University of Guyana in a historic building survey of the selected area. This is part of the data collection for the nomination dossier.

Meanwhile, as a result of the Kaieteur National Park
Kaieteur National Park
being considered too small, there is a proposal to prepare a nomination for a Cluster Site that will include the Kaieteur National Park, the Iwokrama Forest and the Kanuku Mountains. The Iwokrama rain forest, an area rich in biological diversity, has been described by Major General (Retired) Joseph Singh as "a flagship project for conservation." The Kanuku Mountains area is in a pristine state and is home to more than four hundred species of birds and other animals.

Guyana
Guyana
holds two of the World Wildlife Fund 's Global 200 eco-regions, the Guianan and Guiana Highlands moist forests. It is also home to several endemic species including the greenheart tree.

LANDMARKS

St George\'s Cathedral, Georgetown St George's Anglican Cathedral One of the tallest wooden church structures in the world and the second tallest wooden house of worship after the Tōdai-ji Temple in Japan. Demerara Harbour Bridge The world's fourth-longest floating bridge. Berbice Bridge The world's sixth-longest floating bridge. Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) Building Houses the headquarters of the largest and most powerful economic union in the Caribbean. Providence Stadium Situated on Providence on the north bank of the Demerara River and built in time for the ICC World Cup 2007, it is the largest sports stadium in the country. It is also near the Providence Mall, forming a major spot for leisure in Guyana. Guyana
Guyana
International Conference Centre Presented as a gift from the People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
to the Government of Guyana. It is the only one of its kind in the country. Stabroek Market A large cast-iron colonial structure that looked like a statue was located next to the Demerara River. City Hall A beautiful wooden structure also from the colonial era. Takutu River Bridge A bridge across the Takutu River, connecting Lethem in Guyana
Guyana
to Bonfim in Brazil. Takutu River Bridge
Takutu River Bridge
Umana Yana An Amerindian benab, that is a national monument built in 1972, for a meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Non-Aligned nations (It was rebuilt in 2016).

ECONOMY

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Main articles: Economy of Guyana
Economy of Guyana
and Agriculture in Guyana
Agriculture in Guyana
See also: List of Guyanese companies
List of Guyanese companies
A tractor in a rice field on Guyana's coastal plain Graphical depiction of Guyana's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories

The main economic activities in Guyana
Guyana
are agriculture (production of rice and Demerara sugar ), bauxite mining, gold mining, timber, shrimp fishing and minerals. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labour and a deficient infrastructure. In 2008, the economy witnessed a 3% increase in growth amid the global economic crisis , grew an impressive 5.4% in 2011 and 3.7% in 2012.

Until recently, the government was juggling a sizeable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. Low prices for key mining and agricultural commodities combined with troubles in the bauxite and sugar industries, had threatened the government's tenuous fiscal position and dimmed prospects for the future. However, the Guyanese economy has rebounded slightly and exhibited moderate economic growth since 1999, thanks to an expansion in the agricultural and mining sectors, a more favourable atmosphere for business initiatives, a more realistic exchange rate, fairly low inflation, and the continued support of international organisations.

The sugar industry, which accounts for 28% of all export earnings, is largely run by the company GuySuCo
GuySuCo
, which employs more people than any other industry. Many industries have a large foreign investment. For example, the mineral industry is heavily invested in by the American company Reynolds Metals and the British-Australian Rio Tinto\'s Rio Tinto Alcan subsidiary; the Korean/Malaysian Barama Company has a large stake in the logging industry.

The production of balatá (natural latex ) was once big business in Guyana. Most of the balata bleeding in Guyana
Guyana
took place in the foothills of the Kanuku Mountains in the Rupununi. Early exploitation also took place in the North West District, but most of the trees in the area were destroyed by illicit bleeding methods that involved cutting down the trees rather than making incisions in them. Uses of balatá included the making of cricket balls, the temporary filling of troublesome tooth cavities, and the crafting of figurines and other decorative items (particularly by the Macushi people of the Kanuku mountains).

Major private sector organisations include the Private Sector Commission (PSC) and the Georgetown Chamber of Commerce

The government initiated a major overhaul of the tax code in early 2007. The Value Added Tax (VAT) was brought into effect, replacing six different taxes. Prior to the implementation of the VAT, it had been relatively easy to evade sales tax, and many businesses were in violation of tax code. Many businesses were very opposed to VAT introduction because of the extra paperwork required; however, the Government has remained firm on the VAT. By replacing several taxes with one flat tax rate, it will also be easier for government auditors to spot embezzlement . This was prevalent under the former PPP/C regime who authorised the VAT to be equal to 50% of the value of the good. While the adjustment to VAT has been difficult, it may improve day-to-day life because of the significant additional funds the government will have available for public spending.

President Bharrat Jagdeo
Bharrat Jagdeo
had made debt relief a foremost priority of his administration. He was quite successful, getting US$800 million of debt written off by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
(IDB), in addition to millions more from other industrial nations. Jagdeo was lauded by IDB President Moreno for his strong leadership and negotiating skills in pursuing debt relief for Guyana
Guyana
and several other regional countries.

SUMMARY

Thatched roof
Thatched roof
houses in Guyana
Guyana

GDP/PPP (2007 estimate) US$3.082 billion (US$4,029 per capita) Real growth rate 3.6% Inflation 12.3% Unemployment 11.0% (2007) Arable land 2% Labour force 418,000 (2001 estimate) Agricultural produce sugar, rice, vegetable oils, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products, fish, shrimp Industrial production bauxite , sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining

Natural resources bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish Exports US$621.6 million (2006 estimate) sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses , rum, timber, citrus fruits. Imports US$706.9 million (2006 estimate) manufactured items, machinery, petroleum, food. Major trading partners Canada, US, UK, Portugal, Jamaica, Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago, China, Cuba, Singapore, Japan, Brazil, Suriname
Suriname
(2009)

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL RELATIONS

THE ORGANISATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS)

The Charter of the OAS was signed in Bogota in 1948 and was amended by several Protocols which were named after the city and the year in which the Protocol was signed, such as Managua in 1993 forming part of the name of the Protocol.

Guyana
Guyana
is listed as entering into the Inter – American system in 1991.

Summits Of The Americas

The last Summits of the Americas, the seventh, was held in Panama City, Panama
Panama
in 2015 with the eight summit being held in Lima, Peru
Peru
in 2018 according to the website of the Summits of Americas.

Indigenous Leaders Summits Of Americas
Americas
(ILSA)

With Guyana
Guyana
having many groups of indigenous persons and given the geographical location of the country, recent developments in the oil and gas sector internationally and offshore, (such as Eliza I and II) the contributions of the Guyanese to the OAS with respect to this area, that is indigenous people may be significant going forward.

The position of the OAS with respect to indigenous persons appears to be developing over the years. The following statements appear to capture the position of the OAS with respect to the ILSA :"The "OAS has supported and participated in the organisation of Indigenous Leaders Summits of Americas
Americas
(ILSA)" according to the OAS's website. The most recent "statement made by the Heads of State of the hemisphere was in the Declaration of Commitments of Port of Spain in 2009 – Paragraph 86" according to the OAS's website."

The Draft American Declaration of the Rights of the Indigenous Persons appears to be a working document. The last "Meeting for Negotiations in the Quest for Consensus on this area appeared to be Meeting Number (18) eighteen and is listed as being held in May 2015 according to the website.

AGREEMENTS WHICH IMPACT ON FINANCIAL RELATIONSHIPS

The Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty 1994

At a CARICOM Meeting, representatives of Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago and Guyana, Kenneth Valley and Asgar Ally respectively signed The Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty 1994 on 19 August 1994.

Earlier in the year, on 6 July 1994, representatives of eight (8) CARICOM countries signed similar agreements at Sherbourne Conference Centre, St. Michael, Barbados. The other countries whose representatives signed the treaties in Barbados
Barbados
prior to Guyana's signing of a similar treaty were: Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago.

This treaty covered taxes, residence, tax jurisdictions, capital gains, business profits, interest, dividends, royalties and other areas."

FATCA

On 30 June 2014, Guyana
Guyana
signed a Model 1 agreement with the United States of America in relation to Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA). This Model 1 agreement includes a reference to the Tax Information Exchange Agreement (Clause 3) which was signed on 22 July 1992 in Georgetown, Guyana which was intended to exchange Tax information on an automatic basis.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main articles: Demographics of Guyana and Guyanese people
Guyanese people
Guyana's population density in 2005 (people per km2) A graph showing the population of Guyana
Guyana
from 1961 to 2003. The population decline in the 1980s can be clearly seen.

The chief majority (about 90%) of Guyana's 0.74 million population lives along a narrow coastal strip in which ranges from a width of 16 to 64 kilometres (10 to 40 mi) inland and which makes up approximately only 10% of the nation's total land area.

The present population of Guyana
Guyana
is racially and ethnically heterogeneous, with ethnic groups originating from India
India
, Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
, and China
China
, as well as indigenous or aboriginal peoples. Despite their diverse ethnic backgrounds, these groups share two common languages: English and Creole.

The largest ethnic group is the Indo-Guyanese (also known as East Indians ), the descendants of indentured servants from India, who make up 43.5% of the population, according to the 2002 census. They are followed by the Afro-Guyanese , the descendants of slaves from Africa, who constitute 30.2%. Guyanese of mixed heritage make up 16.7%, while the indigenous peoples (known locally as Amerindians ) make up 9.1%. The indigenous groups include the Arawaks, the Wai Wai , the Caribs, the Akawaio , the Arecuna , the Patamona , the Wapixana , the Macushi and the Warao . The two largest groups, the Indo-Guyanese and Afro-Guyanese, have experienced some racial tension.

The majority of Indo-Guyanese are descended from indentured servants who came from Bhojpuri -speaking areas of North India
India
. A sizable minority are South Indian , largely of Tamil and Telugu descent.

The distribution pattern in the 2002 census was similar to those of the 1980 and 1991 censuses, but the share of the two main groups has declined. Indo-Guyanese made up 51.9% of the total population in 1980, but by 1991 this had fallen to 48.6%, and then to 43.5% in the 2002 census. Those of African descent increased slightly from 30.8% to 32.3% during the first period (1980 and 1991) before falling to 30.2% in the 2002 census. With small growth in the overall population, the decline in the shares of the two larger groups has resulted in the relative increase of shares of the multiracial and Amerindian groups. The Amerindian population rose by 22,097 people between 1991 and 2002. This represents an increase of 47.3% or annual growth of 3.5%. Similarly, the multiracial population increased by 37,788 persons, representing a 43.0% increase or annual growth rate of 3.2% from the base period of 1991 census. The number of Portuguese (4.3% of the population in 1891) has been declining constantly over the decades.

LARGEST CITIES

Largest cities and towns of Guyana
Guyana
RANK NAME REGION POPULATION

1 Georgetown Demerara-Mahaica 235,017

2 Linden Upper Demerara- Berbice 44,690

3 New Amsterdam East Berbice-Corentyne 35,039

4 Anna Regina
Anna Regina
Pomeroon-Supenaam 12,448

5 Bartica Cuyuni-Mazaruni 11,157

6 Skeldon East Berbice-Corentyne 5,859

7 Rosignol Mahaica- Berbice 5,782

8 Mahaica (village) Demerara-Mahaica 4,867

9 Parika
Parika
Essequibo Islands-West Demerara 4,081

10 Vreed en Hoop Demerara-Mahaica 3,073

LANGUAGE

Main article: Languages of Guyana

English is the official language of Guyana
Guyana
and is used for education, government, media, and services. The vast majority of the population speaks Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole with slight African and East Indian influence, as their native tongue. In addition, Cariban languages (Akawaio , Wai-Wai, and Macushi) are spoken by a small minority, while Indic languages are retained for cultural and religious reasons.

RELIGION

RELIGION IN GUYANA, 2002

RELIGION

PERCENT

Christianity   57.4%

Hinduism   28.4%

Islam   7.2%

Other religions   1.9%

Unaffiliated   2.3%

Main article: Religion in Guyana
Religion in Guyana

According to a 2002 nationwide census on religious affiliation, 57.4% of the population was Christian
Christian
, 28.4% was Hindu , 7.2% was Muslim , 1.9% adhered to other religions, while 2.3% of the population did not profess any.

Among Christians, most are Protestants (34.8%) or other Christian (20.8%), but there is also a minority of Roman Catholics (7.1%). Among Hindu, Vaishnavism is the major tradition. Among Muslims, Sunni are in the majority, while there are also Shia and Ahmadiyya minorities. Among other religions, the Rastafari movement, Buddhism, and the Baha'i Faith are the most popular.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Guyana

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The State House, Guyana's presidential residence The Supreme Court of Guyana
Guyana
Guyana's parliament building since 1834

The politics of Guyana
Guyana
takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic , whereby the President of Guyana is both head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party system . Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the President and the National Assembly of Guyana .

Historically, politics are a source of tension in the country, and violent riots have often broken out during elections. During the 1970s and 1980s, the political landscape was dominated by the People's National Congress.

In 1992, the first "free and fair" elections were overseen by former United States
United States
President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
, and the People's Progressive Party has led the country since. The two parties are principally organised along ethnic lines and as a result often clash on issues related to the allocation of resources.

General Elections were held on 28 November 2011, which resulted in a re-election of the People's Progressive Party (PPP) and installation of that party's presidential candidate Donald Ramotar as President.

On 11 May 2015, early general elections were held, resulting in a victory for A Partnership For National Unity-Alliance For Change (APNU-AFC) Coalition party. APNU-AFC, a multi-ethnic, multi-party coalition, won a majority, 33 of 65 seats in the National Assembly. On 16 May 2015, retired army general David A. Granger was sworn in as the eighth Executive President of the Co-operative Republic
Republic
of Guyana.

PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

Public procurement in Guyana
Guyana
is overseen by the Public Procurement Commission, appointed under the Public Procurement Commission Act 2003. Due to lengthy delay in identifying and agreeing commission members, the commission was not appointed until 2016.

MILITARY

Main article: Guyana Defence Force

The Guyana Defence Force (GDF) is the military service of Guyana.

HUMAN RIGHTS

See also: LGBT rights in Guyana
LGBT rights in Guyana

Homosexual acts are illegal in Guyana.

INFRASTRUCTURE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Guyana Cross-border bridge from Guyana
Guyana
to Brazil
Brazil
near Lethem

There are a total of 187 kilometres (116 mi) of railway, all dedicated to ore transport. There are 7,969 kilometres (4,952 mi) of highway, of which 591 kilometres (367 mi) are paved. Navigable waterways extend 1,077 kilometres (669 mi), including the Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers. There are ports at Georgetown, Port Kaituma, and New Amsterdam . There are two international airports ( Cheddi Jagan International Airport , Timehri and Eugene F. Correira International Airport , Ogle); along with about 90 airstrips, nine of which have paved runways. Guyana, Suriname
Suriname
and the Falkland Islands are the only three regions in South America
South America
which drive on the left .

ELECTRICITY

Main article: Electricity sector in Guyana

The electricity sector in Guyana
Guyana
is dominated by Guyana
Guyana
Power and Light (GPL), the state-owned vertically integrated utility. Although the country has a large potential for hydroelectric and bagasse -fueled power generation, most of its 226 MW of installed capacity correspond to inefficient thermoelectric diesel-engine driven generators.

Several initiatives are in place to improve energy access in the hinterland .

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Guyana

Key issues in the water and sanitation sector in Guyana
Guyana
are poor service quality, a low level of cost recovery and low levels of access. A high-profile management contract with the British company Severn Trent was cancelled by the government in February 2007. In 2008 the public utility Guyana
Guyana
Water Inc implemented a Turnaround Plan (TAP) to reduce non-revenue water and to financially consolidate the utility. NRW reduction is expected to be 5% per annum for the three-year period of the plan, A midterm review is now due to examine the success of the TAP.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

To meet's quality standards , this section MAY REQUIRE REWRITING OR REFORMATTING. The current version of this section was imported from the CIA World Factbook . Please discuss this issue on the talk page . Editing help is available.

Per the CIA World Factbook:

Telephone System

* Telephones : 154,200 main telephone lines (2012) * Telephones – mobile cellular: 600,000+ (2014) * Domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 70 per 100 persons in 2011 * International: country code – 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Guyana
Guyana
Telephone & Telegraph (GT 14 private stations which relay US satellite services) (1997)

Of which are; L.R.T.V.S-Little Rock Television Station channel 10 (New Amsterdam, Berbice) H.G.P-Halagala General Productions television (Beterverwagting Village, Demerara) RCA Television charity, Essequibo coast

Satellite Television

* Satellite television services are offered by DirecTV Caribbean
Caribbean
and E-Networks.

Internet System

* Internet country code: .gy * Internet hosts: 6,218 (2008) * Internet users: 270,200 (2014)

HEALTH

Main article: Health in Guyana

Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 67.39 years for both males and females in 2012. The PAHO/ WHO
WHO
Global Health Report 2014 (using statistics of 2012) ranked the country as having the highest suicide rate in the world, with a mortality rate of 44.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. According to 2011 estimates from the WHO
WHO
, HIV prevalence is 1.2% of the teen/adult population (ages 15–49). Although Guyana's health profile falls short in comparison with many of its Caribbean
Caribbean
neighbours, there has been remarkable progress since 1988, and the Ministry of Health is working to upgrade conditions, procedures, and facilities.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Guyana
Education in Guyana
_

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Guyana's educational system is considered to be among the best in the Caribbean, but it deteriorated significantly in the 1980s, because of inadequate funding and emigration of many highly educated citizens. Although the education system recovered in the 1990s, it still does not produce the quality of educated students necessary for Guyana
Guyana
to modernise its workforce. The country lacks a critical mass of expertise in many of the disciplines and activities on which it depends.

The educational system does not sufficiently focus on the training of Guyanese in science and technology, technical and vocational subjects, business management , or computer sciences . The Guyanese education system is modelled on the former British education system. Students are expected to take the NGSA (National Grade Six Assessment) for entrance into high school in grade 7. They take the CXC at the end of high school. Schools have introduced the CAPE exams which all other Caribbean
Caribbean
countries have introduced. The A-level system, inherited from the British era, has all but disappeared and is offered only in a few schools.

Further adding to the problems of the educational system, many of the better-educated professional teachers have emigrated to other countries over the past two decades, mainly because of low pay, lack of opportunities and crime.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Guyana
Culture of Guyana
See also: Literature of Guyana and Music of Guyana

_ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (February 2013)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

Holidays 1 January New Year's Day

Spring Youman Nabi

23 February Republic
Republic
Day / Mashramani
Mashramani

March Phagwah
Phagwah

March / April Good Friday

March / April Easter Sunday
Easter Sunday

5 May Indian Arrival Day

26 May Independence
Independence
Day

First Monday in July CARICOM Day
CARICOM Day

1 August Emancipation Day

October / November Diwali
Diwali

25 December Christmas

26 or 27 December Boxing Day

Guyana's culture is very similar to that of the English-speaking Caribbean, and has historically been tied to the English-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
as part of the British Empire
British Empire
when it became a possession in the nineteenth century. Guyana
Guyana
is a founding member of the Caricom ( Caribbean
Caribbean
Community) economic bloc and also the home of the Bloc's Headquarters, the CARICOM Secretariat.

Guyana's geographical location, its sparsely populated rain-forest regions, and its substantial Amerindian population differentiate it from English-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
countries. Its blend of Indo-Guyanese (East Indian) and Afro-Guyanese (African) cultures gives it similarities to Trinidad
Trinidad
and distinguishes it from other parts of the Americas. Guyana
Guyana
shares similar interests with the islands in the West Indies, such as food, festive events, music, sports, etc.

Guyana
Guyana
plays international cricket as a part of the West Indies cricket team , and the Guyana
Guyana
team plays first-class cricket against other nations of the Caribbean. In March and April 2007 Guyana co-hosted the Cricket
Cricket
World Cup 2007 . In addition to its CARICOM membership, Guyana
Guyana
is a member of CONCACAF
CONCACAF
, the international football federation for North and Central America and the Caribbean.

Events include Mashramani
Mashramani
(Mash), Phagwah
Phagwah
( Holi
Holi
), and Deepavali ( Diwali
Diwali
).

WILDLIFE

Among the birds found on Guyana
Guyana
is Cock of the rock (_Rupicola rupicola_).

SPORTS

See also: Cricket
Cricket
in the West Indies
West Indies
Providence Stadium as seen from the East Bank Highway

The major sports in Guyana
Guyana
are cricket ( Guyana
Guyana
is part of the West Indies as defined for international cricket purposes ), basketball , football and volleyball. Minor sports include softball cricket (beach cricket) , field hockey, netball , rounders , lawn tennis , table tennis, boxing , squash , rugby , horse racing and a few others.

Guyana
Guyana
played host to international cricket matches as part of the 2007 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup (CWC 2007). The new 15,000-seat Providence Stadium, also referred to as Guyana
Guyana
National Stadium, was built in time for the World Cup and was ready for the beginning of play on 28 March. At the first international game of CWC 2007 at the stadium, Lasith Malinga of the Sri Lankan team took four wickets in four consecutive deliveries.

For international football purposes, Guyana
Guyana
is part of CONCACAF. The highest league in their club system is the GFF National Super League
GFF National Super League
.

Guyana
Guyana
also has five courses for horse racing.

SEE ALSO

* Guyana
Guyana
portal * Caribbean
Caribbean
Community portal * Latin America portal

* Index of Guyana-related articles * LGBT rights in Guyana
LGBT rights in Guyana
* List of international rankings * Outline of Guyana
Outline of Guyana

REFERENCES

* ^ "CHAPTER II: POPULATION COMPOSITION" (PDF). _StatisticsGuyana_. Government of Guyana . * ^ http://www.statisticsguyana.gov.gy/pubs/Chapter2_Population_Composition.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "The World Factbook: Guyana". CIA. Retrieved 6 January 2014. * ^ Guyana
Guyana
2012 Census Archived 6 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine . GeoHive– Guyana. Retrieved 2 August 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Guyana". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2013. * ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015. * ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. * ^ Wells, John C. (1990). _Longman pronunciation dictionary_. Harlow, England: Longman. ISBN 0-582-05383-8 . entry "Guyana" * ^ " Guyana
Guyana
– Dictionary definition and pronunciation – Yahoo! Education". Education.yahoo.com. Retrieved 30 March 2014. * ^ "Independent States in the World". state.gov. * ^ "Guyana". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 9 May 2015. * ^ "Ministry of Amerindian Affairs – Georgetown, Guyana". Amerindian.gov.gy. Retrieved 30 March 2014. * ^ " South America
South America
1744–1817 by Sanderson Beck". * ^ US Declassified Documents (1964–1968). guyana.org Archived 12 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Rowe, Mark (14 November 2004). "South America: Do the continental: The best of what's new; spectacular waterfalls, forgotten cities, pre-Inca trails". _The Independent_. p. Features, page 3. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Bureau of Statistics – Guyana
Guyana
Archived 2 September 2012 at WebCite , CHAPTER III: POPULATION REDISTRIBUTION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION, Table 3.4: Population Density, Guyana: 1980–2002 * ^ Guyana
Guyana
– Government Information Agency, National Profile. gina.gov .gy Archived 14 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Government of Guyana, Statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 2 May 2010.

* ^ " Guyana
Guyana
ponders judicial action in border dispute with Venezuela". _FoxNews Latino_. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2015. * ^ "Tribunal decision tentatively set for August". Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 2007-07-09. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ). guyanachronicle.com, Archives for 17 June 2007 * ^ " Guyana
Guyana
to experience ‘massive\' oil exploration this year". Landofsixpeoples.com. 5 February 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ "News in the Caribbean". Caribbean360.com. 27 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

* ^ Foreign affairs minister reiterates Guyana\'s territorial sovereignty. CaribbeanNetNews.com (17 February 2010). * ^ POINT OF CLARIFICATION: Guyana
Guyana
clears air on Suriname
Suriname
border talk. Caribbean
Caribbean
News Agency (17 February 2010). * ^ "official site of the Permanent Court of Arbitration". Pca-cpa.org. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ Ishmael, Odeen (1998, rev. 2006) "The Trail Of Diplomacy: A Documentary History of the Guyana- Venezuela
Venezuela
Border Issue" Dr. Ishmael was Ambassador of Guyana
Guyana
to Venezuela
Venezuela
when this was written. * ^ "Mapa Politico de Venezuela". A-venezuela.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ Ramjeet, Oscar (28 October 2008). " Guyana
Guyana
and Suriname
Suriname
border dispute continues despite UN findings". _ Caribbean
Caribbean
Net News_. Retrieved 15 December 2008. * ^ Rodrigues-Birkett, Carolyn (24 October 2008). "There is no agreement recognizing Suriname\'s sovereignty over the Corentyne River". _Stabroek Newspaper_. Retrieved 15 December 2008. * ^ " Biodiversity
Biodiversity
in the Konashen Community-Owned Conservation Area, Guyana" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ RedSpider, Romona Khan. "Private Sector Commission". Psc.org.gy. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ "Georgetown Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI)". Georgetownchamberofcommerce.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ OEA; OAS (1 August 2009). "OAS – Organization of American States: Democracy for peace, security, and development". _www.oas.org_. * ^ OAS (1 August 2009). "OAS – Organization of American States: Democracy for peace, security, and development". _www.oas.org_. * ^ Summit Americas
Americas
Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ OAS (1 August 2009). "OAS – Organization of American States: Democracy for peace, security, and development". _www.oas.org_. * ^ "Indigenous Peoples". _www.summit-americas.org_. * ^ "Events OAS Indigenous Special
Special
Events". _oas.org_. * ^ "IRD Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago – CARICOM Treaties" (PDF). _ird.gov.tt_. * ^ "IRD Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago CARICOM treaties." (PDF). _ird.gov.tt_. * ^ "IRD Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago CARICOM" (PDF). _ird.gov.tt_. * ^ "Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)". _www.treasury.gov_. * ^ " Guyana
Guyana
General Information". Geographia.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ " Guyana
Guyana
turns attention to racism". BBC
BBC
News. 20 September 2005. * ^ "Conflict between Guyanese-Indians and Blacks in Trinidad
Trinidad
and Guyana
Guyana
Socially, Economically and Politically". Gabrielle Hookumchand, Professor Moses Seenarine. 18 May 2000. * ^ International Business Times: "Guyana: A Study in Polarized Racial Politics" Archived 15 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine . 12 December 2011 * ^ Helen Myers (1999). _Music of Hindu Trinidad_. ISBN 978-0-226-55453-2 . * ^ _Indian Diaspora_ (PDF). * ^ "Portuguese emigration from Madeira to British Guiana" * ^ "Biggest Cities Guyana". * ^ Damoiseau, Robert (2003) _Eléments de grammaire comparée français-créole guyanais_ Ibis rouge, Guyana, ISBN 2-84450-192-3 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Final 2002 Census Compendium 2" (PDF). _gov.gy_. * ^ After 14 years, Guyana
Guyana
establishes procurement commission, "Supply Management", 12 August 2016, accessed 1 October 2016 * ^ "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds". _The Independent_. 17 May 2016. * ^ Guyana
Guyana
Telephone & Telegraph Chooses Comverse for Business Transformation. MarketWatch.com (5 July 2011) * ^ " Guyana
Guyana
Telephone & Telegraph Taps Comverse". Billingworld.com. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2012. * ^ " Guyana
Guyana
Telephone & Telegraph Chooses Comverse for Business Transformation". Iewy.com. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2012. * ^ "Little Rock Radio – 88.5 Rock FM – New Amsterdam (Guyana) – Artiest". Facebook. Retrieved 30 March 2014. * ^ "About NTN". NTN Radio. Retrieved 30 March 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Radio Guyana
Guyana
Inc. More Music, More Memories". Radioguyanafm89.com. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014. * ^ "HJ Radio 94#1 Boom FM". Hits & Jams Entertainment. Retrieved 30 March 2014. * ^ "World Factbook: Guyana". CIA. Retrieved 24 January 2016. * ^ Life Expectancy ranks. CIA World Factbook * ^ WHO
WHO
Report 2014 Preventing suicide: A global imperative. * ^ "Desperate measures". 13 September 2014 – via The Economist. * ^ WHO
WHO
Health-Related Millennium Development Goals Report 2011. Part1 * ^ Attenborough, S. 1998 BBC. _The Life of Birds._ p.211. ISBN 0563-38792-0 * ^ "Composition and countries". _W.I Cricket
Cricket
team_. West Indies Cricket
Cricket
Board. Retrieved 27 November 2013. * ^ "SPORTS, LITERATURE". Guyana
Guyana
News and Information. Retrieved 30 November 2015. * ^ "Providence stadium – Records and statistics". _ Cricket
Cricket
World 4U_. Retrieved 27 November 2013. * ^ Service, K News (11 July 2013). " Guyana
Guyana
Horse Racing Authority continues its drive to regularize the sport". _Kaiteur News_. Retrieved 27 November 2013.

FURTHER READING

* Brock, Stanley E. (1999). _All the Cowboys Were Indians_ (Commemorative, illustrated (reprint of _Jungle Cowboy_) ed.). Lenoir City, TN: Synergy South, Inc. ISBN 978-1-892329-00-4 . OCLC
OCLC
51089880 . Retrieved 7 January 2010. * Brock, Stanley E. (1972). _Jungle Cowboy_ (illustrated ed.). London: Robert Hale Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7091-2972-1 . OCLC
OCLC
650259 . Retrieved 7 January 2010. * Donald Haack, _Bush Pilot in Diamond Country_ * Hamish MacInnes , _Climb to the Lost World_ (1974) * Andrew Salkey, _Georgetown Journal_ (1970) * Marion Morrison, _Guyana_ (Enchantment of the World Series) * Bob Temple, _Guyana_ * Noel C. Bacchus, _ Guyana
Guyana
Farewell: A Recollection of Childhood in a Faraway Place_ * Marcus Colchester, _Guyana: Fragile Frontier_ * Matthew French Young, _Guyana: My Fifty Years in the Guyanese Wilds_ * Margaret Bacon, _Journey to Guyana_ * Father Andrew Morrison SJ, _Justice: The Struggle For Democracy in Guyana
Guyana
1952–1992_ * Daly, Vere T. (1974). _The Making of Guyana_. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-14482-4 . OCLC
OCLC
1257829 . Retrieved 7 January 2010. * D. Graham Burnett , _Masters of All They Surveyed: Exploration, Geography and a British El Dorado_ * Ovid Abrams, _Metegee: The History and Culture of Guyana_ * Waugh, Evelyn (1934). _Ninety-two days: The account of a tropical journey through British Guiana
British Guiana
and part of Brazil_. New York: Farrar & Rinehart. OCLC
OCLC
3000330 . Retrieved 7 January 2010. * Gerald Durrell, _Three Singles To Adventure_ * Cheddi Jagan. _The West on Trial: My Fight for Guyana's Freedom_ * Cheddi Jagan. _My Fight For Guyana's Freedom: With Reflections on My Father by Nadira Jagan-Brancier_. * Colin Henfrey, _Through Indian Eyes: A Journey Among the Indian Tribes of Guiana_. * Stephen G. Rabe, _US Intervention in British Guiana: A Cold War Story_. * Charles Waterton, _Wanderings in South America_. * David Attenborough, _Zoo Quest to Guiana_ (Lutterworth Press, London: 1956). * John Gimlette, _Wild Coast: Travels on South America's Untamed Edge_, 2011. * Clementi, Cecil (1915). _The Chinese in British Guiana_ (PDF). Georgetown, British Guiana: The Argosy Company Limited. Retrieved 27 October 2015.

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