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GUWAHATI (/ɡʊwəˈhɑːti/ ( listen ) Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam , Gauhati in the modern era) is the largest city of Assam and Northeastern India , a major riverine port city and one of the fastest growing cities in India , situated on the South Bank of the Brahmaputra River .

The ancient cities of Pragjyotishpura and Durjaya ( North Guwahati ) were the capitals of the ancient state of Kamarupa under the Varman and Pala dynasties. Many ancient Hindu temples are in the city, giving it the name "City of Temples". Dispur , the capital of Assam, is in the circuit city region located within Guwahati and is the seat of the Government of Assam .

Guwahati lies between the banks of the Brahmaputra River and the foothills of the Shillong plateau, with LGB International Airport to the west and the town of Narengi to the east. It is gradually being expanded as North Guwahati to the northern bank of the Brahmaputra. The noted Madan Kamdev is situated 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Guwahati. The Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC), the city's local government, administers an area of 216 square kilometres (83 sq mi), while the Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA) is the planning and development body of greater Guwahati Metropolitan Area. Guwahati is the largest city in Northeast India .

The Guwahati region hosts diverse wildlife including rare animals such as Asian elephants, pythons, tigers, rhinoceros, gaurs , primate species, and endangered birds.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Ancient History * 1.2 Medieval History

* 2 Urban morphology

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Administration & Governance * 5 Police * 6 Judiciary * 7 Infrastructure

* 8 Demographics

* 8.1 Population

* 9 Economy

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Air * 10.2 Rail * 10.3 Road * 10.4 Water

* 11 Education * 12 Sports * 13 Media "> A view of Kamakhya Temple

The Ambari excavations trace the city to the Hindu kingdoms of Shunga -Kushana period of Indian history , between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD. During earlier periods of the city's history it was known as Pragjyotishpura , and was the capital of Assam under the Varman Dynasty of the Kamarupa kingdom. Descriptions by Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsang) reveal that during the reign of the Varman king Bhaskar Varman (7th century AD), the city stretched for about 30 li (15 km or 9.3 mi). It remained as the capital of Assam until the 10th-11th century AD under the rule of the Pala dynasty. Archaeological evidence by excavations in Ambari, and excavated brick walls and houses discovered during construction of the present Cotton College 's auditorium suggest the city was of economic and strategic importance until the 9th-11th century AD.

MEDIEVAL HISTORY

35-feet-high statue of Ahom general Lachit Borphukan and his army in the middle of the Brahmaputra

The city was the seat of the Borphukan , the civil military authority of the Lower Assam region appointed by the Ahom kings. The Borphukan's residence was in the present Fancy Bazar area, and his council-hall, called Dopdar, was about 300 yards (270 m) to the west of the Bharalu stream. The Majindar Baruah, the personal secretary of the Borphukan, had his residence in the present-day deputy commissioner's residence.

The Mughals invaded Assam seventeen times, and they were defeated by the Ahoms in Battle of Itakhuli and Battle of Saraighat . During the Battle of Saraighat, fought in Saraighat in 1671, the Mughals were overrun due to the strong leadership and hard work of Lachit Borphukan . The great embankment called ‘Mumai-Kota Gorh’, named after an incident in which Lachit had to slay (Kota) his own maternal uncle (Mumai) for being lazy in building the embankment (Gorh) that runs along the outskirts of the city, stands as a proof of the hard work and war-readiness on the part of the Ahoms. There was an ancient boat yard in Dighalipukhuri , probably used by the Ahoms in medieval times. Medieval constructions include temples, ramparts, etc. in the city.

URBAN MORPHOLOGY

Guwahati's urban morphology

Guwahati's 'urban form' radiates from a central core with growth corridors radiating and extending towards the south, east and west. In the past few decades, southern Guwahati areas such as Ganeshguri, Beltola, Hatigaon, Six Mile and Panjabari began forming a southern sub-center surrounding the capital complex at Dispur. The core area consists of the old city with Pan Bazaar , Paltan Bazaar , Fancy Bazaar and Uzan Bazaar , with each area facilitating unique urban activities. The smallest inhabited riverine island in the world, Peacock Island, on the Brahmaputra river Guwahati at dusk

Among the city corridors, the most important is the corridor formed along the Guwahati- Shillong (GS) Road towards the south (almost 15 km from the city-center). The GS Road corridor is an important commercial area with retail, wholesale and commercial offices developed along the main road; it is also a densely built residential area in the inner parts. The capital complex of Assam at Dispur is situated in this corridor. This corridor has facilitated the growth of a southern city sub-center at Ganeshguri, along with other residential areas to the south developed during the past few decades.

The corridor extending towards the west (around 30 km from the city-center) contains a rail-road linking not only Guwahati but also other parts of the northeastern region east of Guwahati to western Assam and the rest of India. The corridor links residential and historically important areas such as Nilachal Hill (Kamakhya), Pandu, and Maligaon (headquarters of Northeast Frontier Railways) before it separates into two – one towards North Guwahati via the Saraighat Bridge and the other continuing west towards LGB International Airport via Gauhati University (Jalukbari). There are also many river ports/jetties along this corridor.

The third major corridor extends towards the east (around 15 km from the city-center) linking Noonmati ( Guwahati Refinery ) and Narengi, and has facilitated residential growth along it. Highway NH-37, which encircles the city's southern parts and links the southern corridor in Noumile to the western corridor in Jalukbari is currently supporting rapid development. Similarly, the VIP Road linking Zoo Road with the eastern corridor and recently completed Hengerabari- Narengi Road are also supporting massive residential development to the east.

Guwahati is one among 98 Indian cities which will be upgraded to Smart Cities under a project embarked on by Ministry of Urban Development , Government of India. With the grade of a Smart city, Guwahati will have highly up-to-date and radical provisions like regular and continuous electric supply, first-rate traffic and transport system, superior health care and many other prime utilities. Under this scheme, the city will use digital technology that will act as the integral mechanism of the aforesaid facilities and thereby further elevate the lifestyle of the citizens of Guwahati.

GEOGRAPHY

City view from Sarania Hill

To the south-west of the city lies Dipor Bil , a permanent freshwater lake with no prominent inflows apart from monsoon run-off from the hills that lie to the south of the lake. The lake drains into the Brahmaputra, 5 km (3.1 mi) to the north, and acts as a natural stormwater reservoir for the city.

CLIMATE

Guwahati has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa), falling just short of a tropical savanna climate (Köppen

climate classification Aw). The average annual temperature is 24.2 °C with extremes ranging from 40.6 °C recorded on 24 April 2014 to 3.0 °C recorded in January 1964.

CLIMATE DATA FOR GUWAHATI (LOKPRIYA GOPINATH BORDOLOI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ) 1971–1990

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 28.6 (83.5) 33.7 (92.7) 37.6 (99.7) 38.9 (102) 40.3 (104.5) 38.5 (101.3) 37.5 (99.5) 38.0 (100.4) 36.8 (98.2) 36.0 (96.8) 31.0 (87.8) 30.1 (86.2) 40.6 (105.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 21.6 (70.9) 23.0 (73.4) 29.6 (85.3) 29.7 (85.5) 30.0 (86) 31.9 (89.4) 31.7 (89.1) 32.1 (89.8) 31.4 (88.5) 30.2 (86.4) 26.5 (79.7) 23.4 (74.1) 27.8 (82)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 14.1 (57.4) 18.0 (64.4) 21.9 (71.4) 25.3 (77.5) 26.7 (80.1) 28.4 (83.1) 28.5 (83.3) 28.8 (83.8) 27.9 (82.2) 25.0 (77) 20.2 (68.4) 16.1 (61) 22.5 (72.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 10.9 (51.6) 15.7 (60.3) 19.9 (67.8) 22.4 (72.3) 24.8 (76.6) 25.3 (77.5) 25.4 (77.7) 24.4 (75.9) 19.9 (67.8) 14.8 (58.6) 9.8 (49.6) 15.2 (59.4)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 2.0 (35.6) 8.5 (47.3) 10.3 (50.5) 14.4 (57.9) 18.6 (65.5) 18.9 (66) 20.3 (68.5) 19.9 (67.8) 9.8 (49.6) 4.0 (39.2) 3.8 (38.8) 1.5 (34.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 12 (0.47) 21 (0.83) 62 (2.44) 181 (7.13) 270 (10.63) 360 (14.17) 325 (12.8) 298 (11.73) 234 (9.21) 155 (6.1) 25 (0.98) 10 (0.39) 2,054 (80.87)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 1.4 2.8 5.2 12.5 15.1 16.6 20.0 15.4 13.3 5.9 2.2 0.9 111.3

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 79 65 57 68 75 81 83 82 83 82 82 82 77

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 225.5 213.8 220.1 200.6 191.1 133.1 123.7 161.6 139.0 205.8 230.9 231.7 2,276.9

Source #1: NOAA

Source #2: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)

ADMINISTRATION & GOVERNANCE

Dispur, the capital of Assam, lies in Guwahati. The passing of North Eastern (Reorganization Areas) Act in 1971 by the Indian Parliament accorded Meghalaya the status of a full-fledged state. After the creation of Meghalaya as a separate state, Shillong continued to be the joint capital of both Assam and Meghalaya. However, in 1972, the Government of Assam decided to shift the capital to Dispur. Accordingly, the first sitting of the Budget Session of the Assam Legislative Assembly was held at Dispur on 16 March 1973. Dispur houses the Secretariat of Assam Government, the Assam Assembly House, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) Regional Office, the North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd (NEDFi) House and the Guwahati Tea Auction Centre (GTAC).

Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) is the local body responsible for governing, developing and managing the city. GMC is further divided into 31 municipal wards. Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA) is an agency responsible for planning and development of the greater Guwahati Metropolitan Area and for revising the Guwahati Master Plan and Building Bylaws to cover an area of 3,214 square kilometres (1,241 sq mi) by 2025.

Guwahati consists of four assembly constituencies: Jalukbari, Dispur, Gauhati East and Gauhati West, all of which are part of Gauhati (Lok Sabha constituency) .

POLICE

Guwahati is the headquarters of Assam Police . The city is under the Police Commissionerate of Guwahati headed by the Commissioner of Police, Guwahati. It is divided into three districts: East Police District, Central Police District and West Police District, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. Each police district consists of officers, not below the rank of Assistant Commissioner of Police, functioning as executive magistrates within a said metropolitan area.

JUDICIARY

Guwahati is the principal seat of the Gauhati High Court . It acts as the High Court of Assam and also of Nagaland , Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh with their outlying benches of Kohima , Aizawl and Itanagar respectively. Gauhati High Court came in effect from 5 April 1948. It initially had its sittings at Shillong but was shifted to Gauhati from 14 August 1948.

Guwahati also houses the Court of the District ">

RELIGIONS IN GUWAHATI

Religion

Percent of population

Hinduism   84.74%

Islam   12.45%

Jainism   0.96%

Christianity   0.93%

Others†   0.94%

Distribution of religions †Includes Sikhism (0.36%) and Buddhism (

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