Gustave Courbet (French: [ɡystav kuʁbɛ]; 10 June
1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism
movement in 19th-century French painting. Committed to painting only
what he could see, he rejected academic convention and the Romanticism
of the previous generation of visual artists. His independence set an
example that was important to later artists, such as the
Impressionists and the Cubists. Courbet occupies an important place in
19th-century French painting as an innovator and as an artist willing
to make bold social statements through his work.
Courbet's paintings of the late 1840s and early 1850s brought him his
first recognition. They challenged convention by depicting unidealized
peasants and workers, often on a grand scale traditionally reserved
for paintings of religious or historical subjects. Courbet's
subsequent paintings were mostly of a less overtly political
character: landscapes, seascapes, hunting scenes, nudes and still
lifes. An active socialist, Courbet was active in the political
developments of France. He was imprisoned for six months in 1871 for
his involvement with the
Paris Commune, and lived in exile in
Switzerland from 1873 until his death.
I am fifty years old and I have always lived in freedom; let me end my
life free; when I am dead let this be said of me: 'He belonged to no
school, to no church, to no institution, to no academy, least of all
to any régime except the régime of liberty.' 
2.1 A Burial at Ornans
2.2 The Artist's Studio
2.3 Realist manifesto
4 Courbet and the
5 Exile and death
7 Courbet and Cubism
9 See also
10 Notes and references
11 Further reading
12 External links
L'homme à la pipe (Self-portrait, Man with a pipe), 1848–49, Musée
Self-Portrait (Man with Leather Belt), ca. 1845 - 1877.
Les Demoiselles du bord de la Seine, 1856, Petit Palais, Paris: one of
the most famous of Courbet's paintings. "The uncompromising emphasis
on density and weight"
Gustave Courbet was born in 1819 to Régis and Sylvie Oudot Courbet in
Ornans (department of Doubs). Being a prosperous farming family,
anti-monarchical feelings prevailed in the household. (His maternal
grandfather fought in the French Revolution.) Courbet's sisters, Zoé,
Zélie and Juliette, were his first models for drawing and painting.
After moving to
Paris he often returned home to
Ornans to hunt, fish
and find inspiration.
He went to
Paris in 1839 and worked at the studio of Steuben and
Hesse. An independent spirit, he soon left, preferring to develop his
own style by studying the paintings of Spanish, Flemish and French
masters in the Louvre, and painting copies of their work.
His first works were an
Odalisque inspired by the writing of Victor
Hugo and a Lélia illustrating George Sand, but he soon abandoned
literary influences, choosing instead to base his paintings on
observed reality. Among his paintings of the early 1840s are several
self-portraits, Romantic in conception, in which the artist portrayed
himself in various roles. These include Self-Portrait with Black Dog
(c. 1842–44, accepted for exhibition at the 1844
Paris Salon), the
theatrical Self-Portrait which is also known as Desperate Man (c.
1843–45), Lovers in the Countryside (1844, Musée des Beaux-Arts,
Lyon), The Sculptor (1845), The Wounded Man (1844–54, Musée
d'Orsay, Paris), The Cellist, Self-Portrait (1847, Nationalmuseum,
Stockholm, shown at the 1848 Salon), and Man with a Pipe (1848–49,
Musée Fabre, Montpellier).
Trips to the Netherlands and Belgium in 1846–47 strengthened
Courbet's belief that painters should portray the life around them, as
Rembrandt, Hals and other
Dutch masters had. By 1848, he had gained
supporters among the younger critics, the Neo-romantics and Realists,
Courbet achieved his first Salon success in 1849 with his painting
After Dinner at Ornans. The work, reminiscent of Chardin and Le Nain,
earned Courbet a gold medal and was purchased by the state. The
gold medal meant that his works would no longer require jury approval
for exhibition at the Salon—an exemption Courbet enjoyed until
1857 (when the rule changed).
In 1849-50, Courbet painted Stone-Breakers (destroyed in the Allied
Bombing of Dresden
Bombing of Dresden in 1945), which Proudhon admired as an icon of
peasant life; it has been called "the first of his great works".
The painting was inspired by a scene Courbet witnessed on the
roadside. He later explained to
Champfleury and the writer Francis
Wey: "It is not often that one encounters so complete an expression of
poverty and so, right then and there I got the idea for a painting. I
told them to come to my studio the next morning."
The Wave (La Vague), 1869, oil on canvas, 66 x 90 cm, Musée des
beaux-arts de Lyon
Courbet's work belonged neither to the predominant Romantic nor
Neoclassical schools. History painting, which the
Paris Salon esteemed
as a painter's highest calling, did not interest him, for he believed
that "the artists of one century [are] basically incapable of
reproducing the aspect of a past or future century ..." Instead,
he maintained that the only possible source for living art is the
artist's own experience. He and Jean-Francois Millet would find
inspiration painting the life of peasants and workers.
Courbet painted figurative compositions, landscapes, seascapes, and
still lifes. He courted controversy by addressing social issues in his
work, and by painting subjects that were considered vulgar, such as
the rural bourgeoisie, peasants, and working conditions of the poor.
His work, along with that of
Honoré Daumier and Jean-François
Millet, became known as Realism. For Courbet realism dealt not with
the perfection of line and form, but entailed spontaneous and rough
handling of paint, suggesting direct observation by the artist while
portraying the irregularities in nature. He depicted the harshness in
life, and in so doing challenged contemporary academic ideas of art.
A Burial at Ornans
Main article: A Burial At Ornans
Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849–50, oil on canvas, 314 x
663 cm (123.6 x 261 inches), Musee d'Orsay, Paris. Exhibition at the
Paris Salon created an "explosive reaction" and brought
Courbet instant fame.
The Salon of 1850–1851 found him triumphant with The Stone
Breakers, the Peasants of Flagey and A Burial at Ornans. The Burial,
one of Courbet's most important works, records the funeral of his
grand uncle which he attended in September 1848. People who
attended the funeral were the models for the painting. Previously,
models had been used as actors in historical narratives, but in Burial
Courbet said he "painted the very people who had been present at the
interment, all the townspeople". The result is a realistic
presentation of them, and of life in Ornans.
The vast painting—it measures 10 by 22 feet (3.1 by 6.6
meters)—drew both praise and fierce denunciations from critics and
the public, in part because it upset convention by depicting a prosaic
ritual on a scale which would previously have been reserved for a
religious or royal subject.
According to the art historian Sarah Faunce, "In
Paris the Burial was
judged as a work that had thrust itself into the grand tradition of
history painting, like an upstart in dirty boots crashing a genteel
party, and in terms of that tradition it was of course found
wanting." The painting lacks the sentimental rhetoric that was
expected in a genre work: Courbet's mourners make no theatrical
gestures of grief, and their faces seemed more caricatured than
ennobled. The critics accused Courbet of a deliberate pursuit of
Eventually, the public grew more interested in the new Realist
approach, and the lavish, decadent fantasy of
popularity. The artist well understood the importance of the painting.
Courbet said of it, "The Burial at
Ornans was in reality the burial of
Courbet became a celebrity, and was spoken of as a genius, a "terrible
socialist" and a "savage". He actively encouraged the public's
perception of him as an unschooled peasant, while his ambition, his
bold pronouncements to journalists, and his insistence on depicting
his own life in his art gave him a reputation for unbridled
Courbet associated his ideas of realism in art with political
anarchism, and, having gained an audience, he promoted democratic and
socialist ideas by writing politically motivated essays and
dissertations. His familiar visage was the object of frequent
caricature in the popular French press.
In 1850, he wrote to a friend:
...in our so very civilized society it is necessary for me to live the
life of a savage. I must be free even of governments. The people have
my sympathies, I must address myself to them directly.
During the 1850s, Courbet painted numerous figurative works using
common folk and friends as his subjects, such as Village Damsels
(1852), the Wrestlers (1853), Bathers (1853), The Sleeping Spinner
The Wheat Sifters
The Wheat Sifters (1854).
The Artist's Studio
The Artist's Studio
The Artist's Studio (L'Atelier du peintre): A Real Allegory of a Seven
Year Phase in my Artistic and Moral Life, 1855, 359 × 598 cm (141.33
× 235.43 in), oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
In 1855, Courbet submitted fourteen paintings for exhibition at the
Exposition Universelle. Three were rejected for lack of space,
including A Burial at
Ornans and his other monumental canvas The
Artist's Studio. Refusing to be denied, Courbet took matters into
his own hands. He displayed forty of his paintings, including The
Artist's Studio, in his own gallery called The Pavilion of Realism
(Pavillon du Réalisme) which was a temporary structure that he
erected next door to the official Salon-like Exposition
The work is an allegory of Courbet's life as a painter, seen as an
heroic venture, in which he is flanked by friends and admirers on the
right, and challenges and opposition to the left. Friends on the right
include the art critics Champfleury, and Charles Baudelaire, and art
collector Alfred Bruyas. On the left are figures (priest, prostitute,
grave digger, merchant and others) who represent what Courbet
described in a letter to
Champfleury as "the other world of trivial
life, the people, misery, poverty, wealth, the exploited and the
exploiters, the people who live off death."
In the foreground of the left-hand side is a man with dogs, who was
not mentioned in Courbet's letter to Champfleury. X-rays show he was
painted in later, but his role in the painting is important: he is an
allegory of the then current French Emperor, Napoleon III, identified
by his famous hunting dogs and iconic twirled moustache. By placing
him on the left, Courbet publicly shows his disdain for the emperor
and depicts him as a criminal, suggesting that his "ownership" of
France is an illegal one.
Although artists like
Eugène Delacroix were ardent champions of his
effort, the public went to the show mostly out of curiosity and to
deride him. Attendance and sales were disappointing, but Courbet's
status as a hero to the French avant-garde became assured. He was
admired by the American James McNeill Whistler, and he became an
inspiration to the younger generation of French artists including
Édouard Manet and the
The Artist's Studio
The Artist's Studio was
recognized as a masterpiece by Delacroix, Baudelaire, and Champfleury,
if not by the public.
Courbet wrote a Realist manifesto for the introduction to the
catalogue of this independent, personal exhibition, echoing the tone
of the period's political manifestos. In it he asserts his goal as an
artist "to translate the customs, the ideas, the appearance of my
epoch according to my own estimation."
The title of Realist was thrust upon me just as the title of Romantic
was imposed upon the men of 1830. Titles have never given a true idea
of things: if it were otherwise, the works would be unnecessary.
Without expanding on the greater or lesser accuracy of a name which
nobody, I should hope, can really be expected to understand, I will
limit myself to a few words of elucidation in order to cut short the
I have studied the art of the ancients and the art of the moderns,
avoiding any preconceived system and without prejudice. I no longer
wanted to imitate the one than to copy the other; nor, furthermore,
was it my intention to attain the trivial goal of "art for art's
sake". No! I simply wanted to draw forth, from a complete acquaintance
with tradition, the reasoned and independent consciousness of my own
To know in order to do, that was my idea. To be in a position to
translate the customs, the ideas, the appearance of my time, according
to my own estimation; to be not only a painter, but a man as well; in
short, to create living art – this is my goal. (Gustave Courbet,
Portrait of Jo (La belle Irlandaise), 1865–66, Metropolitan Museum
of Art, a painting of Joanna Hiffernan, the probable model for
L'Origine du monde
L'Origine du monde and for Sleep
In the Salon of 1857 Courbet showed six paintings. These included
Young Ladies on the Banks of the Seine (Summer), depicting two
prostitutes under a tree, as well as the first of many hunting scenes
Courbet was to paint during the remainder of his life: Hind at Bay in
the Snow and The Quarry.
Young Ladies on the Banks of the Seine, painted in 1856, provoked
a scandal. Art critics accustomed to conventional, "timeless" nude
women in landscapes were shocked by Courbet's depiction of modern
women casually displaying their undergarments.
By exhibiting sensational works alongside hunting scenes, of the sort
that had brought popular success to the English painter Edwin
Landseer, Courbet guaranteed himself "both notoriety and sales".
During the 1860s, Courbet painted a series of increasingly erotic
works such as Femme nue couchée.
This culminated in The Origin of the World (L'Origine du monde)
(1866), which depicts female genitalia and was not publicly exhibited
until 1988, and Sleep (1866), featuring two women in bed. The
latter painting became the subject of a police report when it was
exhibited by a picture dealer in 1872.
Nude Woman with a Dog (Femme nue au chien), c. 1861–62, oil on
canvas, 65 x 81 cm Musée d'Orsay, Paris
Until about 1861, Napoléon's regime had exhibited authoritarian
characteristics, using press censorship to prevent the spread of
opposition, manipulating elections, and depriving Parliament the right
to free debate or any real power. In the 1860s, however, Napoléon III
made more concessions to placate his liberal opponents. This change
began by allowing free debates in Parliament and public reports of
parliamentary debates. Press censorship, too, was relaxed and
culminated in the appointment of the Liberal Émile Ollivier,
previously a leader of the opposition to Napoléon's regime, as the de
facto Prime Minister in 1870. As a sign of appeasement to the Liberals
who admired Courbet,
Napoleon III nominated him to the Legion of
Honour in 1870. His refusal of the cross of the Legion of Honour
angered those in power but made him immensely popular with those who
opposed the prevailing regime.
Courbet and the
A satirical sketch of
Gustave Courbet taking down a "Rambuteau column"
(a urinal), caricature published by a popular Commune newspaper, the
Père Duchêne illustré
Commune officials pose with the wreckage of the Vendôme column,
pulled down based on a suggestion of Courbet. After the fall of the
Commune, he was ordered to pay the cost of putting the column back up.
One of a series of still-life paintings Courbet made while in prison
for his role in the Commune (1871). He was allowed an easel and
paints, but he could not have models pose for him.
On 4 September 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, Courbet made a
proposal that later came back to haunt him. He wrote a letter to the
Government of National Defense, proposing that the column in the Place
Vendôme, erected by the Napoleon I to honour the victories of the
French Army, be taken down. He wrote:
In as much as the Vendôme Column is a monument devoid of all artistic
value, tending to perpetuate by its expression the ideas of war and
conquest of the past imperial dynasty, which are reproved by a
republican nation's sentiment, citizen Courbet expresses the wish that
the National Defense government will authorize him to disassemble this
Courbet proposed that the Column be moved to a more appropriate place,
such as the Hotel des Invalides, a military hospital. He also wrote an
open letter addressed to the German Army and to German artists,
proposing that German and French cannons should be melted down and
crowned with a liberty cap, and made into a new monument on Place
Vendôme, dedicated to the federation of the German and French people.
The Government of National Defense did nothing about his suggestion to
tear down the column, but it was not forgotten.
On 18 March, in the aftermath of the French defeat in the
Franco-Prussian War, a revolutionary government called the Paris
Commune briefly took power in the city. Courbet played an active part,
and organized a Federation of Artists, which held its first meeting on
5 April in the Grand Amphitheater of the School of Medicine. Some
three hundred to four hundred painters, sculptors, architects and
decorators attended. There were some famous names on the list of
members, including André Gill, Honoré Daumier, Jean-Baptiste-Camille
Corot, Eugène Pottier, Jules Dalou, and Eduard Manet. Manet was not
Paris during the Commune, and did not attend, and Corot, who was
seventy-five years old, stayed in a country house and in his studio
during the Commune, not taking part in the political events.
Courbet chaired the meeting and proposed that the
Louvre and the
Museum of the Luxembourg Palace, the two major art museums of Paris,
closed during the uprising, be reopened as soon as possible, and that
the traditional annual exhibit called the Salon be held as in years
past, but with radical differences. He proposed that the Salon should
be free of any government interference or rewards to preferred
artists; there would be no medals or government commissions given.
Furthermore, he called for the abolition of the most famous state
institutions of French art; the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the School of
Rome, the School of Athens, and the Fine Arts section of the Institute
On 12 April, the Executive Committee of the Commune gave Courbet,
though he was not yet officially a member of the Commune, the
assignment of opening the museums and organizing the Salon. At the
same meeting, they issued the following decree: “The Column of the
Place Vendôme will be demolished.” On 16 April, special
elections were held to replace more moderate members of the Commune
who had resigned their seats, and Courbet was elected as a delegate
for the 6th arrondissement. He was given the title of Delegate of Fine
Arts, and on 21 April he was also made a member of the Commission on
Education. At the meeting of the Commission on 27 April, the minutes
reported that Courbet requested the demolition of the Vendôme column
be carried out, and that column would be replaced by an allegorical
figure representing the taking of power of the Commune on 18
Nonetheless, Courbet was a dissident by nature, and he was soon in
opposition with the majority of the Commune members on some of its
measures. He was one of a minority of Commune Members which opposed
the creation of a Committee on Public Safety, modeled on the committee
of the same name which carried out the reign of terror during the
Courbet opposed the Commune on another more serious matter; the arrest
of his friend Gustave Chaudey, a prominent socialist, magistrate, and
journalist, whose portrait Courbet had painted. The popular Commune
newspaper, Le Père Duchesne, accused Chaudey, when he was briefly
deputy mayor of the 9th arrondissement before the Commune was formed,
of ordering soldiers to fire on a crowd that had surrounded the Hotel
de Ville. Courbet’s opposition was of no use; on 23 May 1871, in the
final days of the Commune, Chaudey was shot by a Commune firing squad.
According to some sources Courbet resigned from the Commune in
On 13 May, on the proposal of Courbet, the
Paris house of Adolphe
Thiers, the chief executive of the French government, was demolished,
and his art collection confiscated. Courbet proposed that the
confiscated art be given to the
Louvre and other museums, but the
director of the
Louvre refused to accept it. On 16 May, just nine
days before the fall of the Commune, in a large ceremony with military
bands and photographers, the Vendôme column was pulled down and broke
into pieces. Some witnesses said Courbet was there, others denied it.
The following day, the Federation of Artists debated dismissing
directors of the
Louvre and of the Luxembourg museums, suspected by
some in the Commune of having secret contacts with the French
government, and appointed new heads of the museums.
According to one legend, Courbet defended the
Louvre and other museums
against “looting mobs”, but there are no records of any such
attacks on the museums. The only real threat to the
Louvre came during
"Bloody Week”, 21–28 May 1871, when a unit of Communards, led by a
Commune general, Jules Bergeret, set fire to the Tuileries Palace,
next to the Louvre. The fire spread to the library of the Louvre,
which was completely destroyed, but the efforts of museum curators and
firemen saved the art gallery.
After the final suppression of the Commune by the French army on 28
May, Courbet went into hiding in apartments of different friends. He
was arrested on 7 June. At his trial before a military tribunal on 14
August, Courbet argued that he had only joined the Commune to pacify
it, and that he had wanted to move the Vendôme Column, not destroy
it. He said he had only belonged to the Commune for a short period of
time, and rarely attended its meetings. He was convicted, but given a
lighter sentence than other Commune leaders; six months in prison and
a fine of five hundred Francs. Serving part of his sentence in the
prison of Saint-Pelagie in Paris, he was allowed an easel and paints,
but he could not have models pose for him. He did a famous series of
still-life paintings of flowers and fruit.
Exile and death
The Trout, 1871
Courbet finished his prison sentence on 2 March 1872, but his problems
caused by the destruction of the Vendôme Column were still not over.
In 1873, the newly elected president of the Republic, Patrice
Mac-Mahon, announced plans to rebuild the column, with the cost to be
paid by Courbet. Unable to pay, Courbet went into a self-imposed exile
Switzerland to avoid bankruptcy. In the following years, he
participated in Swiss regional and national exhibitions. Surveilled by
the Swiss intelligence service, he enjoyed in the small Swiss art
world the reputation as head of the “realist school” and inspired
younger artists such as
Auguste Baud-Bovy and Ferdinand Hodler.
Important works from this period include several paintings of trout,
"hooked and bleeding from the gills", that have been interpreted
as allegorical self-portraits of the exiled artist. In his final
years, Courbet painted landscapes, including several scenes of water
mysteriously emerging from the depths of the earth in the Jura
Mountains of the France–
Switzerland border. Courbet also worked
on sculpture during his exile. Previously, in the early 1860s, he had
produced a few sculptures, one of which—the Fisherman of Chavots
(1862)—he donated to
Ornans for a public fountain, but it was
removed after Courbet's arrest.
On 4 May 1877, Courbet was told the estimated cost of reconstructing
the Vendôme Column; 323,091 francs and 68 centimes. He was given the
option paying the fine in yearly installments of 10,000 francs for the
next 33 years, until his 91st birthday. On 31 December 1877, a day
before the first installment was due, Courbet died, aged 58, in La
Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland, of a liver disease aggravated by heavy
Claude Monet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (right section), with Gustave
Courbet, 1865–66, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
Courbet was admired by many younger artists.
Claude Monet included a
portrait of Courbet in his own version of Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
from 1865–1866 (Musée d'Orsay, Paris). Courbet's particular kind of
realism influenced many artists to follow, notably among them the
German painters of the Leibl circle, James McNeill Whistler, and
Paul Cézanne. Courbet's influence can also be seen in the work of
Edward Hopper, whose Bridge in
Paris (1906) and Approaching a City
(1946) have been described as Freudian echoes of Courbet's The Source
of the Loue and The Origin of the World. His pupils included Henri
Hector Hanoteau and Olaf Isaachsen.
Courbet and Cubism
Two 19th-century artists prepared the way for the emergence of Cubism
in the 20th century: Courbet and Cézanne. Cézanne’s
contributions are well-known. Courbet’s importance was announced
by Guillaume Apollinaire, poet-spokesperson for the Cubists. Writing
in Les Peintres Cubistes, Méditations Esthétiques (1913) he
declared, "Courbet is the father of the new painters." Jean
Albert Gleizes often portrayed Courbet as the father of
all modern art.
Both artists sought to transcend the conventional methods of rendering
nature; Cézanne through a dialectical method revealing the process of
seeing, Courbet by his materialism. The Cubists would combine
these two approaches in developing a revolution in art.
On a formal level, Courbet wished to convey the physical
characteristics of what he was painting: its density, weight and
John Berger said: "No painter before Courbet was
ever able to emphasize so uncompromisingly the density and weight of
what he was painting." This emphasis on material reality endowed
his subjects with dignity. Berger observed that the Cubist
painters "were at great pains to establish the physical presence of
what they were representing. And in this they are the heirs of
Self-portrait with Black Dog, 1842
Self-portrait (The Desperate Man), c. 1843–45, Private collection
The Cellist, Self-portrait, 1847
Portrait of Paul Ansout, c. 1842–43
Portrait of H. J. van Wisselingh, 1846
Zélie Courbet, 1847
Portrait of Baudelaire, 1848
Proudhon and his children, 1865
Spanish Woman, 1854
Cliffs at Etretat, After the Storm, 1870
The Wave, 1870
Sea Coast in Normandy, 1867
Pont Ambroix Languedoc, 1857
Stream in the
Jura Mountains (The Torrent), 1872–73, Honolulu Museum
Snow effect, c. 1860s
Grotto of Sarrazine near Nans-sous-Sainte-Anne, c. 1875
The Castle of Chillon, 1874
Les Bas Blancs, (Woman with White Stockings), 1864, Barnes Foundation
Woman with a Parrot, 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Femme nue couchée, 1862
Le Sommeil (Sleep), 1866, Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la
Ville de Paris
Young Bather, 1866
The Origin of the World (L'Origine du monde), 1866, Musée d'Orsay,
The Bather, 1868, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
The Source, 1868, Musée d'Orsay
The Hammock, 1844
The Sculptor, 1845
After Dinner at Ornans, 1849
The Stone Breakers, 1849
Farmers of Flagey on the Return From the Market, 1850, Museum of Art,
The Meeting ("Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet"), 1854, Musée Fabre,
The Grain Sifters (Les Cribleuses de blé), 1854
The Trellis, 1862, Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio
Fox In The Snow, 1860, Dallas Museum of Art
Girl with Seagulls, 1865
The Greyhounds of the Comte de Choiseul, 1866
The kill of deer, 1867, Museum of Art, Besançon
History of painting
List of Orientalist artists
Notes and references
^ Courbet, Gustave: Letters of Gustave Courbet, 1992, University of
Chicago Press, Translated by Petra Ten-Doesschate Chu,
ISBN 0-226-11653-0. (Google Books)
^ Berger, 1965, p. 52: "You can see it in the way [Courbet] painted an
apple or a wave, or in the way he painted the heavy languor and
creased dresses of two girls lying by the Seine."
^ Avis Berman, "Larger than Life", Smithsonian Magazine, April 2008.
^ Frantz 1911.
^ Faunce, Sarah, and Linda Nochlin, 1988, p. 83.
^ Masanès, 2006, pp. 31–32.
^ Masanès, 2006, p. 30.
^ a b Masanès, 2006, p. 55.
^ a b Masanès, 2006, p. 31.
^ a b Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, p. 7.
^ Haine, Scott. The History of
France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press.
p. 112. ISBN 0-313-30328-2.
^ Pbs.org. Gustave Courbet's A Burial at Ornans.
^ Political turmoil delayed the opening of the Salon of 1850 until 30
December 1850. Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, p. 2.
^ Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, p. 79.
^ a b Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, p. 4.
^ Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, p. 8.
^ Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, pp. 8–9.
^ "'Le chef de l'école du laid':
Gustave Courbet in 19th-century
caricatures. - European studies blog". blogs.bl.uk. Retrieved
^ Courbet, Gustave: artchive.com citing Perl, Jed: Gallery Going: Four
Seasons in the Art World, 1991, Harcourt, ISBN 978-0-15-134260-0.
^ a b Masanès, 2006, p. 52.
^ Masanès, 2006, p. 48.
^ Helene Toussaint, Arts Council of Great Britain. [An exhibition
organ. by the Réunion des Musées Nationaux. Organ. committee: Alan
Bowness...] (1978). Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877 : [exhibition] at
the Royal Academy of Arts, 19 January-19 March 1978 : [catalog].
[London]: Arts Council of Great Britain. p. 265.
^ Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, p. 84.
^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Nineteenth–Century French Realism,
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
^ Exhibition and sale of forty paintings and four drawings by Gustave
Paris 1855, Courbet speaks, Musée d'Orsay
Gustave Courbet – Les Demoiselles Au Bord De La Seine".
^ "Young Ladies on the Bank of the Seine, National Galleries".
^ Schwabsky, Barry 2008, p. 30.
^ Schwabsky, Barry 2008, p. 34.
^ Faunce and Nochlin, 1988, p. 176.
^ "Attendu que la colonne Vendôme est un monument dénué de toute
valeur artistique, tendant à perpétuer par son expression les idées
de guerre et de conquête qui étaient dans la dynastie impériale,
mais que réprouve le sentiment d’une nation républicaine, [le
citoyen Courbet] émet le vœu que le gouvernement de la Défense
nationale veuille bien l’autoriser à déboulonner cette colonne.
^ Milza, Pierre, L'année terrible- La Commune, p. 294.
^ Milza, Pierre, L'année terrible- La Commune, pp 296–297.
^ a b Riat, Georges,
Gustave Courbet - peintre.
^ Milza, Pierre, L'année terrible- La Commune, pp. 294–295.
^ See French article on Courbet.
^ Milza, Pierre, L'année terrible- La Commune, pp. 294–296, 297.
^ Milza, Pierre, ‘’L’annee terrible- La Commune- Mars-Juin
1871’’. pp 396–397.
^ Rene Heron de Villefosse, Histoire de Paris, Bernard Grasset (1959).
^ Riat, Georges, Gustave Courbet- peintre. (1906).
^ Riat, Georges,
Gustave Courbet - peintre, pp. 120–122.
^ Fischer, Matthias 2009, pp. 57–80.
^ a b Danto, Arthur C. "Courbet", The Nation, 23 January 1989, p. 100.
^ Fumey, G. (2007). "Courbet, peintre du calcaire". Karstologia. 50:
49–51. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
^ Herding, Oxford Art Online.
^ Noël, Bernard, 1978.
^ Forster-Hahn et al. 2001, p. 155.
^ Wells, Walter, Silent Theater: The Art of Edward Hopper, London/New
York: Phaidon, 2007.
^ Berger, 1965, p. 51: “The preparations for the revolution of
Cubism were begun in the nineteenth century by two artists: Courbet
and Cézanne.” and p. 55: “the revolutionary inheritance that the
nineteenth century bequeathed to the twentieth century: the
materialism of Courbet and the dialectic of Cézanne.”
^ Berger, 1965, p. 51: “The importance of Cézanne for the Cubists
has been stressed so often that it has become a commonplace.”
^ a b Guillaume Apollinaire, Les Peintres Cubistes (The Cubist
Painters), 1913, (translated and analyzed by Peter F. Read, University
of California Press, 25 Oct. 2004, pp. 27, 137
^ Berger, 1965, pp. 51–52: “Both Courbet and Cézanne change the
emphasis of the painters approach to nature: Courbet by his
materialism, Cézanne in his dialectical view of the process of
looking at nature.”
^ Berger, 1965, pp. 55–56: “The task was to combine the two.
Followed up separately, each would lead to a cul-de-sac: Courbet’s
materialism would become mechanical; the force of gravity, which gave
such dignity to his subjects, would become oppressive and literal.
Cézanne’s dialectic would become more and more disembodied and its
harmony would be obtained at the price of physical indifference.
Today, both examples are followed up separately. (italics in
^ Berger, 1965, p. 52.
^ Berger, 1965, pp. 52–53: “Courbet, whilst still using paint on
canvas, wanted to go beyond [pictorial] conventions and find the
equivalent of the physical sensation of the material objects
portrayed: their weight, their temperature, their texture. What
perspective towards the horizon meant to Poussin, the force of gravity
meant to Courbet.” (italics in original).
^ Berger, 1965, p. 58.
Berger, John (1965). The Success and Failure of Picasso. Penguin
Books, Ltd. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-679-73725-4.
Champfleury, Les Grandes Figures d’hier et d’aujourd’hui (Paris,
Chu, Petra ten Doesschate. Courbet in Perspective. (Prentice Hall,
1977) ASIN B000OIFL3E
Chu, Petra ten Doesschate and Gustave Courbet. Letters of Gustave
Courbet. (Chicago: Univ Chicago Press, 1992) ISBN 0-226-11653-0
Chu, Petra ten Doesschate. The Most Arrogant Man in France: Gustave
Courbet and the Nineteenth-Century Media Culture. (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 2007) ISBN 0-691-12679-8
Clark, Timothy J., Image of the People:
Gustave Courbet and the 1848
Revolution, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999);
(Originally published 1973. Based on his doctoral dissertation along
with The Absolute Bourgeois: Artists and Politics in France,
1848-1851), 208pp. ISBN 978-0-520-21745-4. (Considered the
definitive treatment of Courbet's politics and painting in 1848, and a
foundational text of
Marxist art history.)
Danto, Arthur (23 January 1989). "Courbet". The Nation: 97–100.
Faunce, Sarah, and Linda Nochlin. Courbet Reconsidered. Issued on the
occasion of an exhibition to open at the Brooklyn Museum Nov. 4, 1988
- Jan. 16, 1989, the Minneapolis Inst. of Arts Febr. 18 – April 30,
1989. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum, 1988. ISBN 0-300-04298-1
Fischer, Matthias, Der junge Hodler. Eine Künstlerkarriere 1872-1897,
Wädenswil: Nimbus, 2009. ISBN 978-3-907142-30-1
Forster-Hahn, Françoise, et al., Spirit of an Age: Nineteenth-Century
Paintings From the Nationalgalerie, Berlin (London: National Gallery
Company, 2001) ISBN 1-85709-981-8
Harriet Griffiths & Alister Mill, Courbet's early Salon exhibition
record, Database of Salon Artists, 1827-1850
Herding, Klaus. "Courbet, Gustave". Grove Art Online. Oxford Art
Online. Oxford University Press. Web.
Hutchinson, Mark, "The history of 'The Origin of the World'", Times
Literary Supplement, Aug. 8, 2007.
Gustave Courbet his life and art. Publ. Jupiter Books
(London) Limited 1977.
Lemonnier, C, Les Peintres de la Vie (Paris, 1888).
Mantz, "G. Courbet," Gaz. des beaux-arts (Paris, 1878)
Milza, Pierre (2009). L'année terrible - La Commune (mars-juin 1871).
Paris: Perrin. ISBN 978-2-262-03073-5.
Gustave Courbet (Cologne: Taschen, 2006)
Nochlin, Linda, Courbet, (London: Thames & Hudson, 2007)
Nochlin, Linda, Realism: Style and Civilization (New York: Penguin,
Noël, Bernard, Dictionnaire de la Commune (Paris: Champs Flammarion,
Schwabsky, Barry (March 24, 2008). "Daring Intransigence". The Nation:
Zola, Émile, Mes Haines (Paris, 1879)
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Frantz, Henri (1911). "Courbet, Gustave". In
Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge
Monographs on the art and life of Courbet have been written by
Estignard (Paris, 1874), D'Ideville, (Paris, 1878), Silvestre in Les
artistes français, (Paris, 1878), Isham in Van Dyke's Modern French
Masters (New York, 1896), Meier-Graefe, Corot and Courbet, (Leipzig,
1905), Cazier (Paris, 1906), Riat, (Paris, 1906), Muther, (Berlin,
1906), Robin, (Paris, 1909), Benedite, (Paris, 1911) and Lazár Béla
(Paris, 1911). Consult also Muther History of Modern Painting, volume
ii (London, 1896, 1907); Patoux, "Courbet" in Les artistes célèbres
and La vérité sur Courbet (Paris, 1879); Le Men, Courbet (New York,
Savatier, Thierry, El origen del mundo. Historia de un cuadro de
Gustave Courbet. Ediciones TREA (Gijón, 2009).
Bond, Anthony, "Embodying the Real", Body. The Art Gallery of New
South Wales (1997).
Faunce, Sara, "Feminist In spite of Himself", Body. The Art Gallery of
New South Wales (1997).
Tennant Jackson, Jenny, "Courbet's Trauerspiel: Trouble with Women in
the Painter's Studio." in G. Pollock (ed.), Visual Politics of
Psychoanalysis, London: I.B.Tauris, 2013. ISBN 978-1-78076-316-3
Howe, Jeffery (ed.), Courbet. Mapping Realism. Paintings from the
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium and American Collections,
exhibition catalogue, McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College,
September 1 - December 8, 2013 [distributed by the University of
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Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
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Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies.
ULAN Full Record
Display for Gustave Courbet. Getty Vocabulary Program, Getty Research
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The Painter's Studio
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caricatures. European Studies Blog, British Library.
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