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GURGAON (officially known as GURUGRAM) is a city in the Indian state of Haryana and is part of the National Capital Region of India
India
. It is 32 kilometres (20 mi) southwest of New Delhi
New Delhi
and 268 km (167 mi) south of Chandigarh
Chandigarh
, the state capital. As of 2011 , Gurgaon
Gurgaon
had a population of 876,824. Witnessing rapid urbanisation, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has become a leading financial and industrial hub with the third-highest per capita income in India. The city's economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki
Maruti Suzuki
India Limited established a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
in the 1970s. Today, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Climate

* 4 Demographics

* 5 Cityscape

* 5.1 Architecture * 5.2 Neighbourhoods * 5.3 Parks

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Entertainment and performing arts * 6.2 Languages and dialect * 6.3 Religion * 6.4 Sports

* 7 Economy

* 8 Law and government

* 8.1 Crime

* 9 Education

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Roadways

* 10.2 Railways

* 10.2.1 Intercity rail * 10.2.2 Delhi
Delhi
Metro * 10.2.3 Rapid Metro

* 10.3 Airways

* 10.3.1 Airport

* 10.4 Transit systems

* 10.4.1 Public transit

* 11 Utilities

* 12 Issues

* 12.1 Flooding

* 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The land came to be known as Gurugram ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: गुरुग्राम, lit. village of the Guru
Guru
) which over time became Gurgaon
Gurgaon
(गुड़गाँव). The village still exists within the modern-day city.

On 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced a proposal to officially rename the city Gurugram, subject to the approval of the Haryana cabinet and the Union Government . He argued that the new name would help to preserve the "rich heritage" of the city by emphasising its history and association with Dronacharya
Dronacharya
. On 27 September 2016, Manohar Lal Khattar officially announced that the Union Government had approved the name change, and thus the city and district would henceforth be known as Gurugram.

Despite the official renaming, "Gurgaon" has still remained in common colloquial usage throughout the city. While some entities do publicly use "Gurugram", a large number of businesses have continued to use "Gurgaon" in their addresses or signage.

HISTORY

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
was historically inhabited by the Hindu
Hindu
people, and in early times it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Yadav clan. The Yadav were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition. Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq , several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur. During Akbar
Akbar
's reign, Gurugram fell within the governing regions of Delhi
Delhi
and Agra
Agra
. As the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district , which was divided into units called parganas . These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. Eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major administrative change in 1836. After the Revolt of 1857 , it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province . In 1861, the district, of which Gurugram was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils : Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka , Nuh , Palwal and Rewari
Rewari
and the modern-day city came under the control of Gurgaon
Gurgaon
tehsil. In 1947, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
became a part of independent India
India
and fell under the Indian state of Punjab . In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state.

GEOGRAPHY

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the southeastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi
Delhi
with New Delhi
New Delhi
to its northeast. The city has a total area of 738.8 square kilometres (285.3 sq mi)

TOPOGRAPHY

The average land elevation is 217 metres (712 ft) above sea level.

CLIMATE

Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
experiences a monsoon -influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer (April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter (November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards the latter half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid-October, are typically hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 43 °C (109 °F). Winters are cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 3 °C (37 °F). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 millimetres (28.1 in).

CLIMATE DATA FOR GURGAON

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 21.1 (70) 24.2 (75.6) 30.0 (86) 36.2 (97.2) 39.6 (103.3) 39.3 (102.7) 35.1 (95.2) 33.3 (91.9) 33.9 (93) 32.9 (91.2) 28.3 (82.9) 23.0 (73.4) 31.4 (88.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 7.3 (45.1) 10.1 (50.2) 15.4 (59.7) 21.5 (70.7) 25.9 (78.6) 28.3 (82.9) 26.6 (79.9) 25.9 (78.6) 24.4 (75.9) 19.5 (67.1) 12.8 (55) 8.2 (46.8) 18.8 (65.8)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 20.3 (0.799) 15.0 (0.591) 15.8 (0.622) 6.7 (0.264) 17.5 (0.689) 54.9 (2.161) 231.5 (9.114) 258.7 (10.185) 127.8 (5.031) 36.3 (1.429) 5.0 (0.197) 7.8 (0.307) 797.3 (31.389)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 1.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.4 3.6 10.0 11.3 5.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 39.1

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 213.9 217.5 238.7 261.0 263.5 198.0 167.4 176.7 219.0 269.7 246.0 217.0 2,688.4

DEMOGRAPHICS

The Gurgaon
Gurgaon
municipal corporation area has an estimated population of 876,824 as per 2011 India
India
census.

CITYSCAPE

ARCHITECTURE

Cyber Green Building

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods. Gurgaon's skyline with its many skyscrapers is nationally recognised, and the city has been home to several tall buildings with modern planning. Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has an estimated 1,100 residential highrises. The average cost of a 93-square-metre (1,000 sq ft) two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).

NEIGHBOURHOODS

Essel Towers, Gurgaon
Gurgaon

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached housing, though a large number of attached multi-dwelling units , including apartments , condominiums and high rise residential towers are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated by The Times of India
India
, are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
One and Raheja Atlantis.

PARKS

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Haryana Urban Development Authority . The key parks are Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 15 hectares (36 acres); Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23; and Aravali Biodiversity Park on MG Road. However, most of the parks in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
are small and ill-maintained.

CULTURE

ENTERTAINMENT AND PERFORMING ARTS

Kingdom of Dreams

Notable performing art venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44 and Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk. Bollywood actor Rajkummar Rao was born in Gurgaon.

LANGUAGES AND DIALECT

The main language spoken in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is Hindi
Hindi
, though a segment of the population understands and speaks the English . The dialect used in Hindi
Hindi
is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has a large number of international call centres , the employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and Punjabi are other popular languages spoken in the city. The other regional languages include Mewati and Haryanvi.

RELIGION

Hinduism
Hinduism
is a predominant religion among the city's population. Gurgaon
Gurgaon
also includes adherents of Sikhism
Sikhism
, Islam
Islam
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Christianity
Christianity
and the Bahá\'í , among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including mandirs , gurdwaras , mosques and churches .

Sheetla Mata Mandir is a famous temple located in district Gurgaon
Gurgaon
of Haryana state of India. It is a temple dedicated to the wife of Guru Dronacharya. The temple hosts fairs regularly and huge number of people come to seek blessings of Sheetla Mata every year.

SPORTS

The city has two major sports stadiums: Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket , football , basketball and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is designed for football and athletics. Amity United FC is a tenant of Tau Devi Lal Stadium. Gurgaon district has nine golf courses, and is described as the "heart of India's golfing country". Joginder Rao , a domestic cricket player was from Gurgaon.

ECONOMY

A commercial area in the DLF Cyber City
City
. Commercial area in Gurugram

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has the third-highest income per-capita in India, and is the site of Indian offices for half of Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies. The city also benefits from its close proximity to Delhi. Maruti Suzuki
Maruti Suzuki
Private Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars. Eventually, DLF Limited , a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
was General Electric
General Electric
in 1997. GE's setup in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
prompted other companies, both international as well as domestic, to follow suit. providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centres. However, due to the lack of proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees to afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centres provide pooled-in cars to and from their offices. Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialise in domain expertise. Siemens
Siemens
Industry Software , in Gurugram Business Park, made a portfolio of design software that was used by NASA
NASA
to digitally design, simulate and assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built. Various international companies, including Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
, Pepsi
Pepsi
, BMW
BMW
, Agilent Technologies , have chosen Gurugram to be their Indian corporate headquarters. All the major companies in the city depend on their own backup, given the fact that Gurgaon
Gurgaon
does not have reliable power and water supply, public transport and utilities. Retail
Retail
is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 26 shopping malls. Real estate
Real estate
is a major force in the city's economy. Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is home to some of the nation's most valuable real estate.

All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, a Japanese airline, maintains its Delhi
Delhi
sales office in the Time Tower in Gurgaon.

LAW AND GOVERNMENT

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is governed by the Municipal Corporation of Gurugram which follows a Mayor-Council system.

CRIME

The law and order situation in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is below par and has been deteriorating for the past few years with a sharp increase in the number of homicides, rapes and thefts. The city reported 89 homicides in 2012. Another growing concern is an increase in the number of rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, and thefts, including motor vehicle thefts. The total vehicle thefts registered by the police in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
in 2014 was 3,638.

The police department in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is headed by the Commissioner of Police - Gurugram Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police . and reports to the Haryana state government. Sandeep Khirwar (IPS) is the Commissioner of Police in Gurgaon. Gurugram Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51. Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurugram through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.

EDUCATION

See also: List of educational institutions in Gurgaon ITM Campus (now The Northcap university) in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Heritage Xperiential Learning School

The city's public school system is managed by the government of Haryana, and administered by Haryana Board of School Education .

The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive and the quality usually better than the government schools. These Schools are affiliated by Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the International Baccalaureate (IB) Schools Good Schools i.e Heritage Xperiential Learning School (Earlier known as The Heritage School) Sector 62, The Shri Ram School - Aravali , the Ardee World School, Sector 52, DAV Public School Sector 14 and Amity International School are among the top 10 schools in the city, according to the 2013 Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools Survey.

There are several universities and institutes located in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
and the surrounding area, including Ansal Institute of Technology ; ITM University , Sector 23A; GD Goenka University, Sohna Road; KR Mangalam University , Sohna Road; Amity University, Gurgaon , Manesar; Apeejay Stya University , Sohna; BML Munjal University , NH8; Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University , Budhera; and National Brain Research Centre , Manesar.

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is also home to one of India's top ranked business schools, the Management Development Institute .

TRANSPORT

ROADWAYS

Delhi
Delhi
Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Expressway

The major highway that links Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is National Highway 8 , the road that runs from Delhi
Delhi
to Mumbai. While the 27.7-kilometre (17.2 mi) Delhi- Gurgaon
Gurgaon
border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as an expressway , the rest is expanded to six lanes.

RAILWAYS

Intercity Rail

Gurgaon railway station operated by Northern Railway of Indian Railways . The rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network.

Delhi
Delhi
Metro

HUDA City
City
Centre metro station on the Yellow Line of Delhi
Delhi
Metro

There are five stations served by Delhi
Delhi
Metro located on the Yellow Line , which are HUDA City
City
Centre , IFFCO Chowk , MG Road , Sikanderpur and Guru
Guru
Droncharya .

Rapid Metro

Rapid MetroRail station near Phase 2 .

Rapid MetroRail has eleven stations in Gurgaon, with an interchange with Yellow Line of Delhi
Delhi
Metro at Sikandarpur metro station . The Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and currently covers a distance of 11.7 kilometres (7.3 mi). One more phase of the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of subway stations in the city to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride Rapid Metro everyday, which provides an exclusive elevated transit service with three coach trains that run in a loop.

AIRWAYS

Airport

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is served by Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport
, which is located just outside of Gurgaon
Gurgaon
city limits near National Highway 8.

TRANSIT SYSTEMS

Public Transit

In November, 2013, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
launched an Ciclovia -inspired initiative known as Raahgiri Day—in which a corridor of streets are closed to motor vehicle traffic on Sunday mornings to encourage the use of non-motorized transport and participation in outdoor leisure activities. Gurgaon
Gurgaon
was the first city in India
India
to implement such a program, followed by New Delhi, and later Noida.

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is also expected to get India's first Pod Taxis .

UTILITIES

Electricity in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is provided by government-owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam . Gurgaon
Gurgaon
has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW. There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines is either old or overburdened.

ISSUES

FLOODING

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is notorious for its urban floods every monsoon. The areas on NH-8 around Hero Honda Chowk, Basai, Dhankot, sector 37 etc. see massive urban floods and headlines grabbing traffic jams reported widely in news media. A recent research report puts the blame on the broken natural water body linkage and obstructions in the flow in the city due to frantic construction during the last decades.

Gurgaon’s Ghata Jheel, Badshahpur Jheel, Khandsa Talab were linked to Najafgarh drain which links to Yamuna river
Yamuna river
, via natural water channels and drains.

As per the ground reports and research, the three natural water bodies are struggling for their existence with encroachments on their lands and natural channels. Agencies responsible have tried to create artificial water bodies to compensate, but the efforts fail due to unpredictable rain and water flow patterns leading to deployment of water pumps to fight the situation.

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Gurgaon
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Gurgaon
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Gurgaon
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* ^ "Traffic nightmare in Gurgaon; waterlogging on NH8 hits Delhi-Jaipur route, schools shut". Zee News. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2017-02-16. * ^ A B "Why Gurgaon
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FURTHER READING

* Basi, J.K. Tina (2009), Women, Identity and India\'s Call Centre Industry, Oxford: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-203-88379-2 , retrieved 12 November 2013 * Gururani, Shiva (1 March 2013), "Flexible Planning: The Making of India's 'Millennium City', Gurgaon", in Anne M. Rademacher, Ecologies of Urbanism in India: Metropolitan Civility and Sustainability, K. Sivaramakrshnan, Hong Kong University Press, pp. 119–, ISBN 978-988-8139-77-4 * Narain, Vishal (2009), "Growing city, shrinking hinterland: land acquisition, transition and conflict in peri-urban Gurgaon, India", Environment and Urbanization, 21 (2): 501–512, doi :10.1177/0956247809339660 * Pagnamenta, Robin (6 July 2012), "Indians riot over water shortages and power cuts", The Times, London, retrieved 12 November 2013, (Subscription required (help)) * Rich, Nathan (2013), "Globally integrated/locally fractured: the extraordinary development of Gurgaon, India", in Peggy Deamer, Architecture and Capitalism: 1845 to the Present, London: Routledge, pp. 172–188, ISBN 978-1-135-04954-6 , retrieved 12 November 2013 * Yardley, Jim (6 September 2011), "In Gurgaon, India, Dynamism Wrestles With Dysfunction", The New York Times
The New York Times
, retrieved 12 November 2013, (Subscription required (help))

EXTERNAL LINKS

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