GURGAON (officially known as GURUGRAM) is a city in the Indian state
Haryana and is part of the National Capital Region of
India . It is
32 kilometres (20 mi) southwest of
New Delhi and 268 km (167 mi) south
Chandigarh , the state capital. As of 2011 ,
Gurgaon had a
population of 876,824. Witnessing rapid urbanisation,
become a leading financial and industrial hub with the third-highest
per capita income in India. The city's economic growth story started
when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer
Maruti Suzuki India
Limited established a manufacturing plant in
Gurgaon in the 1970s.
Gurgaon has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Topography
* 3.2 Climate
* 4 Demographics
* 5 Cityscape
* 5.1 Architecture
* 5.2 Neighbourhoods
* 5.3 Parks
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Entertainment and performing arts
* 6.2 Languages and dialect
* 6.3 Religion
* 6.4 Sports
* 7 Economy
* 8 Law and government
* 8.1 Crime
* 9 Education
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Roadways
* 10.2 Railways
* 10.2.1 Intercity rail
* 10.2.3 Rapid Metro
* 10.3 Airways
* 10.3.1 Airport
* 10.4 Transit systems
* 10.4.1 Public transit
* 11 Utilities
* 12 Issues
* 12.1 Flooding
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
The land came to be known as Gurugram (
गुरुग्राम, lit. village of the
Guru ) which over
Gurgaon (गुड़गाँव). The village still
exists within the modern-day city.
On 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of
Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar
announced a proposal to officially rename the city Gurugram, subject
to the approval of the
Haryana cabinet and the Union Government . He
argued that the new name would help to preserve the "rich heritage" of
the city by emphasising its history and association with
On 27 September 2016,
Manohar Lal Khattar officially announced that
the Union Government had approved the name change, and thus the city
and district would henceforth be known as Gurugram.
Despite the official renaming, "Gurgaon" has still remained in common
colloquial usage throughout the city. While some entities do publicly
use "Gurugram", a large number of businesses have continued to use
"Gurgaon" in their addresses or signage.
Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the
Hindu people, and in early
times it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs
of Yaduvansi or
Yadav clan. The
Yadav were defeated by Muhammad of
Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the
Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition.
Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq , several were converted to
Islam. This was followed by the invasion of
Timur and the land was
ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur. During
reign, Gurugram fell within the governing regions of
Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between
contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule
through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first
occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru
of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district , which was divided into
units called parganas . These units were given to petty chiefs for the
military service rendered by them. Eventually these units came under
direct control of the British, with the last major administrative
change in 1836. After the Revolt of 1857 , it was transferred from the
North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province . In 1861, the district, of
which Gurugram was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils :
Ferozepur Jhirka , Nuh ,
Rewari and the
modern-day city came under the control of
Gurgaon tehsil. In 1947,
Gurgaon became a part of independent
India and fell under the Indian
state of Punjab . In 1966, the city came under the administration of
Haryana with the creation of the new state.
Gurgaon is located in
Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana
and is situated in the southeastern part of the state, and northern
part of the country. The city is located on the border with
New Delhi to its northeast. The city has a total area of 738.8 square
kilometres (285.3 sq mi)
The average land elevation is 217 metres (712 ft) above sea level.
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification ,
Gurgaon experiences a
monsoon -influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The city
experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer
(April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter
(November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards
the latter half of the summer. Summers, from early April to
mid-October, are typically hot and humid, with an average daily June
high temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). The season experiences heat
indices easily breaking 43 °C (109 °F). Winters are cold and foggy
with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 3 °C (37
Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further
adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons
with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week
of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon
during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714
millimetres (28.1 in).
CLIMATE DATA FOR GURGAON
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Gurgaon municipal corporation area has an estimated population of
876,824 as per 2011
Cyber Green Building
Gurgaon has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of
styles and from distinct time periods. Gurgaon's skyline with its many
skyscrapers is nationally recognised, and the city has been home to
several tall buildings with modern planning.
Gurgaon has an estimated
1,100 residential highrises. The average cost of a 93-square-metre
(1,000 sq ft) two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon
is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).
Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into
blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached
housing, though a large number of attached multi-dwelling units ,
including apartments , condominiums and high rise residential towers
are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated
by The Times of
India , are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa,
Gurgaon One and Raheja Atlantis.
Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the
Haryana Urban Development Authority . The key parks are Leisure Valley
Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 15 hectares (36 acres); Tau
Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash
Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; Tau
Devi Lal park in Sector 23; and Aravali Biodiversity Park on MG Road.
However, most of the parks in
Gurgaon are small and ill-maintained.
ENTERTAINMENT AND PERFORMING ARTS
Kingdom of Dreams
Notable performing art venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector
44 and Nautanki Mehal at the
Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk.
Rajkummar Rao was born in Gurgaon.
LANGUAGES AND DIALECT
The main language spoken in
Hindi , though a segment of
the population understands and speaks the English . The dialect used
Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral,
though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken
with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since
Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres , the
employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation
in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and
Punjabi are other popular languages spoken in the city. The other
regional languages include Mewati and Haryanvi.
Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population.
Gurgaon also includes adherents of
Christianity and the Bahá\'í , among others. There are
several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including
mandirs , gurdwaras , mosques and churches .
Sheetla Mata Mandir is a famous temple located in district
Haryana state of India. It is a temple dedicated to the wife of Guru
Dronacharya. The temple hosts fairs regularly and huge number of
people come to seek blessings of Sheetla Mata every year.
The city has two major sports stadiums:
Tau Devi Lal Stadium in
Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket , football , basketball
and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is
designed for football and athletics.
Amity United FC is a tenant of
Tau Devi Lal Stadium.
Gurgaon district has nine golf courses, and is
described as the "heart of India's golfing country".
Joginder Rao , a
domestic cricket player was from Gurgaon.
A commercial area in the DLF Cyber
City . Commercial area
Gurgaon has the third-highest income per-capita in India, and is
the site of Indian offices for half of
Fortune 500 companies. The city
also benefits from its close proximity to Delhi.
Maruti Suzuki Private
Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the
city in 1970s making cars. Eventually,
DLF Limited , a real estate
company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major
American brand to set up a unit in
General Electric in
1997. GE's setup in
Gurgaon prompted other companies, both
international as well as domestic, to follow suit. providing
outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through
delivery facilities and call centres. However, due to the lack of
proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees to
afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centres provide pooled-in
cars to and from their offices. Apart from Business process
outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other
companies that specialise in domain expertise.
Software , in Gurugram Business Park, made a portfolio of design
software that was used by
NASA to digitally design, simulate and
assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built.
Various international companies, including
Agilent Technologies , have chosen Gurugram to be their Indian
corporate headquarters. All the major companies in the city depend on
their own backup, given the fact that
Gurgaon does not have reliable
power and water supply, public transport and utilities.
Retail is an
important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 26 shopping malls.
Real estate is a major force in the city's economy.
Gurgaon is home
to some of the nation's most valuable real estate.
All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways , a Japanese airline, maintains its
office in the Time Tower in Gurgaon.
LAW AND GOVERNMENT
Gurgaon is governed by the Municipal Corporation of Gurugram which
follows a Mayor-Council system.
The law and order situation in
Gurgaon is below par and has been
deteriorating for the past few years with a sharp increase in the
number of homicides, rapes and thefts. The city reported 89 homicides
in 2012. Another growing concern is an increase in the number of
rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, and thefts, including motor
vehicle thefts. The total vehicle thefts registered by the police in
Gurgaon in 2014 was 3,638.
The police department in
Gurgaon is headed by the Commissioner of
Police - Gurugram Police, which forms a part of the
Haryana Police .
and reports to the
Haryana state government. Sandeep Khirwar (IPS) is
the Commissioner of Police in Gurgaon. Gurugram Police has a separate
traffic police department headquartered in sector 51. Fire protection
within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of
Gurugram through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37,
Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.
List of educational institutions in Gurgaon ITM
Campus (now The Northcap university) in
Xperiential Learning School
The city's public school system is managed by the government of
Haryana, and administered by
Haryana Board of School Education .
The city also has a large number of private schools, where education
is often expensive and the quality usually better than the government
schools. These Schools are affiliated by Central Board for Secondary
Education (CBSE) and the International Baccalaureate (IB) Schools Good
Schools i.e Heritage Xperiential Learning School (Earlier known as The
Heritage School) Sector 62,
The Shri Ram School - Aravali , the Ardee
World School, Sector 52, DAV Public School Sector 14 and Amity
International School are among the top 10 schools in the city,
according to the 2013
Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools Survey.
There are several universities and institutes located in
the surrounding area, including
Ansal Institute of Technology ; ITM
University , Sector 23A; GD Goenka University,
Sohna Road; KR Mangalam
Amity University, Gurgaon , Manesar; Apeejay
Stya University , Sohna;
BML Munjal University , NH8; Shree Guru
Gobind Singh Tricentenary University , Budhera; and National Brain
Research Centre , Manesar.
Gurgaon is also home to one of India's top ranked business schools,
Management Development Institute .
The major highway that links
National Highway 8 , the road
that runs from
Delhi to Mumbai. While the 27.7-kilometre (17.2 mi)
Gurgaon border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as an
expressway , the rest is expanded to six lanes.
Gurgaon railway station operated by Northern Railway of Indian
Railways . The rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian
City Centre metro station on the Yellow Line of
There are five stations served by
Delhi Metro located on the Yellow
Line , which are HUDA
City Centre , IFFCO Chowk , MG Road ,
Guru Droncharya .
Rapid MetroRail station near Phase 2 .
Rapid MetroRail has eleven stations in Gurgaon, with an interchange
with Yellow Line of
Delhi Metro at
Sikandarpur metro station . The
Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and currently covers a
distance of 11.7 kilometres (7.3 mi). One more phase of the project
are in the pipeline and would take the total number of subway stations
in the city to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride Rapid Metro
everyday, which provides an exclusive elevated transit service with
three coach trains that run in a loop.
Gurgaon is served by Delhi's
Indira Gandhi International Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport ,
which is located just outside of
Gurgaon city limits near National
In November, 2013,
Gurgaon launched an
Ciclovia -inspired initiative
known as Raahgiri Day—in which a corridor of streets are closed to
motor vehicle traffic on Sunday mornings to encourage the use of
non-motorized transport and participation in outdoor leisure
Gurgaon was the first city in
India to implement such a
program, followed by New Delhi, and later Noida.
Gurgaon is also expected to get India's first Pod Taxis .
Gurgaon is provided by government-owned Dakshin
Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam .
Gurgaon has power consumer base of
360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW. There are frequent
power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption
season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by
the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines
is either old or overburdened.
Gurgaon is notorious for its urban floods every monsoon. The areas
on NH-8 around Hero Honda Chowk, Basai, Dhankot, sector 37 etc. see
massive urban floods and headlines grabbing traffic jams reported
widely in news media. A recent research report puts the blame on the
broken natural water body linkage and obstructions in the flow in the
city due to frantic construction during the last decades.
Gurgaon’s Ghata Jheel, Badshahpur Jheel, Khandsa Talab were linked
Najafgarh drain which links to
Yamuna river , via natural water
channels and drains.
As per the ground reports and research, the three natural water
bodies are struggling for their existence with encroachments on their
lands and natural channels. Agencies responsible have tried to create
artificial water bodies to compensate, but the efforts fail due to
unpredictable rain and water flow patterns leading to deployment of
water pumps to fight the situation.
In 2012 Punjab -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;
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