GURGAON (officially known as GURUGRAM) is a city in the Indian state
Haryana and is part of the National Capital Region of
India . It is
32 kilometres (20 mi) southwest of
New Delhi and 268 km (167 mi) south
Chandigarh , the state capital. As of 2011 ,
Gurugram had a
population of 876,824. Witnessing rapid urbanisation,
become a leading financial and industrial hub with the third-highest
per capita income in India. The city's economic growth story started
when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer
Maruti Suzuki India
Limited established a manufacturing plant in
Gurugram in the 1970s.
Gurugram has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Topography
* 3.2 Climate
* 4 Demographics
* 5 Cityscape
* 5.1 Architecture
* 5.2 Neighbourhoods
* 5.3 Parks
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Entertainment and performing arts
* 6.2 Languages and dialect
* 6.3 Religion
* 6.4 Sports
* 7 Economy
* 8 Law and government
* 8.1 Crime
* 9 Education
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Roadways
* 10.2 Railways
* 10.2.1 Intercity rail
* 10.2.3 Rapid Metro
* 10.3 Airways
* 10.3.1 Airport
* 10.4 Transit systems
* 10.4.1 Public transit
* 11 Utilities
* 12 Issues
* 12.1 Flooding
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
The land came to be known as _Gurugram_ (
गुरुग्राम, lit. _village of the
Guru _) which over
time became changed to _Gurgaon_ (गुड़गाँव). The
village still exists within the modern-day city.
On 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of
Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar
announced a retrograde proposal to officially rename the city
_Gurugram_, subject to the approval of the
Haryana cabinet and the
Union Government . He argued that the new name would help to preserve
the "rich heritage" of the city by emphasising its history and
Dronacharya . On 27 September 2016, Manohar Lal
Khattar officially announced that the Union Government had approved
the name change, and thus the city and district would henceforth be
known as Gurugram.
Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the
Hindu people, and in early
times it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs
of Yaduvansi or
Yadav clan. The
Yadav were defeated by Muhammad of
Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the
Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition.
Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq , several were converted to
Islam. This was followed by the invasion of
Timur and the land was
ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur. During
Gurugram fell within the governing regions of
Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between
contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule
through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first
occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru
of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district , which was divided into
units called _parganas_ . These units were given to petty chiefs for
the military service rendered by them. Eventually these units came
under direct control of the British, with the last major
administrative change in 1836. After the Revolt of 1857 , it was
transferred from the
North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province . In
1861, the district, of which
Gurugram was a part of, was rearranged
into five tehsils : Gurgaon,
Ferozepur Jhirka , Nuh ,
Rewari and the modern-day city came under the control of Gurgaon
tehsil. In 1947,
Gurgaon became a part of independent
India and fell
under the Indian state of Punjab . In 1966, the city came under the
Haryana with the creation of the new state.
Gurugram is located in
Gurgaon district in the Indian state of
Haryana and is situated in the southeastern part of the state, and
northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with
New Delhi to its northeast. The city has a total area of
738.8 square kilometres (285.3 sq mi)
The average land elevation is 217 metres (712 ft) above sea level.
Köppen climate classification ,
Gurugram experiences a
monsoon -influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The city
experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer
(April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter
(November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards
the latter half of the summer. Summers, from early April to
mid-October, are typically hot and humid, with an average daily June
high temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). The season experiences heat
indices easily breaking 43 °C (109 °F). Winters are cold and foggy
with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 3 °C (37
Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further
adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons
with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week
of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon
during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714
millimetres (28.1 in).
CLIMATE DATA FOR GURUGRAM
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Gurugram municipal corporation area has an estimated population of
876,824 as per 2011
Cyber Green Building
Gurugram has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of
styles and from distinct time period. Gurugram's skyline with its many
skyscrapers is nationally recognised, and the city has been home to
several tall buildings with modern planning.
Gurugram has an estimated
1,100 residential highrises. The average cost of a 93-square-metre
(1,000 sq ft) two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in
Gurugram is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).
Gurugram is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided
into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached
housing, though a large number of attached multi-dwelling units ,
including apartments , condominiums and high rise residential towers
are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated
by The Times of
India , are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa,
Gurugram One and Raheja Atlantis.
Gurugram has a complex park system, with various lands operated by
Haryana Urban Development Authority . The key parks are Leisure
Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 15 hectares (36 acres);
Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji
Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA
Garden; Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23; and Aravali Biodiversity Park
on MG Road. However, most of the parks in
Gurugram are small and
ENTERTAINMENT AND PERFORMING ARTS
Kingdom of Dreams
Notable performing art venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector
44 and Nautanki Mehal at the
Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk.
Rajkummar Rao was born in Gurugram.
LANGUAGES AND DIALECT
The main language spoken in
Hindi , though a segment of
the population understands and speaks the English . The dialect used
Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral,
though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken
with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since
Gurugram has a large number of international call centres , the
employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation
in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and
Punjabi are other popular languages spoken in the city. The other
regional languages include Mewati and Haryanvi.
Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population.
Gurugram also includes adherents of
Christianity and the Bahá\'í , among others. There are
several places of worship for major religions in Gurugram, including
mandirs , gurdwaras , mosques and churches .
Sheetla Mata Mandir is a famous temple located in district Gurugram
Haryana state of India. It is a temple dedicated to the wife of
Guru Dronacharya. The temple hosts fairs regularly and huge number of
people come to seek blessings of Sheetla Mata every year.
The city has two major sports stadiums:
Tau Devi Lal Stadium in
Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket , football , basketball
and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is
designed for football and athletics.
Amity United FC is a tenant of
Tau Devi Lal Stadium.
Gurugram district has nine golf courses, and is
described as the "heart of India's golfing country".
Joginder Rao , a
domestic cricket player was from Gurugram.
A commercial area in the DLF Cyber
Once a small dusty agricultural rural village,
Gurugram has now
emerged to become the city with the third highest per capita income in
India. Popularly known as Millennium City,
Gurugram has the presence
of about 250 or 50% of the
Fortune 500 companies. Gurugram's proximity
Delhi means easy access to political decision makers. Maruti Suzuki
Private Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit
in the city in 1970s making cars. Eventually,
DLF Limited , a real
estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first
major American brand to set up a unit in
Gurugram was General Electric
in 1997. GE's setup in
Gurugram prompted other companies, both
international as well as domestic, to follow suit. Today,
emerged as one of the most important offshoring centres in the world,
providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales
through delivery facilities and call centres. However, due to the lack
of proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees
to afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centres provide
pooled-in cars to and from their offices. Apart from Business process
outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other
companies that specialise in domain expertise.
Software , in
Gurugram Business Park, made a portfolio of design
software that was used by
NASA to digitally design, simulate and
assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built.
Various international companies, including
Agilent Technologies , have chosen
Gurugram to be their Indian
corporate headquarters. All the major companies in the city depend on
their own backup, given the fact that
Gurugram does not have reliable
power and water supply, public transport and utilities.
Retail is an
important industry in Gurugram, with the presence of 26 shopping
Real estate is a major force in the city's economy. Gurugram
is home to some of the nation's most valuable real estate.
All Nippon Airways , a Japanese airline, maintains its
office in the Time Tower in Gurugram.
LAW AND GOVERNMENT
Gurugram is governed by the Municipal Corporation of
follows a Mayor-Council system.
The law and order situation in
Gurugram is below par and has been
deteriorating for the past few years with a sharp increase in the
number of homicides, rapes and thefts. The city reported 89 homicides
in 2012. Another growing concern is an increase in the number of
rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, and thefts, including motor
vehicle thefts. The total vehicle thefts registered by the police in
Gurugram in 2014 was 3,638.
The police department in
Gurugram is headed by the Commissioner of
Gurugram Police, which forms a part of the
Haryana Police .
and reports to the
Haryana state government. Sandeep Khirwar (IPS) is
the Commissioner of Police in Gurugram.
Gurugram Police has a separate
traffic police department headquartered in sector 51. Fire protection
within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of
Gurugram through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37,
Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.
List of educational institutions in Gurgaon ITM
Campus (now The Northcap university) in
The city's public school system is managed by the government of
Haryana, and administered by
Haryana Board of School Education . The
city also has a large number of private schools, where education is
often expensive and the quality usually better than the government
schools. Schools like
The Shri Ram School - Aravali , the Ardee World
School, Sector 52, The Heritage School, DAV Public School Sector 14
and Amity International School are among the top 10 schools in the
city, according to the 2013
Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools
There are several universities and institutes located in
its nearby areas, that form a part of
Gurugram district including
Ansal Institute of Technology ; ITM University , Sector 23A; GD Goenka
KR Mangalam University ,
Sohna Road; Amity
University , Manesar; Apeejay Stya University , Sohna; BML Munjal
University , NH8; Shree
Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University ,
National Brain Research Centre , Manesar.
also home to one of India's top ranked business schools, Management
Development Institute .
The major highway that links
National Highway 8 , the
road that runs from
Delhi to Mumbai. While the 27.7-kilometre (17.2
Gurugram border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as
an expressway , the rest is expanded to six lanes.
Gurugram railway station operated by Northern Railway of Indian
Railways . The rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian
City Centre metro station on the Yellow Line of
There are five stations served by
Delhi Metro located on the Yellow
Line , which are HUDA
City Centre , IFFCO Chowk , MG Road ,
Guru Droncharya .
Gurugram near Phase 2
Currently Rapid Metro
Gurugram have six stations, connecting Yellow
Delhi Metro at
Sikandarpur metro station , which are
Sikanderpur , Phase 2 , Vodafone Belvedere Towers , IndusInd Bank
City , Micormax Moulsari Avenue and Phase 3 . Two stations,
Shankar Chowk and Gateway tower, are scheduled to become operational
soon. The first phase of Rapid Metro became operational in November
2013 and covers a distance of 3.3 miles (5.3 km). Two more phases of
the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of
subway stations in
Gurugram to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride
Rapid Metro everyday, which provides an exclusive elevated transit
service with three coach trains that run in a loop.
Gurugram is served by
Indira Gandhi International Airport , though
the airport is just outside the city limits and located within the
Delhi near National Highway 8.
In November, 2013,
Gurugram launched an _
initiative known as _Raahgiri Day_—in which a corridor of streets
are closed to motor vehicle traffic on Sunday mornings to encourage
the use of non-motorized transport and participation in outdoor
Gurugram was the first city in
India to implement
such a program, followed by New Delhi, and later Noida.
Gurugram is also expected to get India's first Pod Taxis .
Gurugram is provided by government-owned Dakshin
Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam .
Gurugram has power consumer base of
360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW. There are frequent
power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption
season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by
the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines
is either old or overburdened.
Gurugram is notorious for its urban floods every monsoon. The areas
on NH-8 around Hero Honda Chowk, Basai, Dhankot, sector 37 etc see
massive urban floods and headlines grabbing traffic jams reported
widely in news media. A recent research report puts the blame on the
broken natural water body linkage and obstructions in the flow in the
city due to frantic construction during the last decades.
Gurugram’s Ghata Jheel, Badshahpur Jheel, Khandsa Talab were linked
Najafgarh drain which links to
Yamuna river , via natural water
channels and drains.
As per the ground reports and research, the three natural water
bodies are struggling for their existence with encroachments on their
lands and natural channels. Agencies responsible have tried to create
artificial water bodies to compensate, but the efforts fail due to
unpredictable rain and water flow patterns leading to deployment of
water pumps to fight the situation.
In 2012 Punjab -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;
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