Gurbani ( pa|ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ) is a Sikh term, very commonly used by Sikh
s to refer to various compositions by the Sikh Gurus
and other writers of Guru Granth Sahib
. In general, hymns in the central text of the Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib
, are called ''Gurbani''. Among Amritdhari
Sikhs, a few texts from Dasam Granth
which are read as Nitnem
, like ''Tav-Prasad Savaiye'' and ''Chaupai'', are also considered ''Gurbani''. In Adi Granth, Gurbani is a sound which comes directly from the Supreme and the text is a written form of the same in worldly language and scripts. It is also called ''Guru´s Bani''. Gurbani are explanations of qualities of the Primal Lord and Soul which a Sikh should comprehend and with which he can attain the supreme state.
Sikh historical writings, unauthentic writings or apocryphal compositions written under the names of Sikh Gurus and other writings by Sikh
s are not considered Gurbani and are referred to as ''Kachi Bani''.
Gurbani is composed of two words: 'Gur' and 'Bani'. Gur has multiple meanings depending on context. In Guru Granth Sahib, ''Gur'' is used for multiple meanings, as per context of hymn. The common use of ''Gur'' is either for wisdom and internal conscious mind (referred to as Chitta or Antar Atma).
Thereby Gurbani either means ''the speech of wisdom'' or ''the speech of conscious mind''.
Gurbani is directly received from inside after attaining a Supreme state, whereas the Granth or textual form is worldly language of the same. Gurbani is also referred to as ''Dhur Ki Bani'' (the speech from the Supreme house). In Adi Granth, it is considered a source of spiritual knowledge which illuminates the mind and gives internal bliss. The one who comprehends Gurbani is also described as an Amritdhari. Gurbani is a source of truth with which the internal filth and sins get eradicated and one who find Gurbani sweet is in supreme state.
Extracts from Guru Granth Sahib
are called Gutkas (small books) containing sections of Gurbani. These Gutkas can vary from just a few pages to hundreds of pages and are used by the Sikhs to read these Banis on a daily basis.
thumb|A ''Pothi Sahib'' (Nitnem prayerbook) is commonly wrapped in a similar cloth as a mark of respect|right
The hymns of the Japji Sahib
, Jaap Sahib
, Tav-Prasad Savaiye
, Chaupai Sahib
and Anand Sahib
should be read before sunrise daily according to the Sikh Rehat Maryada
. These are recited by initiated Sikhs at Amritvela
(before 6 AM). Rehras
is read in the evening around sunset or after a day's work and finally Kirtan Sohila
is read before going to bed. Doing ''Nitnem'' is also commonly referred as doing ''paath''.
, Anand Sahib
, and Kirtan Sohila
are a part of Guru Granth Sahib
. Jaap Sahib
, Tav-Prasad Savaiye
, and Chaupai Sahib
were all compiled by Guru Gobind Singh
and found in the ''Dasam Granth
is a mix with hymns from both Guru Granth Sahib and Dasam Granth. A Sikh may add more ''Gurbani'' to their Nitnem and if done frequently that ''Gurbani'' becomes a part of their ''Nitnem''.
Other Common Gurbani compositions
* Japji Sahib
* Anand Sahib
* Sri Guru Granth Sahib