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The GUPTA EMPIRE was an ancient Indian empire founded by Sri Gupta
Sri Gupta
. The empire existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. This period is called the Golden Age of India
India
and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology , engineering , art , dialectic , literature , logic , mathematics , astronomy , religion , and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu
Hindu
culture . Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
, Samudragupta
Samudragupta
, and Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty. The 4th century CE Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet Kalidasa
Kalidasa
credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas , the Hunas , the Kambojas
Kambojas
, tribes located in the west and east Oxus
Oxus
valleys , the Kinnaras , Kiratas etc.

The high points of this period are the great cultural developments which took place during the reign of Chandragupta II. All literary sources like Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and Ramayana
Ramayana
were canonised during this period The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa
Kalidasa
, Aryabhata , Varahamihira , Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields. Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma
Burma
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. The earliest available Indian epics are also thought to have been committed to written texts around this period.

The empire gradually declined because of many factors such as substantial loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories and the invasion by the Huna peoples ( Kidarites
Kidarites
and Alchon Huns
Alchon Huns
) from Central Asia
Central Asia
. After the collapse of the Gupta Empire
Empire
in the 6th century, India
India
was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. A minor line of the Gupta clan continued to rule Magadha
Magadha
after the disintegration of the empire. These Guptas were ultimately ousted by Vardhana ruler Harsha
Harsha
, who established his empire in the first half of the 7th century.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin

* 1.1 Original homeland of the Guptas

* 2 History

* 2.1 Srigupta and Ghatotkacha * 2.2 Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
* 2.3 Samudragupta
Samudragupta
* 2.4 Ramagupta

* 2.5 Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
"Vikramaditya"

* 2.5.1 Chandragupta II\'s Campaigns against Foreign Tribes * 2.5.2 Fa-Hien

* 2.6 Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
* 2.7 Skandagupta
Skandagupta
* 2.8 Decline of the empire

* 3 Military organization * 4 Religion * 5 Gupta administration * 6 Legacy of the Gupta Empire
Empire
* 7 Art and architecture * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

ORIGIN

Main article: Origin of the Gupta dynasty

Gupta Empire 320 CE–550 CE

Sri Gupta
Sri Gupta
(240 – 280)

Ghatotkacha (280 – 319)

Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
(320 – 335)

Kachagupta (335)

Samudragupta
Samudragupta
(335 – 380)

Ramagupta

Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
(380 – 413/415)

Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
(415 – 455)

Skandagupta
Skandagupta
(455 - 467)

Purugupta (467 – 473)

Kumaragupta II (473 - 476)

Budhagupta
Budhagupta
(476 – 495)

Narasimhagupta (495 – ?)

( Bhanugupta ) (circa 510)

Vainyagupta (circa 507)

Kumaragupta III (circa 530)

Vishnugupta (540 – 550)

* v * t * e

According to many historians, the Gupta dynasty was a Vaishya dynasty. Historian Ram Sharan Sharma asserts that the Vaishya
Vaishya
Guptas "appeared as a reaction against oppressive rulers". A.S. Altekar , a historian and archaeologist, who has written several books on Gupta coinage , also regarded the caste of the Guptas as Vaishya
Vaishya
on the basis of the ancient Indian texts on law, which prescribe the name-ending with Gupta for a member of the Vaishya
Vaishya
caste. According to historian Michael C. Brannigan, the rise of the Gupta Empire
Empire
was one of the most prominent violations of the caste system in ancient India.

Furthermore, it is not yet discovered whether the term Gupta indicated a surname of a specific family or referred to a clan . However Gupta Empire
Empire
records and Chinese records provided by the later I-Tsing , furnished the names of the first three rulers of the Gupta Dynasty, Maharaja Sri Gupta, Maharaja Sri Ghatotkacha and Ghatotokacha's son, Maharajadhiraja Sri Chandragupta , considered the first Gupta emperor . Recently, a historian, Ashvini Agarwal, on the basis of the matrimonial alliances of the Guptas with the Vakataka , assumed that they belong to the Brahman
Brahman
caste. Another modern historian, S. Chattopaddhyaya, has put forth a different theory about the ancestry of the Guptas. According to him, in the Panchobh
Panchobh
Copper Plate , some kings bearing the title Guptas and related to the imperial Gupta Dynasty, claimed themselves as Vaishyas . Historian D. R. Regmi, says Imperial Guptas were descendants of Abhira-Guptas.

ORIGINAL HOMELAND OF THE GUPTAS

There is controversy among scholars about the original homeland of the Guptas. Jayaswal has pointed out that the Guptas were originally inhabitants of Prayaga (Allahabad), Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, in north India, as the vassal of the Nagas or Bhaarshivas . Thereafter they rose in prominence. Another scholar, Gayal supported the theory of Jaiswal, suggesting that the original home of the Guptas was Antarvedi embracing the regions of Oudh and Prayag . These historians have derived their theory from several Gupta Dynasty coins found in those regions, and this study of numismatic evidence led to the theory that the Guptas were the original inhabitants of that region of northeastern India. However another historian of this time in Indian history, Ganguli, has offered a different view about the original Gupta homeland. According to him the Guptas homeland is further south, the Murshidabad
Murshidabad
region of Bengal
Bengal
, and not Magadha
Magadha
in Bihar
Bihar
. He based his theory on the statement of the Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
monk, Yijing (I-Tsing), who visited India
India
during 675 and 695 CE. Fleet and other historians however criticize Ganguli's theory because Sri Gupta
Sri Gupta
ruled during the end of the 3rd century, but Yijing placed him at the end of the 2nd century. Hence the theory of historians, who have provided their views based on the accounts of Yijing, are considered less valid than theories based on other sources such as coinage.

From these theories, several conflicting opinions about the original homeland and the Empire
Empire
of the Guptas are available. According to Allan and a few other scholars, the Guptas were initially concentrated in the region of Magadha
Magadha
and from there they extended their sway to Bengal. According to other groups, the original homeland of the Guptas was Varendri or the Varendra Bhumi in Bengal, wherefrom they extended their Empire
Empire
to Magadha. Whatever the theory is, the rule of the Guptas initiated the Golden Age
Golden Age
in history of ancient India
India
and with passage of time they became the sole authority of entire Northern India.

Bengali historians like HC Raychoudhuri the Guptas originated from the Varendri region which is now part of Rangpur and Rajshahi Division of modern-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. DC Ganguly, on the other hand, considers the surrounding region of Murshidabad
Murshidabad
as the original home of the Guptas.

HISTORY

SRIGUPTA AND GHATOTKACHA

The most likely time for the reign of Sri Gupta
Sri Gupta
is c. 240–280. The Murundas who were feudal lords of Kushans provided or granted land to Srigupta. He can be called the first person of Gupta's empire but not the founder of the empire.His son and successor Ghatotkacha ruled presumably from c. 280–319. He challenged other feudal lords and conquered their lands . In contrast to his successor, Chandragupta I, who is mentioned as Maharajadhiraja, he and his son Ghatotkacha are referred to in inscriptions as Maharaja At the beginning of the 4th century, the Guptas established and ruled a few small Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms in Magadha
Magadha
and around modern-day Bihar
Bihar
.

Yijing also mentioned about Sri Gupta
Sri Gupta
in his writings. He was succeeded by his son Ghatotkacha.

CHANDRAGUPTA I

Main article: Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta
Samudragupta
, 335–380.

Ghatotkacha (reigned c. 280–319 CE), had a son named Chandragupta (reigned c. 320–335 CE) (not to be confused with Chandragupta Maurya (322–298 BCE), founder of the Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
.) In a breakthrough deal, Chandragupta was married to Kumaradevi, a Lichchhavi princess—the main power in Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
(capital Pataliputra
Pataliputra
) and an alliance with the Licchavis of Nepal, Chandragupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga and Saketa
Saketa
. He established a realm stretching from the Ganges River
Ganges River
to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad
Allahabad
) by 321. He assumed the imperial title of Maharajadhiraja. He expanded his empire through marriage alliances.

SAMUDRAGUPTA

Main article: Samudragupta
Samudragupta
Coin
Coin
of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar. British Museum
British Museum
.

Samudragupta
Samudragupta
, Parakramanka succeeded his father in 335, and ruled for about 45 years, until his death in 380. He took the kingdoms of Ahichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign. He then attacked the Malwas , the Yaudheyas
Yaudheyas
, the Arjunayanas , the Maduras and the Abhiras , all of which were tribes in the area. By his death in 380, he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm and his rule extended from the Himalayas
Himalayas
to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna . He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. Historian Vincent Smith described him as the "Indian Napoleon". He performed Ashwamedha yajna in which a horse with an army is sent to all the nearby territories of friends and foes.These territorial kings on arrival either accept the King's alliance, who is performing this yajna or fight if they don't. The stone replica of the horse, then prepared, is in the Lucknow Museum. The Samudragupta Prashasti inscribed on the Ashokan Pillar, now in Akbar’s Fort at Allahabad, is an authentic record of his exploits and his sway over most of the continent.

Samudragupta
Samudragupta
was not only a talented military leader but also a great patron of art and literature. He conquered what is now Kashmir
Kashmir
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
enlarging the empire. The critical scholars present in his court were Harishena, Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
and Asanga
Asanga
. He was a poet and musician himself. He was a firm believer in Hinduism
Hinduism
and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
. He was considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
's Buddhist
Buddhist
king Sirimeghvanna to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
. That monastery was called by Xuanzang
Xuanzang
as the Mahabodhi Sangharama. He provided a gold railing around the Bodhi Tree.

RAMAGUPTA

Head of Tirthankara
Tirthankara
, Mathura Museum
Mathura Museum
Main article: Ramagupta

Although, the narrative of the Devichandragupta is not supported by any contemporary epigraphical evidence, the historicity of Rama Gupta is proved by his Durjanpur inscriptions on three Jaina images, where he is mentioned as the Maharajadhiraja. A large number of his copper coins also have been found from the Eran
Eran
- Vidisha region and classified in five distinct types, which include the Garuda, Garudadhvaja, lion and border legend types. The Brahmi
Brahmi
legends on these coins are written in the early Gupta style. In the opinion of art historian Dr. R. A. Agarawala, D. Litt., Rama Gupta may be the eldest son of Samudragupta. He became king because of being the eldest. It may be a possibility that he was dethroned because of not being the worthy enough to rule and his younger brother Chandragupta II took over.

CHANDRAGUPTA II "VIKRAMADITYA"

Main article: Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
Krishna
Krishna
fighting the horse demon Keshi, 5th century

According to the Gupta records, amongst his sons, Samudragupta nominated prince Chandragupta II, born of queen Dattadevi, as his successor. Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya (the Sun of Power), ruled from 375 until 415. He married a Kadamba princess of Kuntala and of Naga lineage (Nāgakulotpannnā), Kuberanaga. His daughter Prabhavatigupta
Prabhavatigupta
from this Naga queen was married to Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
, the Vakataka ruler of Deccan
Deccan
. His son Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
was married to Kadamba princess of Karnataka region. Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka
Saka
Western Kshatrapas of Malwa
Malwa
, Gujarat
Gujarat
and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409, but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III defeated by 395, and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms. This extended his control from coast-to-coast, established a second capital at Ujjain
Ujjain
and was the high point of the empire. Gold coins of Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
.

Despite the creation of the empire through war, the reign is remembered for its very influential style of Hindu
Hindu
art, literature, culture and science, especially during the reign of Chandragupta II. Some excellent works of Hindu
Hindu
art such as the panels at the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh serve to illustrate the magnificence of Gupta art. Above all it was the synthesis of elements that gave Gupta art its distinctive flavour. During this period, the Guptas were supportive of thriving Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jain
Jain
cultures as well, and for this reason there is also a long history of non- Hindu
Hindu
Gupta period art. In particular, Gupta period Buddhist art
Buddhist art
was to be influential in most of East and Southeast Asia. Many advances were recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Faxian
Faxian
(Fa-hien) in his diary and published afterwards.

The court of Chandragupta was made even more illustrious by the fact that it was graced by the Navaratna (Nine Jewels), a group of nine who excelled in the literary arts. Amongst these men was the immortal Kālidāsa
Kālidāsa
whose works dwarfed the works of many other literary geniuses, not only in his own age but in the years to come. Kalidasa was mainly known for his subtle exploitation of the shringara (romantic) element in his verse.

Chandragupta II\'s Campaigns Against Foreign Tribes

4th century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet Kalidasa
Kalidasa
, credits Chandragupta Vikramaditya with having conquered about twenty one kingdoms, both in and outside India. After finishing his campaign in the East and West India, Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) proceeded northwards, subjugated the Parasikas , then the Hunas and the Kambojas
Kambojas
tribes located in the west and east Oxus
Oxus
valleys respectively. Thereafter, the king proceeds across the Himalaya
Himalaya
and reduced the Kinnaras , Kiratas etc. and lands into India
India
proper.

The Brihatkathamanjari of the Kashmiri writer Kshemendra states, King Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Sakas
Sakas
, Mlecchas , Kambojas
Kambojas
, Yavanas , Tusharas , Parasikas , Hunas, etc. by annihilating these sinful Mlecchas completely".

Fa-Hien

Fa Hien
Fa Hien
, a Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
, was one of the pilgrims who visited India
India
during the reign of Gupta emperor Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
. He started his journey from China
China
in 399 and reached India
India
in 405. During his stay in India
India
up to 411, he went on a pilgrimage to Mathura
Mathura
, Kannauj , Kapilavastu , Kushinagar
Kushinagar
, Vaishali , Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, Kashi and Rajagriha
Rajagriha
and made careful observations about the empire's conditions. Fa Hien
Fa Hien
was pleased with the mildness of administration. The Penal Code was mild and offences were punished by fines only. From his accounts, the Gupta Empire
Empire
was a prosperous period, until the Rome- China
China
trade axis was broken with the fall of the Han dynasty, the Guptas' did indeed prosper. His writings form one of the most important sources for the history of this period.

KUMARAGUPTA I

Main article: Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
( Coin
Coin
of his Western territories, design derived from the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
). Obv: Bust of king with crescents, with traces of corrupt Greek script. Rev: Garuda
Garuda
standing facing with spread wings. Brahmi
Brahmi
legend: Parama-bhagavata rajadhiraja Sri Kumaragupta Mahendraditya. Gupta Empire
Empire
in 450 CE

Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
was succeeded by his second son Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
, born of Mahadevi Dhruvasvamini. Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
assumed the title, Mahendraditya. He ruled until 455. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley, the Pushyamitras
Pushyamitras
, rose in power to threaten the empire. The Kidarites
Kidarites
as well probably confronted the Gupta Empire
Empire
towards the end of the rule of Kumaragupta I, as his son Skandagupta
Skandagupta
mentions in the Bhitari pillar inscription his efforts at reshaping a country in disarray, through reorganization and military victories over the Pushyamitras
Pushyamitras
and the Hunas .

He was the founder of Nalanda
Nalanda
University which on July 15, 2016 was declared as a UNESCO world heritage site.

SKANDAGUPTA

Main article: Skandagupta
Skandagupta

Skandagupta
Skandagupta
, son and successor of Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
is generally considered to be the last of the great Gupta rulers. He assumed the titles of Vikramaditya and Kramaditya. He defeated the Pushyamitra threat, but then was faced with invading Kidarites
Kidarites
(sometimes described as the Hephthalites or "White Huns", known in India
India
as the Sweta Huna ), from the northwest.

He repulsed a Huna attack c. 455, But the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. The Bhitari Pillar inscription of Skandagupta
Skandagupta
, the successor of Chandragupta, recalls the near-annihilation of the Gupta Empire
Empire
following the attacks of the Kidarites
Kidarites
. The Kidarites
Kidarites
seem to have retained the western part of the Gupta Empire.

Skandagupta
Skandagupta
died in 467 and was succeeded by his agnate brother Purugupta .

DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE

The Alchon Huns
Alchon Huns
under Toramana and his son Mihirakula (here depicted) gravely weakened the Gupta Empire.

Following Skandagupta's death, the empire was clearly in decline. He was followed by Purugupta (467–473), Kumaragupta II (473–476), Budhagupta
Budhagupta
(476–495), Narasimhagupta (495—?), Kumaragupta III (530—540), Vishnugupta (540—550), two lesser known kings namely, Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta . The much-weakened Late Guptas, circa 550 CE.

In the 480's the Alchon Huns
Alchon Huns
under Toramana and Mihirakula broke through the Gupta defenses in the northwest, and much of the empire in the northwest was overrun by the Huns by 500. The empire disintegrated under the attacks of Toramana and his successor Mihirakula . It appears from inscriptions that the Guptas, although their power was much diminished, continued to resist the Huns. The Hun invader Toramana was defeated by Bhanugupta in 510. The Huns were defeated and driven out of India
India
in 528 by king Yashodharman from Malwa
Malwa
and possibly Gupta emperor Narasimhagupta .

The succession of the 6th-century Guptas is not entirely clear, but the tail end recognized ruler of the dynasty's main line was king Vishnugupta, reigning from 540 to 550. In addition to the Hun invasion, the factors, which contribute to the decline of the empire include competition from the Vakatakas
Vakatakas
and the rise of Yashodharman in Malwa
Malwa
.

The last known inscription by a Gupta emperor is from the reign of Vishnugupta (the Damodarpur copper-plate inscription), in which he makes a land grant in the area of Kotivarsha ( Bangarh
Bangarh
in West Bengal
Bengal
) in 542/543 CE. This follows the occupation of most of northern and central India
India
by the Aulikara ruler Yashodharman circa 532 CE.

MILITARY ORGANIZATION

Gold coin of Gupta era, depicting Gupta king Kumaragupta holding a bow. Sculpture of Vishnu
Vishnu
(red sandstone), 5th century CE

The Imperial Guptas couldn't have achieved their successes through force of arms without an efficient martial system. Historically, the best accounts of this come not from the Hindus
Hindus
themselves but from Chinese and Western observers. However, a contemporary Indian document, regarded as a military classic of the time, the Siva-Dhanur-veda, offers some insight into the military system of the Guptas.

The Guptas seem to have relied heavily on infantry archers, and the bow was one of the dominant weapons of their army. The Hindu
Hindu
version of the longbow was composed of metal, or more typically bamboo, and fired a long bamboo cane arrow with a metal head. Unlike the composite bows of Western and Central Asian foes, bows of this design would be less prone to warping in the damp and moist conditions often prevalent to the region. The Indian longbow was reputedly a powerful weapon capable of great range and penetration and provided an effective counter to invading horse archers. Iron shafts were used against armored elephants and fire arrows were not part of the bowmen's arsenal contrary to popular belief. India
India
historically has had a prominent reputation for its steel weapons . One of these was the steel bow. Because of its high tensility , the steel bow was capable of long range and penetration of exceptionally thick armor. These were less common weapons than the bamboo design and found in the hands of noblemen rather than in the ranks. Archers were frequently protected by infantry equipped with shields, javelins, and longswords. The Guptas also had knowledge of siegecraft, catapults, and other sophisticated war machines.

The Guptas apparently showed little predilection for using horse archers, despite the fact these warriors were a primary component in the ranks of their Scythian, Parthian, and Hepthalite (Huna) enemies. However, the Gupta armies were probably better disciplined. Able commanders like Samudragupta
Samudragupta
and Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
would have likely understood the need for combined armed tactics and proper logistical organization. Gupta military success likely stemmed from the concerted use of elephants, armored cavalry, and foot archers in tandem against both Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms and foreign armies invading from the Northwest. The Guptas also maintained a navy, allowing them to control regional waters.

The collapse of the Gupta Empire
Empire
in the face of the Huna onslaught was due not directly to the inherent defects of the Gupta army, which after all had initially defeated these people under Skandagupta. More likely, internal dissolution sapped the ability of the Guptas to resist foreign invasion, as was simultaneously occurring in Western Europe and China.

During the reign of Chandragupta II, Gupta Empire
Empire
maintained a large army consisting of 500,000 infantry, 50,000 cavalry, 20,000 charioteers and 10,000 elephants along with a powerful navy with more than 1200 ships. Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
controlled the whole of the Indian subcontinent ; the Gupta empire was the most powerful empire in the world during his reign, at a time when the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the West was in decline.

RELIGION

Meditating Buddha
Buddha
from the Gupta era, 5th century CE.

The Guptas were traditionally a Brahmanical dynasty. They were orthodox Hindus
Hindus
, but did not force their beliefs on the rest of the population, as Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jainism
Jainism
also were encouraged. Sanchi remained an important center of Buddhism. Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
(c. 414 – c. 455 CE) is said to have founded Nalanda
Nalanda
.

Some later rulers however seem to have especially favoured Buddhism
Buddhism
. Narasimhagupta Baladitya (circa 495-?), according to contemporary writer Paramartha , was brought up under the influence of the Mahayanist philosopher, Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
. He built a sangharama at Nalanda and also a 300 ft (91 m) high vihara with a Buddha
Buddha
statue within which, according to Xuanzang, resembled the "great Vihara
Vihara
built under the Bodhi tree
Bodhi tree
". According to the Manjushrimulakalpa (c. 800 CE), king Narasimhsagupta became a Buddhist
Buddhist
monk, and left the world through meditation (Dhyana ). The Chinese monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
also noted that Narasimhagupta Baladitya's son, Vajra, who commissioned a sangharama as well, "possessed a heart firm in faith". :45 :330

GUPTA ADMINISTRATION

A study of the epigraphical records of the Gupta empire shows that there was a hierarchy of administrative divisions from top to bottom. The empire was called by various names such as Rajya, Rashtra, Desha, Mandala, Prithvi and Avani. It was divided into 26 provinces, which were styled as Bhukti , Pradesha and Bhoga. Provinces were also divided into Vishayas and put under the control of the Vishayapatis. A Vishayapati administered the Vishaya with the help of the Adhikarana (council of representatives), which comprised four representatives: Nagarasreshesthi, Sarthavaha, Prathamakulike and Prathama Kayastha. A part of the Vishaya was called Vithi. There were also trade links of Gupta business with the Roman empire.

LEGACY OF THE GUPTA EMPIRE

Later image of Krishna
Krishna
and Radha
Radha
playing chaturanga on an 8 × 8 Ashtāpada

Scholars of this period include Varahamihira and Aryabhata , who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero , postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun , and studied solar and lunar eclipses . Kalidasa
Kalidasa
, who was a great playwright, who wrote plays such as Shakuntala
Shakuntala
, and marked the highest point of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature is also said to have belonged to this period. The Sushruta Samhita , which is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
redaction text on all of the major concepts of ayurvedic medicine with innovative chapters on surgery, dates to the Gupta period.

Chess
Chess
is said to have originated in this period, where its early form in the 6th century was known as caturaṅga , which translates as "four divisions " – infantry , cavalry , elephantry , and chariotry – represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, rook, and bishop, respectively. Doctors also invented several medical instruments, and even performed operations. The Indian numerals which were the first positional base 10 numeral systems in the world originated from Gupta India. The ancient Gupta text Kama Sutra by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana is widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature . Aryabhata , a noted mathematician-astronomer of the Gupta period proposed that the earth is round and rotates about its own axis. He also discovered that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu
Rahu
and Ketu , he explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth. Borobudur
Borobudur
in Java, Indonesia
Indonesia
. The building’s design in Gupta architecture reflects India's influence on the region.

ART AND ARCHITECTURE

A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi
Sanchi
besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya
Maurya
foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture . 5th century CE.

The Gupta period is generally regarded as a classic peak of North Indian art
Indian art
for all the major religious groups. Although painting was evidently widespread, the surviving works are almost all religious sculpture. The period saw the emergence of the iconic carved stone deity in Hindu
Hindu
art, as well as the Buddha
Buddha
figure and Jain
Jain
tirthankara figures, these last often on a very large scale. The two great centres of sculpture were Mathura
Mathura
and Gandhara
Gandhara
, the latter the centre of Greco- Buddhist art
Buddhist art
. Both exported sculpture to other parts of northern India. Unlike the preceding Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
there was no artistic depiction of the monarchs, even in the very fine Guptan coinage, with the exception of some coins of the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
, or influenced by them.

The most famous remaining monuments in a broadly Gupta style, the caves at Ajanta , Elephanta , and Ellora (respectively Buddhist, Hindu, and mixed including Jain) were in fact produced under later dynasties, but primarily reflect the monumentality and balance of Guptan style. Ajanta contains by far the most significant survivals of painting from this and the surrounding periods, showing a mature form which had probably had a long development, mainly in painting palaces. The Hindu
Hindu
Udayagiri Caves
Udayagiri Caves
actually record connections with the dynasty and its ministers, and the Dashavatara Temple at Deogarh is a major temple, one of the earliest to survive, with important sculpture.

*

Vishnu
Vishnu
reclining on the serpent Shesha
Shesha
(Ananta), Dashavatara Temple 5th century *

Buddha
Buddha
from Sarnath
Sarnath
, 5–6th century CE *

The Colossal trimurti at the Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
*

Rock-cut temples at Ellora *

Painting of Padmapani
Padmapani
Cave 1 at Ajanta

SEE ALSO

* Later Gupta dynasty * Empire
Empire
of Harsha
Harsha

NOTES

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India
– Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha. Historymedren.about.com (17 June 2010). Retrieved on 2011-11-21. * ^ N. Jayapalan, History of India, Vol. I, (Atlantic Publishers, 2001), 130. * ^ Ancient India. The Age of the Guptas.wsu.edu * ^ A B Raghu Vamsa v 4.60–75 * ^ Gupta dynasty (Indian dynasty). Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. * ^ Mahajan, p. 540 * ^ Gupta dynasty: empire in 4th century. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. * ^ Trade The Story of India
India
– Photo Gallery. PBS. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. * ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas, Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5 , pp.264–9 * ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9 . * ^ Nehra, R.K. Hinduism
Hinduism
and Its Military Ethos. Lancer Publishers,2010. Retrieved 2012-08-25. * ^ A B Brannigan, Michael C. Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values. Rowman & Littlefield, 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-25. * ^ Sharma, R.S. Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2012-06-06. * ^ List of Altekar\'s publications in the Open Library
Open Library
. * ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas, Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5 , pp.82-4 * ^ Human rights in the Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition By Lal Deosa Rai, Page no.155 * ^ "Inscriptions of Ancient Nepal: Inscriptions". google.com. * ^ " Gupta Rule". banglapedia.org. * ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas, Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5 , pp.84–7 * ^ Majumdar, p. 474 * ^ "Founder of the Gupta Empire
Empire
Maharaja Sri Gupta". theindianhistory.org. * ^ Smith, Vincent A. (1999). The Early History of India: From 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan Conquest. Atlantic. p. 289. ISBN 81-7156-618-9 . * ^ The Gupta Polity, pp.199 * ^ Mahajan, p. 487 * ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 153–9. ISBN 81-208-0592-5 . * ^ Bajpai, K.D. (2004). Indian Numismatic
Numismatic
Studies. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. pp. 120–1. ISBN 81-7017-035-4 . * ^ Raychaudhuri, p. 489 * ^ ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah Mlechchana Kamboja. Yavanan neechan Hunan Sabarbran Tushara. Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan hatya bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate (Brahata Katha, 10/1/285-86, Kshmendra). * ^ Kathasritsagara 18.1.76–78 * ^ Cf:"In the story contained in Kathasarit-sagara, king Vikarmaditya is said to have destroyed all the barbarous tribes such as the Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Tokharas and the, National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Recreational Reading – Sanskrit language. * ^ Prasanna Rao Bandela (1 January 2003). Coin
Coin
splendour: a journey into the past. Abhinav Publications. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-81-7017-427-1 . Retrieved 21 November 2011. * ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc...", p.cli * ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas, Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5 , pp.191–200 * ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco
Unesco
p.119 sq * ^ http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=1489 * ^ " Nalanda
Nalanda
University Ruins Nalanda
Nalanda
Travel Guide Ancient Nalanda
Nalanda
Site". Travel News India. 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2017-02-20. * ^ Raychaudhuri, p. 510 * ^ A B The Huns, Hyun Jin Kim, Routledge, 2015 p.50 sq * ^ Raychaudhuri, p. 516 * ^ Sachchidananda Bhattacharya, Gupta dynasty, A dictionary of Indian history, (George Braziller, Inc., 1967), 393. * ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.220 * ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates by S. B. Bhattacherje p.A15 * ^ Columbia Encyclopedia * ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. p. 480. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9 . * ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol.3 (inscriptions Of The Early Gupta Kings) p.362 * ^ A B Indian Esoteric Buddhism: Social History of the Tantric Movement by Ronald M. Davidson p.31 * ^ Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. * ^ A B C A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India
India
by Upinder Singh p.521 * ^ A B C The Gupta Empire
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by Radhakumud Mookerji p.133 sq * ^ Sankalia, Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal (1934). The University of Nālandā. B. G. Paul & co. * ^ Sukumar Dutt (1988) . Buddhist
Buddhist
Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London. ISBN 81-208-0498-8 . * ^ Mahajan, pp. 530–1 * ^ Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A History of Chess. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936317-01-9 . OCLC
OCLC
13472872 . * ^ Thomas Khoshy, Elementary Number Theory with Applications, Academic Press, 2002, p. 567. ISBN 0-12-421171-2 . * ^ "Wonderful Indonesia