Guoyu (book)



The ''Guoyu'' (), usually translated ''Discourses of the States'', is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of speeches attributed to rulers and other men from the
Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in History of China, Chinese history from approximately 770 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period' ...
(771–476). It comprises a total of 240 speeches, ranging from the reign of
King Mu of Zhou King Mu of Zhou (), personal name Ji Man, was the fifth king of the Zhou dynasty of China. The dates of his reign are 976–922 BC or 956–918 BC. Life King Mu came to the throne after his father King Zhao of Zhou, King Zhao’s death during hi ...
(r. 956918) to the execution of the Jin minister Zhibo in 453. ''Guoyu'' was probably compiled beginning in the 5th century BC and continuing to the late 4th century BC. The earliest chapter of the compilation is the ''Discourses of Zhou''. Guoyu's author is unknown, but it is sometimes attributed to Zuo Qiuming, a contemporary of
Confucius Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; – ) was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period who is traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages. Co ...
; although as early as Two Jins dynasty,
Fu Xuan Fu Xuan (217–278), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China ...
objected to that attribution of authorship. Kong Yingda, ''True Meaning of Chunqiu Zuozhuan'' "vol. 60
p. 20 of 146
quote: "傅玄云:《國語》非丘明所作。凡有共說一事而二文不同,必《國語》虛而《左傳》實,其言相反,不可強合也。" translation: "Fu Xuan said: '′Discourses of the States′ was not authored by Qiu Ming. Wherever they both narrate one thing yet their wordings differ, certainly ′Zuo tradition′ s narrativeis authentic while ′Discourses of the States′ s narrativeis spurious. The contradictory wordings cannot be forcibly reconciled.' "


''Guoyu'' overlaps with the period, people, events in the Zuo zhuan. It comprises eight books covering the Zhou court and seven of the feudal states, divided into 21 chapters:




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External links

Original text in Chinese

Chinese text with matching English vocabulary Chinese classic texts Chinese history texts 5th-century BC history books Works of unknown authorship {{China-hist-book-stub