Guo Huaiyi rebellion
Guo Huaiyi rebellion (Chinese: 郭懷一事件; pinyin: Guō
Huáiyī shìjiàn; also spelled Kuo Huai-i Rebellion) was a peasant
revolt by Chinese farmers against Dutch rule in
Taiwan in 1652.
Sparked by dissatisfaction with heavy Dutch taxation on them but not
the aborigines and extortion by low-ranking Dutch officials and
servicemen, the rebellion initially gained ground before being crushed
by a coalition of Dutch soldiers and their aboriginal allies. It is
considered the most important uprising against the Dutch during the
37-year period of their colonisation of Taiwan.
2 The rebellion
The burden of Dutch taxes on the Chinese inhabitants of
Taiwan was a
source of much resentment. The falling price of venison, a chief
export of the island at the time, hit licensed hunters hard, as the
cost of the licenses was based on meat prices before the depreciation.
The head tax (which only applied to Chinese, not aborigines) was also
deeply unpopular, and thirdly, petty corruption amongst Dutch soldiers
further angered the Chinese residents.
The revolt was led by Guo Huaiyi (Chinese: 郭懷一; 1603–1652), a
sugarcane farmer and militia leader originally from
Quanzhou known to
the Dutch by the name Gouqua Faijit, or Gouqua Faet. After his
planning for an insurrection on 17 September 1652 was leaked to the
Dutch authorities, he decided to waste no time in attacking Fort
Provintia, which at the time was only surrounded by a bamboo wall. On
the night of 7 September the rebels, mostly peasants-farmers armed
with bamboo spears, stormed the fort.
The following morning a company of 120 Dutch musketeers came to the
rescue of their trapped countrymen, firing steadily into the besieging
rebel forces and breaking them. Governor
Nicolas Verburg On
September 11 the Dutch learned that the rebels had massed just north
of the principal Dutch settlement of Tayouan. Sending a large force of
Dutch soldiers and aboriginal warriors, they met the rebels that day
in battle and emerged victorious, mainly due to the superior weaponry
of the Europeans.
Multiple Aboriginal villages in frontier areas rebelled against the
Dutch in the 1650s due to oppression like when the Dutch ordered
aboriginal women for sex, deer pelts, and rice be given to them from
aborigines in the Taipei basin in Wu-lao-wan village which sparked a
rebellion in December 1652 at the same time as the Chinese rebellion.
The Wu-lao-wan beheaded two Dutch translators, and in a subsequent
fight with 30 Wu-lao-wan two Dutch people died, but after an embargo
of salt and iron the Wu-lao-wan were forced to sue for peace in
Over the following days, the remnants of Guo's army were either
slaughtered by aboriginal warriors or melted back into the villages
they came from, with Guo Huaiyi himself being shot, then decapitated,
with his head displayed on a spike as a warning. In total some
4,000 Chinese were killed during the five-day uprising, approximately
1 in 10 Chinese living in
Taiwan at that time. The Dutch responded by
Fort Provintia (building brick walls instead of the
previous bamboo fence) and by monitoring Chinese settlers more
closely. However, they did not address the roots of the concerns which
had caused the Chinese to rebel in the first place.
Taiwanese Aboriginal tribes who were previously allied
with the Dutch against the Chinese during the
Guo Huaiyi Rebellion
Guo Huaiyi Rebellion in
1652 turned against the Dutch during the later Siege of Fort Zeelandia
and defected to Koxinga's Chinese forces. The Aboriginals
(Formosans) of Sincan defected to
Koxinga after he offered them
amnesty, the Sincan Aboriginals then proceeded to work for the Chinese
and behead Dutch people in executions, the frontier aboriginals in the
mountains and plains also surrendered and defected to the Chinese on
17 May 1661, celebrating their freedom from compulsory education under
the Dutch rule by hunting down Dutch people and beheading them and
trashing their Christian school textbooks.
^ a b c d e Andrade, Tonio (2005). "The Only Bees on Formosa That Give
Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish and Han Colonization
in the Seventeenth Century. Columbia University Press.
^ 台灣史蹟研究會彙編. 台灣叢談 (in Chinese).
^ Eduard B. Vermeer (1990). Development and Decline of Fukien Province
in the 17th and 18th Centuries. p. 21.
^ Huber, Johannes (1990). "Chinese Settlers Against the Dutch East
India Company: The Rebellion Led by Kuo Huai-i on
Taiwan in 1652". In
Vermeer, E.B. Development and Decline of Fukien Province in the 17th
and 18th centuries. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004091719.
^ Shepherd1993, p. 59.
^ Covell, Ralph R. (1998). Pentecost of the Hills in Taiwan: The
Christian Faith Among the Original Inhabitants (illustrated ed.). Hope
Publishing House. pp. 96–97. ISBN 0932727905. Retrieved
December 10, 2014.
^ Hsin-Hui, Chiu (2008). The Colonial 'civilizing Process' in Dutch
Formosa: 1624 - 1662. Volume 10 of TANAP monographs on the history of
the Asian-European interaction (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 222.
ISBN 900416507X. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company (Jakarta, Dutch East Indies)
Battle of Liaoluo Bay
Lamey Island Massacre
Guo Huaiyi Rebellion
Siege of Fort Zeelandia
Gerard Frederikszoon de With
Johan van der Burg
Maximilian le Maire
Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater