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Gunma Prefecture
Gunma Prefecture
(群馬県, Gunma-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region.[1] Its capital is Maebashi.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Cities 2.2 Towns and villages 2.3 Mergers

3 Climate 4 Economy 5 Culture 6 Education

6.1 Universities

7 Sports

7.1 Baseball 7.2 Football (soccer) 7.3 Rugby 7.4 Basketball

8 Tourism 9 Transportation

9.1 Rail 9.2 Roads

9.2.1 Expressways 9.2.2 National highways

10 Prefectural symbols 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Historic Sites of Gunma Prefecture The ancient province of Gunma was a center of the horsebreeding and trading activities for the newly immigrated continental peoples. The arrival of horses and the remains of horse-tackle coincides with the arrival of a large migration from the mainland. From this point forward, the horse became a vital part of Japanese military maneuvers, quickly displacing the older Yayoi tradition of fighting on foot. When Mount Haruna
Mount Haruna
erupted in the late 6th century, Japan
Japan
was still in the pre-historical phase (prior to the importation of the Chinese writing system during the Nara period). The Gunma Prefectural archaeology unit in 1994 was able to date the eruption through zoological anthropology at the corral sites that were buried in ash. In the past, Gunma was joined with Tochigi Prefecture
Tochigi Prefecture
and called Kenu Province. This was later divided into Kami-tsu-ke (Upper Kenu, Gunma) and Shimo-tsu-ke (Lower Kenu, Tochigi). The area is sometimes referred to as Jomo (上毛, Jōmō). For most of Japanese history, Gunma was known as the province of Kozuke.[3] In the early period of contact between western nations and Japan, particularly the late Tokugawa, it was referred to by foreigners as the "Joushu States", inside (fudai, or loyalist) Tokugawa retainers and the Tokugawa family symbol is widely seen at public buildings, temples and shrines. The first modern silk factories were built with Italian and French assistance at Annaka in the 1870s. In the early Meiji period, in what was locally called the Gunma Incident of 1884, a bloody struggle between the idealistic democratic westernizers and the conservative Prussian-model nationalists took place in Gunma and neighboring Nagano. The modern Japanese army gunned down farmers with new repeating rifles built in Japan. The farmers in Gunma were said to be the first victims of the Murata rifle. In the twentieth century, the Japanese aviation pioneer Nakajima Chikushi of Oizumi, Gunma Prefecture, founded the Nakajima Aircraft Company. At first, he produced mostly licensed models of foreign designs, but beginning with the all-Japanese Nakajima 91 fighter plane in 1931, his company became a world leader in aeronautical design and manufacture, with its headquarters at Ota, Gunma
Ota, Gunma
Ken. The factory now produces Subaru
Subaru
motorcars and other products under the name of Fuji Heavy Industries. In the 1930s, German architect Bruno Julius Florian Taut lived and conducted research for a while in Takasaki. The Girard incident, which disturbed US-Japanese relations in the 1950s, occurred in Gunma in 1957, at Soumagahara Base near Shibukawa. Four modern prime ministers are from Gunma, namely, Takeo Fukuda, Yasuhiro Nakasone, Keizo Obuchi, and Yasuo Fukuda, the son of Takeo. Geography[edit]

Map of Gunma Prefecture

Maebashi

Takasaki

Ōta

One of only eight landlocked prefectures in Japan, Gunma is the northwestern-most prefecture of the Kantō plain. Except for the central and southeast areas, where most of the population is concentrated, it is mostly mountainous. To the north are Niigata and Fukushima prefectures, while to the east lies Tochigi Prefecture. To the west lies Nagano Prefecture, and Saitama Prefecture
Saitama Prefecture
is to the south. Some of the major mountains in Gunma are Mount Akagi, Mount Haruna, Mount Myōgi, Mount Nikkō-Shirane
Mount Nikkō-Shirane
and Mount Asama, which is located on the Nagano border. Major rivers include the Tone River, the Agatsuma River, and the Karasu River. As of 1 April 2012, 14% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely Jōshin'etsu-kōgen, Nikkō, and Oze National Parks and Myōgi-Arafune-Saku Kōgen Quasi-National Park.[4] Cities[edit] Twelve cities are located in Gunma Prefecture:

Annaka Fujioka Isesaki Kiryū

Maebashi
Maebashi
(capital) Midori Numata Ōta

Shibukawa Takasaki Tatebayashi Tomioka

Towns and villages[edit] These are the towns and villages in each district:

Agatsuma District

Higashiagatsuma Kusatsu Naganohara Nakanojō Takayama Tsumagoi

Kanra District

Kanra Nanmoku Shimonita

Kitagunma District

Shintō Yoshioka

Ōra District

Chiyoda Itakura Meiwa Ōizumi Ōra

Sawa District

Tamamura

Tano District

Kanna Ueno

Tone District

Katashina Kawaba Minakami Shōwa

Mergers[edit] Main article: List of mergers in Gunma Prefecture Climate[edit]

Mount Nakanodake viewed from Mount Shibutsu

Because Gunma is situated in inland Japan, the difference in temperature in the summer compared to the winter is large, and there is less precipitation. This is because of the kara-kaze ("empty wind"), a strong, dry wind which occurs in the winter when the snow falls on the coasts of Niigata. The wind carrying clouds with snow are obstructed by the Echigo Mountains, and it also snows there, although the high peaks do not let the wind go past them. For this reason, the wind changes into the kara-kaze.

Climate in Maebashi

Average yearly precipitation: 1,163 mm Average yearly temperature: 14.2 degrees Celsius

Economy[edit] Gunma's modern industries include transport equipment and electrical equipment, concentrated around Maebashi
Maebashi
and the eastern region nearest Tokyo. More traditional industries include sericulture and agriculture. Gunma's major agricultural products include cabbages and konjacs. Gunma produces 90% of Japan's konjacs, and two-thirds of the farms in the village of Tsumagoi are cabbage farms. Also, the city of Ōta is famous for car industry, notably the Subaru
Subaru
factory. Culture[edit] Gunma has a traditional card game called Jomo Karuta (上毛かるた). Kiyoshi Ogawa, a Kamikaze
Kamikaze
pilot who led the attack on the USS Bunker Hill was born in Gunma Gunma is home to one of Japan's three Melody Roads. 2,559 grooves cut into a 175-meter stretch of the road surface transmit a tactile vibration through the wheels into the car body.[5][6] When driven over at 50 km/h it produces the melody of "Memories of Summer".[7] Education[edit] Universities[edit]

Isesaki

Jobu University
Jobu University
- Isesaki Campus Tokyo
Tokyo
University of Social Welfare - Isesaki Campus

Maebashi

Gunma University Maebashi
Maebashi
Institute of Technology

Midori

Kiryu University

Ota

Kanto Gakuen University

Takasaki

Takasaki
Takasaki
City University of Economics Takasaki
Takasaki
University of Commerce Takasaki
Takasaki
University of Health and Welfare Gunma Paz College Jobu University
Jobu University
- Takasaki
Takasaki
Campus

Tamamura

Gunma Prefectural Women's University

Sports[edit] The sports teams listed below are based in Gunma. Baseball[edit]

Gunma Diamond Pegasus

Football (soccer)[edit]

Thespakusatsu Gunma
Thespakusatsu Gunma
(Kusatsu)

Rugby[edit]

Panasonic Wild Knights
Panasonic Wild Knights
(Ota)

Basketball[edit]

Gunma Crane Thunders

Gunma is also famous for its ski resorts in the mountains. Tourism[edit] Gunma has many hot spring resorts and the most famous is Kusatsu Onsen. Another draw to the mountainous Gunma is the ski resorts. Other attractions include:

Lake Nozori Hara Museum Arc Ikaho Sistina Trick Art Museum Mount Haruna Kusatsu Alpine-Plant Museum Kusatsu Hot-Spring Museum Mount Kusatsu-Shirane Mount Tanigawa Mount Akagi Mount Myōgi The Museum of Modern Art, Gunma

Transportation[edit] Rail[edit]

JR East

Joetsu Shinkansen Hokuriku Shinkansen Takasaki
Takasaki
Line Shinetsu Line
Shinetsu Line
(Takasaki-Yokokawa) Joetsu Line Agatsuma Line Ryomo Line Hachiko Line
Hachiko Line
(Kuragano-Hachioji)

Tobu Railway

Isesaki Line Nikko Line (Itakura Tōyōdai-mae Station) Sano Line Kiryu Line

Joshin Electric Railway (Takasaki-Shimonita) Jomo Electric Railway (Chuo Maebashi-Nishi Kiryu) Watarase Keikoku Railway Watarase Keikoku Line

Roads[edit] Expressways[edit]

Kan-Etsu Expressway Tōhoku Expressway Jōshin-etsu Expressway Kita-Kantō Expressway
Kita-Kantō Expressway
(Takasaki-Hitachinaka)

National highways[edit]

National Route 17 ( Nihonbashi
Nihonbashi
of Tokyo-Saitama-Kumagaya-Takasaki-Shibukawa-Ojiya-Nagaoka) National Route 18 (Takasaki-Annaka-Karuizawa-Komoro-Nagano-Myoko-Joetsu) National Route 50 (Maebashi-Isesaki-Oyama-Yuki-Mito) National Route 120 National Route 122 National Route 144 National Route 145 National Route 146 National Route 254 National Route 291 National Route 292 National Route 299 National Route 353 National Route 354 National Route 405 National Route 406 National Route 407 National Route 462

Prefectural symbols[edit] The prefectural symbol consists of the first kanji of the word 'Gunma' surrounded by three stylized mountains symbolizing the three important mountains of Gunma Prefecture: Mount Haruna, Mount Akagi, and Mount Myōgi. For marketing, the Prefectural Government also uses Gunma-chan, a small super deformed drawing of a gendered horse character wearing a green cap. It is used on promotional posters, banners and other notable printed materials from the Prefectural Government. Other agencies and companies formally or informally use variations of its likeness and other horse-shaped characters when making signs or notices for work on buildings, roads, and other public notices. Notes[edit]

^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Gumma-ken" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 267, p. 267, at Google Books; "Kantō" in p. 479, p. 479, at Google Books. ^ Nussbaum, "Maebashi" in p. 600, p. 600, at Google Books. ^ Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" in p. 470, p. 470, at Google Books. ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. 1 April 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2013.  ^ Johnson, Bobbie (13 November 2007). "Japan's melody roads play music as you drive". The Guardian. Farringdon Road, London, England: GMG. p. 19 (International section). Retrieved 20 October 2008.  ^ "Your car as a musical instrument - Melody Roads". Noise Addicts. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2008.  ^ "Singing Roads - Take a Musical Trip in Japan". ITN. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2008. 

References[edit]

Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128 "Gunma Prefecture: Location and Topography". Gunma Prefecture HomePage. October 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-19. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Gunma.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gunma prefecture.

Gunma Prefecture
Gunma Prefecture
Official Website (in Japanese) Gunma Prefecture
Gunma Prefecture
Official Website (in English)

v t e

Gunma Prefecture

Maebashi
Maebashi
(capital)

Core cities

Maebashi Takasaki

Special
Special
cities

Isesaki Ōta

Cities

Annaka Fujioka Kiryū Midori Numata Shibukawa Tatebayashi Tomioka

Agatsuma District

Higashiagatsuma Kusatsu Naganohara Nakanojō Takayama Tsumagoi

Kanra District

Kanra Shimonita Nanmoku

Kitagunma District

Yoshioka Shintō

Ōra District

Chiyoda Itakura Meiwa Ōizumi Ōra

Sawa District

Tamamura

Tano District

Kanna Ueno

Tone District

Minakami Katashina Kawaba Shōwa

List of mergers in Gunma Prefecture

v t e

Regions and administrative divisions of Japan

Regions

Hokkaido Tōhoku Kantō

Nanpō Islands

Chūbu

Hokuriku Kōshin'etsu Shin'etsu Tōkai

Kansai Chūgoku

San'in San'yō

Shikoku Kyushu

Northern Southern Okinawa

47 Prefectures

Hokkaido

Hokkaido

Tōhoku

Aomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima

Kantō

Ibaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanagawa

Chūbu

Niigata Toyama Ishikawa Fukui Yamanashi Nagano Gifu Shizuoka Aichi

Kansai

Mie Shiga Kyoto Osaka Hyōgo Nara Wakayama

Chūgoku

Tottori Shimane Okayama Hiroshima Yamaguchi

Shikoku

Tokushima Kagawa Ehime Kōchi

Kyushu

Fukuoka Saga Nagasaki Kumamoto Ōita Miyazaki Kagoshima Okinawa

Coordinates: 36°22′N 139°7′E / 36.367°N 139.117°E / 36.367; 139.117

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127838727 ISNI: 0000 0004 0404 8490 N

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