Gun-howitzer (also referred to as gun howitzer) is a type of artillery
weapon that is intended to fulfill both the role of ordinary cannon or
field gun, and that of a howitzer. It is thus able to convey both
direct and indirect fire.
To be able to serve as a howitzer, gun-howitzers are typically built
to achieve up to 60—70° of elevation. For effective direct fire,
the gun-howitzers typically employ a fairly long barrel, usually not
shorter than 30 calibres. Its ammunition also has a high muzzle
velocity and often large calibre (often exceeding 120 mm).
Historically the first gun-howitzer was the French canon obusier of
19th century. The smooth-bore
Canon obusier de 12 was a versatile
weapon that quickly replaced both ordinary cannons and howitzers in
French service, and became one of the basic types of artillery used by
both sides of the American Civil War. Owing to their versality,
gun-howitzers gained prominence in the period leading to World War II
as a more flexible weapon than ordinary howitzers and were adopted by
armies of both the Allies (for instance the Soviet ML-20 152 mm M1937
and British (88 mm) Ordnance QF 25-pounder) and the Axis (German
10.5 cm leFH 18).
^ a b c Ciepliński & Woźniak 1994, pp. 83–84.
^ Hazlett, Olmstead & Parks 2004, pp. 28–29.
^ Carruthers 2013, p. 174.
Carruthers, Bob (21 January 2013). German
Artillery in Combat. Pen and
Sword. ISBN 978-1-78159-133-8. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
Ciepliński, Andrzej; Woźniak, Ryszard (1994). Encyklopedia
współczesnej broni palnej (od połowy XIX wieku) [Encyclopaedia of
modern firearms (since mid-19th century)] (in Polish). Warsaw:
Wydawnictwo WiS. pp. 83–84. ISBN 83-86028-01-7.
Hazlett, James C.; Olmstead, Edwin; Parks, M. Hume (2004). Field
Artillery Weapons of the Civil War. University of Illinois Press.
pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-252-07210-9. Retrieved 13 April
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