The GULF OF ADEN (Arabic : خليج عدن _Ḫalīǧ ʻAdan_,
Somali : _Gacanka Cadmeed_) is a gulf located in the Arabian Sea
Yemen , on the south coast of the
Arabian Peninsula , and
Somalia in the
Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa . In the northwest, it connects with the
Red Sea through the
Bab-el-Mandeb strait, which is more than 20 miles
(32 kilometres) wide. It shares its name with the port city of
Yemen , which forms the northern shore of the gulf. Historically, the
Aden was known as "The Gulf of Berbera", named after the
ancient Somali port city of
Berbera on the south side of the gulf.
However, as the city of
Aden grew during the colonial era, the name of
"Gulf of Aden" was popularised.
The waterway is part of the important
Suez Canal shipping route
Mediterranean Sea and the
Arabian Sea in the Indian Ocean
with 21,000 ships crossing the gulf annually.
* 1 Name
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Limits
* 2.2 Hydrography
* 3 Commerce and trade
* 4 Ecology
* 5 Bordering countries
* 6 Towns and cities
* 7 See also
* 8 Images
* 9 Notes
* 10 External links
The name of the Gulf was inspired by the former British Crown Colony
Aden , now part of Yemen. The Somali names are Gacanka Cadmeed
or Gacanka Saylac.
International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the
Aden as follows: _On the Northwest_ – The southern limit
Red Sea . _On the Northwest_ – The eastern limit of the
Gulf of Tadjoura (A line joining
Lawyacado ). _On the
East_ – The meridian of
Cape Guardafui (Ras Asir, 51°16'E).
The temperature of the Gulf of
Aden varies between 15 °C (59 °F)
and 28 °C (82 °F), depending on the season and the appearance of
monsoons . The salinity of the gulf at 10 metres (33 ft) depth varies
‰ along the eastern Somali coast to as high as 37.3
the gulf's center, while the oxygen content in the Gulf of
the same depth is typically between 4.0 and 5.0 mg/L.
COMMERCE AND TRADE
A dhow in the Gulf of Aden.
The Gulf of
Aden is a vital waterway for shipping, especially for
Persian Gulf oil , making it an integral waterway in the world
economy. Approximately 11 percent of the world's seaborne petroleum
passes through the Gulf of
Aden on its way to the
Suez Canal or to
regional refineries. The main ports along the gulf are
Aden in Yemen
Djibouti City in
Djibouti , and
In earlier history, the city of Crater , located just south of the
modern city of Aden, was an important port in regional trade. Crater
was the principal harbor of the pre-Islamic kingdom of
Awsan , and
after its annexation by the kingdom of Saba at the end of the 5th
century, played a significant role in connecting Africa with Arabia.
In the late 2000s, the gulf evolved into a hub of pirate activity. By
2013, attacks in the waters had steadily declined due to active
private security and international navy patrols. India receives USD
50 billion in imports and sends USD 60 billion in exports through this
area annually. Because of this and for the sake of protecting the
trade of other countries, India keeps a warship escort in this area.
Also see Piracy in Gulf of
See also: Persian gulf § Wildlife
A geologically young body of water, the Gulf of
Aden has a unique
biodiversity that contains many varieties of fish , coral , seabirds
and invertebrates . This rich ecological diversity has benefited from
a relative lack of pollution during the history of human habitation
around the gulf. However, environmental groups fear that the lack of a
coordinated effort to control pollution may jeopardize the gulf's
ecosphere . Whales , dolphins , and dugongs were once common
before being severely reduced by commercial hunts, including by mass
illegal hunts by Soviet Union and Japan in 1960s to 70s. Critically
endangered Arabian humpback whales were used to be seen in large
numbers, and only a few of large whales still occur in the gulf
waters such as bryde\'s whales , blue whales , and toothed whales
inhabiting deep-seas such as sperm whales and less known tropical
bottlenose whales .
* Northern shore:
* Western shore:
* Southern shore:
TOWNS AND CITIES
Towns and cities on the Gulf of
* Bir Ali
Erythraean Sea , ancient name of the Gulf
Maritime Security Patrol Area
* International fleet of vessels in the Gulf of
Space Station photograph of the Gulf of
Aden and the
Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
* ^ Dumper, Stanley, Michael, Bruce E. _Cities of The Middle East
and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia_. ABC CLIO, Google Books.
* ^ Houtsma, M. Th. _First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936_.
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* ^ "Pirates fire on US cruise ship in hijack attempt: Yahoo!
Yahoo! . Archived from the original on December 4, 2008.
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Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Hydrographic Survey Results". _Report on Cruise No. 3
of R/V "Dr. Fridtjof Nansen." -
Indian Ocean Fishery and Development
Programme - Pelagic
Fish Assessment Survey North Arabian Sea_. Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1975.
* ^ "
Earth from Space: The Gulf of
Aden – the gateway to Persian
oil". European Space Agency. 2005-03-01. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
* ^ "
Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden" (PDF). International Tanker
Pollution Federation (ITOPF). 2003. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
* ^ Arnsdorf, Isaac (22 July 2013). "West Africa Pirates Seen
Threatening Oil and Shipping". _Bloomberg_. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
* ^ Gokhale, Nitin (2011). "India Takes Fight to Pirates".
The Diplomat . Retrieved 19 April 2011.
* ^ "
Red Sea & Gulf of Aden". United Nations Environment Programme.
2005. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
* ^ Nasr D.. Dugongs in the
Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
* ^ Hoath R.. 2009. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Egypt. pp.112.
American University in Cairo Press . Retrieved on February 26.
* ^ Jackson J.. 2006. Diving with Giants. pp.59. New Holland
Publishers Ltd . Retrieved on December 17. 2014
* ^ http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/149/m149p013.pdf
* ^ http://www.pbs.org/odyssey/odyssey/20040430_log_transcript.html
* ^ http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/246400.pdf.
* ^ http://www.sailingluna.nl/Yemenn.htm
* ^ Anderson, R. C.; Clark, R.; Madsen, P. T.; Johnson, C.; Kiszka,
J.; Breysse, O. (2006). "Observations of Longman's Beaked Whale
(_Indopacetus pacificus_) in the Western Indian Ocean". _Aq. Mamm. _
32 (2): 223–231. doi :10.1578/AM.32.2.2006.223 .
* Media related