Gulf of Aden
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The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
'' is a deepwater gulf between
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
to the north, the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
to the east,
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...

Djibouti
to the west, and the
Guardafui Channel The Guardafui Channel ( so, Marinka Gardafuul) is an oceanic strait off the tip of the Horn of Africa that lies between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra to the west of the Arabian Sea. It connects the Gulf of Aden to the north with the ...
,
Socotra Socotra or Soqotra (; ar, سُقُطْرَىٰ ), located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of the four islands in the Socotra Archipelago. The territory is located near major shipping routes and is officially ...

Socotra
(Yemen),
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
and
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya 𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖 𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒖), also known as Far Soomaali (𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒘𐒝𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒘, "Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah ...

Somalia
to the south. In the northwest, it connects with the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northe ...

Red Sea
through the
Bab-el-Mandeb The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countr ...

Bab-el-Mandeb
strait, and it connects with the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
to the east. To the west, it narrows into the
Gulf of Tadjoura The Gulf of Tadjoura (; ) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and t ...

Gulf of Tadjoura
in
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...

Djibouti
. The ancient Greeks regarded the gulf as one of the most important parts of the
Erythraean Sea The Erythraean Sea ( grc-gre, Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα, ''Erythrà Thálassa'', ."Red Sea") was a former maritime designation that always included the Gulf of Aden and at times other seas between Arabia Felix and the Horn of Africa. Origina ...

Erythraean Sea
. It later came to be dominated by Muslims, as the area around the gulf converted to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
. From the late 1960s onwards, there started to be an increased Soviet naval presence in the Gulf. The importance of the Gulf of Aden declined when the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
was closed, but it was revitalized when the canal was reopened in 1975, after being deepened and widened by the
Egyptian government The politics of Egypt are based on republicanism, with a semi-presidential system of government. The current political system was established following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and the resignation of President of Egypt, President Hosni Mub ...
. The waterway is part of the important
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
shipping route between the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
in the Indian Ocean, with 21,000 ships crossing the gulf annually. This route is often used for the delivery of
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can b ...

oil
, making the gulf an integral waterway in the
world economy The world economy or the global economy is the economy of all humans of the world, referring to the global economic system which includes all economic activities which are conducted both within and between nations, including production (economics ...
. Important cities along the Gulf of Aden include the namesake
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' : ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of , near the eastern approach to the (the ), some east of the strait . Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's natural lies in the crater of a do ...

Aden
in
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
. Other Yemeni cities are
Zinjibar Zinjibar ( ar, زِنْجِبَار ''Zinjibār'') is a port and coastal town in south-central Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yem ...
,
Shuqrah Shuqrah ( ar, شُقْرَة), also Shaqrāʾ ( ar, شَقْرَاء) or Shuqrāʾ ( ar, شُقْرَاء), is a coastal town in southern Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
,
Ahwar Ahwar ( ar, أحور) a town in south-central Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni gove ...
,
Balhaf Balhaf is an industrial port town and an oasis in an area of coastal dunes in the Burum Coastal Area of . It has palm trees and white sand, which gives way to fields of black lava and to the fishing port of Bir-Ali. Qana, a major point of departure ...
,
Mukalla Mukalla ( ar, ٱلْمُكَلَّا, ') is a seaport and the capital city of Yemen's largest governorate, Hadhramaut Governorate, Hadhramaut. The city is in the South Arabia, southern part of the Arabian Peninsula on the Gulf of Aden, on the shore ...

Mukalla
. On the Horn African side, the cities of
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...
,
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
, and
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of A ...

Bosaso
. Despite a lack of large-scale commercial fishing facilities, the coastline supports many isolated fishing towns and villages. The Gulf of Aden is richly supplied with fish, turtles, and lobsters. Local fishing takes place close to the shore; sardines, tuna, kingfish, and mackerel make up the bulk of the annual catches. Crayfish and sharks are also fished locally.


Historical Names

In
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
, the modern-day Gulf of Aden was seen as an extension of the
Erythraean Sea The Erythraean Sea ( grc-gre, Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα, ''Erythrà Thálassa'', ."Red Sea") was a former maritime designation that always included the Gulf of Aden and at times other seas between Arabia Felix and the Horn of Africa. Origina ...

Erythraean Sea
(Red Sea) grc-gre, Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα, ''Erythrà Thálassa'' in Ancient Greek geography. The
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an and native to the and the regions, namely , , , , , and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the . They also form a significant , with Greek communities esta ...

Greeks
named several islands within the gulf, including Stratonis Insula, although it is no longer clear which existing islands had which Greek names. In
Abu'l-Fida Ismāʿīl b. ʿAlī b. Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Shāhanshāh b. Ayyūb b. Shādī b. Marwān ( ar, إسماعيل بن علي بن محمود بن محمد بن عمر بن شاهنشاه بن أيوب بن شادي بن مروان) ...
's, ''A Sketch of the Countries'' ( ar, تقويم البلدان), the present-day Gulf of Aden was called the Gulf of Berbera, which shows how important
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
was in both regional and international trade during the medieval period. Legendary navigator Ibn Majid referred to the Gulf of Aden as the Gulf of
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
in his 15th century magnum opus ''The Book of the Benefits of the Principles and Foundations of Seamanship''. In his description of the Somali coast and wider
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia (continent), Australia to the east. To the s ...

Indian Ocean
he used the then contemporary reference to the Gulf as being named after Berbera like
Abu'l-Fida Ismāʿīl b. ʿAlī b. Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Shāhanshāh b. Ayyūb b. Shādī b. Marwān ( ar, إسماعيل بن علي بن محمود بن محمد بن عمر بن شاهنشاه بن أيوب بن شادي بن مروان) ...
before him. Berbera has been a prominent port since antiquityPeriplus of the Erythraean Sea, Schoff's 1912 translation
/ref>


Geography


Limits

The
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organiza ...
defines the limits of the Gulf of Aden as follows: ::''On the west'' – The southern limit of the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northe ...

Red Sea
_line_joining_Hisn_Murad_()_and_Ras_Siyyan.html" ;"title="Hisn_Murad.html" ;"title=" line joining Hisn Murad"> line joining Hisn Murad () and Ras Siyyan">Hisn_Murad.html" ;"title=" line joining Hisn Murad"> line joining Hisn Murad () and Ras Siyyan ()]. ::''On the west'' – The eastern limit of the
Gulf of Tadjoura The Gulf of Tadjoura (; ) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and t ...

Gulf of Tadjoura
(A line joining
Obock Obock (also Obok, aa, Hayyú) is a small port town in Djibouti. It is located on the northern shore of the Gulf of Tadjoura, where it opens out into the Gulf of Aden. The town is home to Obock Airport, an airstrip and has ferries to Djibouti City ...

Obock
and Lawyacado). ::''On the East'' – The
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
.


Hydrography

The temperature of the Gulf of Aden varies between and , depending on the season and the appearance of
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric ph ...

monsoon
s. The
salinity Salinity () is the saltiness or amount of dissolved in a body of , called (see also ). It is usually measured in g/L or g/kg (grams of salt per liter/kilogram of water; the latter is dimensionless and equal to ‰). Salinity is an important ...

salinity
of the gulf at depth varies from 35.3 along the eastern Somali coast to as high as 37.3 ‰ in the gulf's center, while the oxygen content in the Gulf of Aden at the same depth is typically between 4.0 and 5.0 mg/L.


Exclusive economic zone

Exclusive economic zones in Gulf of Aden:


Economy

The Gulf of Aden is a vital waterway for shipping, especially for
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can b ...

oil
, making it an integral waterway in the
world economy The world economy or the global economy is the economy of all humans of the world, referring to the global economic system which includes all economic activities which are conducted both within and between nations, including production (economics ...
. Approximately 11% of the world's seaborne
petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) unde ...

petroleum
passes through the Gulf of Aden on its way to the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
or to regional refineries. The main ports along the gulf are
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' : ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of , near the eastern approach to the (the ), some east of the strait . Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's natural lies in the crater of a do ...

Aden
,
Balhaf Balhaf is an industrial port town and an oasis in an area of coastal dunes in the Burum Coastal Area of . It has palm trees and white sand, which gives way to fields of black lava and to the fishing port of Bir-Ali. Qana, a major point of departure ...
, Bir Ali,
Mukalla Mukalla ( ar, ٱلْمُكَلَّا, ') is a seaport and the capital city of Yemen's largest governorate, Hadhramaut Governorate, Hadhramaut. The city is in the South Arabia, southern part of the Arabian Peninsula on the Gulf of Aden, on the shore ...

Mukalla
, and Shokra in
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
;
Djibouti City Djibouti (also called Djibouti City; ar, مدينة جيبوتي, french: Ville de Djibouti, so, Magaalada Jabuuti, aa, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on th ...

Djibouti City
in
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...

Djibouti
;
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
,
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
,
Maydh Maydh (also transliterated as Mait or Meit) (, ) is an ancient port city in the eastern Sanaag region of Somaliland. History Antiquity According to Augustus Henry Keane Augustus Henry Keane (1833–1912) was an Irish Roman Catholic Roman or Ro ...

Maydh
and
Las Khorey Las Khorey ( so, Laasqoray, ar, لاسقُرَى ) is an ancient coastal city in the Sanaag region of Somaliland. History The Las Khorey settlement is several centuries old. Between the town and El Ayo lies Karinhegane, a site containing nu ...
in
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
and
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of A ...

Bosaso
in
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya 𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖 𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒖), also known as Far Soomaali (𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒘𐒝𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒘, "Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah ...

Somalia
. In
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
, the gulf was a thriving area of international trade between
Ptolemaic Egypt The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divi ...
and
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
in the west and
Classical India The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, starting with Sim ...
, its Indonesian colonies, and
Han China The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), ...

Han China
in the east. It was not limited to
transshipment Transshipment or transhipment is the shipment of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distr ...
, as Yemeni
incense Incense is aromatic biotic material that releases fragrant smoke when burnt. The term is used for either the material or the aroma. Incense is used for aesthetic reasons, religious worship, aromatherapy, meditation, and ceremony. It may also be u ...

incense
,
tortoiseshell Tortoiseshell or tortoise shell is a material produced from the shells of the larger species of tortoise Tortoises () are reptile species of the family Testudinidae of the order Testudines (from the Latin name for tortoise). They are particula ...
, and other goods were in high demand in both directions. After Egyptian sailors discovered the monsoon winds and began to trade directly with India,
caravan Caravan or caravans may refer to: Transport and travel *Caravan (travellers), a group of travellers journeying together **Caravanserai, a place where a caravan could stop *Camel train, a convoy using camels as pack animals *Convoy, a group of vehi ...
routes and their associated kingdoms began to collapse, leading to a rise in
piracy Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

piracy
in the area. The 1st-century ''
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea The ''Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'' ( grc, Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθρᾶς Θαλάσσης, ', modern Greek '), also known by its Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of ...
'' documents one Egyptian captain's experiences during this era. After the collapse of the Roman economy, direct trade ceased but the
Awsan{{citations, date=November 2016 The ancient Kingdom of Awsān in South Arabia (modern Yemen), with a capital at Ḥajar Yaḥirr in Wādī Markhah, to the south of Wādī Bayḥān, is now marked by a Tell (archaeology), tell or artificial mound, whi ...
I port
Crater Crater may refer to: Landforms *Impact crater, a depression caused by two celestial bodies impacting each other, such as a meteorite hitting a planet *Explosion crater, a hole formed in the ground produced by an explosion near or below the surface ...
, located just south of the modern city of Aden, remained an important regional center. In late antiquity and the early medieval period, there were several invasions of Yemen from
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a in the . It shares borders with and to the north, to the northeast, to the east, to the south, to the west and to the . Ethiopia has a total area of and over ...

Ethiopia
; after the rise of Islam, the gulf permitted repeated migrations of northwest Africa by Arab settlers. In the late 2000s, the gulf evolved into a hub of
pirate Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...
activity. By 2013, attacks in the waters had steadily declined due to active private security and international navy patrols. India receives US$50 billion in imports and sends US$60 billion in exports through this area annually. Due to this, and for the sake of protecting the trade of other countries, India keeps a warship escort in this area.


Ecology

A geologically young body of water, the Gulf of Aden has a unique
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and of . Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the , , and level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the , which is the result of the warm and high . Biodiversity is not distributed ev ...

biodiversity
that contains many varieties of
fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ray-finned fish, belonging to the class , with over 95 ...

fish
,
coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a vert ...

coral
,
seabird Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Cla ...

seabird
s and
invertebrate Invertebrates are animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular resp ...
s. This rich ecological diversity has benefited from a relative lack of
pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural env ...

pollution
during the history of human habitation around the gulf. However, environmental groups fear that the lack of a coordinated effort to control pollution may jeopardize the gulf's ecosphere.
Whale Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully s. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder , which usually excludes s and s. Whales, dolphins and porpoises belong to the order , which consists of s. Their closest n ...

Whale
s,
dolphin Dolphin is the common name of aquatic mammals within the infraorder Cetacea. The term dolphin usually refers to the extant families Delphinidae (the oceanic dolphins), Platanistidae (the Indian river dolphins), Iniidae (the New World river dol ...

dolphin
s, and
dugong The dugong (; ''Dugong dugon'') is a medium-sized marine mammal. It is one of four living species of the order Sirenia, which also includes three species of manatees. It is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongida ...

dugong
s were once common before being severely reduced by commercial hunts, including by mass illegal hunts by Soviet Union and Japan in 1960s to 70s. Critically endangered Arabian
humpback whale The humpback whale (''Megaptera novaeangliae'') is a species of baleen whale. It is one of the larger rorqual species, with adults ranging in length from and weighing around . The humpback has a distinctive body shape, with long pectoral fins ...

humpback whale
s were once seen in large numbers, but only a few large whales still appear in the gulf waters, including
Bryde's whale Bryde's whale ( ), or the Bryde's whale complex, putatively comprises three species of rorqual and maybe four. The "complex" means the number and classification remains unclear because of a lack of definitive information and research. The common ...
s,
blue whale The blue whale (''Balaenoptera musculus'') is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale suborder Mysticeti. Reaching a maximum confirmed length of and a weighing up to , it is the largest animal known to have existed. The blue whale's lo ...
s, and toothed whales inhabiting deep-seas such as
sperm whale #REDIRECT Sperm whale#REDIRECT Sperm whale The sperm whale or cachalot (''Physeter macrocephalus'') is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the pred ...

sperm whale
s and
tropical bottlenose whale The tropical bottlenose whale (''Indopacetus pacificus''), also known as the Indo-Pacific beaked whale or Longman's beaked whale, was considered to be the world's rarest cetacean Cetaceans (from la, cetus, lit=whale, from grc, κῆτος, tr ...

tropical bottlenose whale
s.


See also

*
Maritime Security Patrol Area The Maritime Security Patrol Area (MSPA) is a specified patrol zone in the Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒌𐒖𐒋𐒖𐒒𐒏𐒖 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒑𐒜𐒆) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera'' is a d ...
* International fleet of vessels in the Gulf of Aden


References


Further reading

*


External links

*
Space Station photograph of the Gulf of Aden and the Horn of Africa
{{Authority control Bodies of water of Somalia Bodies of water of Yemen Great Rift Valley Bodies of water of the Arabian Sea Piracy by body of water Gulfs of the Indian Ocean, Aden Bodies of water of the Red Sea Bodies of water of Djibouti Gulfs of Africa Western Indo-Pacific