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The GULF ISLANDS are the islands in the Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
(also known as Salish Sea
Salish Sea
or the Gulf of Georgia
Gulf of Georgia
), between Vancouver
Vancouver
Island
Island
and the mainland of British Columbia
British Columbia
, Canada
Canada
.

According to BC Geographical Names (BCGNIS) the name "Gulf Islands" was originally intended and commonly understood to refer to the archipelago at the southern end of the Strait of Georgia—from Gabriola Island
Island
in the north to Saturna Island
Island
in the southeast and D\'Arcy Island
Island
in the southwest. During the 1990s, however, the name began to be applied to all the islands in the Strait of Georgia, resulting in the introduction of the term "Southern Gulf Islands", which BCGNIS calls a misnomer, to distinguish the original "Gulf Islands" from the rest, which are sometimes called the "North Gulf Islands". BCGNIS further notes that Quadra Island
Island
is increasingly described as the "northernmost of the Gulf Islands".

The division of the Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
into two groups, the Southern and Northern Gulf Islands, is relatively common. The dividing line is approximately that formed by the city of Nanaimo
Nanaimo
on Vancouver
Vancouver
Island, and the mouth of the Fraser River
Fraser River
on the mainland. The larger populated islands are served by BC Ferries
BC Ferries
, which operates various vehicle and passenger ferries between the Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
and to terminals near the major cities of Nanaimo
Nanaimo
and Victoria on Vancouver Island
Island
as well as Vancouver
Vancouver
on the mainland. BC Ferries
BC Ferries
distinguishes between the Southern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
and the Northern Gulf Islands. Their Northern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
includes both Quadra Island
Island
and Cortes Island
Island
, as well as some islands far to the north, such as Malcolm Island
Island
and Cormorant Island
Island
. Natural Resources Canada
Canada
maps the Gulf Islands as including the "Southern Gulf Islands", the islands of Howe Sound (such as Bowen Island
Island
, Gambier Island
Island
, and Keats Island
Island
), along with Lasqueti Island
Island
, Hornby Island
Island
, and Denman Island
Island
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Southern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands

* 1.1 Capital Regional District
Capital Regional District
* 1.2 Cowichan Valley Regional District
Cowichan Valley Regional District
* 1.3 Regional District of Nanaimo
Nanaimo

* 2 Northern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands

* 2.1 Comox Valley Regional District
Comox Valley Regional District
* 2.2 Powell River Regional District

* 3 "Gulf of Georgia" * 4 Ecology
Ecology
* 5 Agriculture
Agriculture
* 6 Provincial Parks and Protected Areas * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

SOUTHERN GULF ISLANDS

North Pender, Mayne and Galiano Islands A view of North Pender Island's shoreline Arbutus trees and sandstone beaches are common in the Gulf Islands.

The Southern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
include hundreds of islands and islets, and form part of a larger archipelago that also includes the nearby San Juan Islands of the state of Washington , in the United States
United States
.

The Southern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
are perhaps best known for their artists, wineries, fromageries, and farms, as well as for their natural beauty. Boating, kayaking, hiking, camping and wildlife viewing are all possible in the Southern Gulf Islands.

The major Southern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
are as follows:

CAPITAL REGIONAL DISTRICT

* Galiano Island
Island
* Mayne Island
Island
* North and South Pender Islands * Saltspring Island
Island
* Saturna Island
Island

COWICHAN VALLEY REGIONAL DISTRICT

* Penelakut Island
Island
(Formerly Kuper Island
Island
) * Thetis Island
Island
* Valdes Island
Island

REGIONAL DISTRICT OF NANAIMO

* Gabriola Island
Island

NORTHERN GULF ISLANDS

The major Northern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
are as follows:

COMOX VALLEY REGIONAL DISTRICT

* Denman Island
Island
* Hornby Island
Island

POWELL RIVER REGIONAL DISTRICT

* Lasqueti Island
Island
* Texada Island
Island

Quadra Island
Island
is sometimes said to be part of the Gulf Islands. It is more often designated as part of the Discovery Islands
Discovery Islands
.

"GULF OF GEORGIA"

The name "Gulf Islands" comes from " Gulf of Georgia
Gulf of Georgia
," the original term used by George Vancouver
Vancouver
in his mapping of the southern part of the archipelago and which before the San Juan Island
Island
dispute also was taken to include what have since been called the San Juan Islands
San Juan Islands
. Strictly speaking, the Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
is only the wide, open waters of the main strait between the mainland and Vancouver
Vancouver
Island
Island
, and does not officially refer to the adjoining waters between the islands and between them and Vancouver
Vancouver
Island
Island
but has become a common misnomer for the entire Gulf, which includes waters such as Active Pass (between Galiano Island
Island
and Mayne Island
Island
), Trincomali Channel (between Galiano Island
Island
and Saltspring Island
Island
), Sansum Narrows (between Saltspring Island
Island
and Vancouver
Vancouver
Island), and Malaspina Strait (between Texada Island
Island
and the mainland around Powell River ). "The Gulf" refers to all such waters collectively, and to those communities and shores surrounding it. Only the term "Strait of Georgia" remains in the provincial gazette although its use as a synonym for the Gulf is unofficial, while the term Gulf of Georgia
Gulf of Georgia
remains in current use though not in the provincial gazette.

The term Salish Sea
Salish Sea
was adopted in 2010 to refer to the Strait of Georgia, the Strait of Juan de Fuca
Strait of Juan de Fuca
, Puget Sound
Puget Sound
, and all connecting and adjoining waters.

ECOLOGY

The islands and surrounding ocean are rich with ecologically diverse plants and sea life including Garry oaks , wild lilies, kelp beds and Orcas . Gulf Islands National Park Reserve of Canada
Canada
was established in 2003 by Parks Canada
Canada
to protect the area’s unique ecosystem.

The Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
are home to one of the last remaining pockets of Garry oak ecosystems . Only about five percent of Garry oak ecosystems remain in their natural state, landing 91 of the approximately 350 species it supports on the province's list of species at risk . The unique Mediterranean characteristics of the islands' climate supports the Garry oak ecosystem. Garry oak ecosystems are home to more plant species, such as the camas , than any other terrestrial ecosystem in coastal B.C. and are one of Canada's most at-risk natural habitats .

Today, Garry oak meadows exist in the shallow and exposed soil of valleys , rocky foothills and southern slopes — areas that the settlers of the past 150 years have found unsuitable for agriculture or development .

The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT), a partnership of a number of governmental and non-governmental agencies that comprise 22 individuals, was established in 1999 after the delegates of the First International Garry Oak Ecosystem
Ecosystem
Symposium met in Victoria and declared the ecosystem endangered . Since then, GOERT has been working to motivate public and private restoration of the rare ecosystem and promote conservation activities.

AGRICULTURE

In most parts of Canada
Canada
, olive trees cannot thrive; the long, harsh winter and short, humid summer and spring make it difficult for olives to grow comfortably and properly, but Pender Island
Island
, Saturna Island
Island
, and Salt Spring Island
Island
have a Mediterranean style climate that permits olive production. Grove positioned on a downward slope, creating a natural drainage system.

Farm owner Andrew Butt has been recognized as the first person to plant olive trees in the region; he planted his first olive tree in 2001 at his farm on Pender Island, using Frantoio and Leccino cultivars that he obtained from California
California
. He uses kelp obtained from the surrounding straits as fertilizer and uses a pruning method that enhances the sunlight exposure on the trees. Michael Pierce and colleagues established an olive tree nursery on Saturna Island
Island
in 2009 that supplied olive trees to the region.

PROVINCIAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS

* Bellhouse Provincial Park , Galiano Island * Bodega Ridge Provincial Park , Galiano Island * Burgoyne Bay Provincial Park , Saltspring Island * Collinson Point Provincial Park , Galiano Island * Dionisio Point Provincial Park , Galiano Island * Jedediah Island
Island
Marine Provincial Park * Montague Harbour Marine Provincial Park , Galiano Island * Wakes Cove Provincial Park Valdes Island

SEE ALSO

* List of islands of Canada
Canada
* List of National Parks of Canada
Canada
* Southern Gulf Islands Electoral Area

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Template:Cite PEMDAS≠ * ^ "Southern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
Schedules". BC Ferries. Retrieved 31 July 2011. * ^ "Northern Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
Schedules". BC Ferries. Retrieved 31 July 2011. * ^ "Waterscape Gulf Islands". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 31 July 2011. * ^ https://www.georgiastrait.org/node/44 * ^ "Salish Sea". BC Geographical Names . Retrieved 2011-07-30. * ^ Mccarthy, Michael (2016-09-06). "Bananas and olives now thriving in the Banana Belt of Canada". The Province. * ^ A B C Adams, Barbara (2015-03-26). "Canadian Farmer Succeeds with Olives and Gives Kelp
Kelp
Seaweed Some of the Credit". Olive
Olive
Oil Times. * ^ "At the farmgate – Saturna Olive
Olive
Consortium". The Province. 2014-01-25.

EXTERNAL