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†The state of Bombay was divided into two states i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat
Gujarat
by the Bombay (Reorganisation) Act 1960

Symbols of Gujarat[4](de facto)

Language Gujarati[3]

Song "Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat" by Narmad[5]

Calendar Saka

Animal Asiatic lion[4]

Bird Greater flamingo[4]

Flower Marigold (galgota)[4]

Fruit Mango[6]

Tree Banyan[4]

Gujarat
Gujarat
(/ˌɡʊdʒəˈrɑːt/ Gujarat  ['gudʒəɾɑt̪] ( listen)) is a state in Western India[3][7][8][9][10] and Northwest India[11][12][13][14] with an area of 196,024 km2 (75,685 sq mi), a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi)–most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. It is bordered by Rajasthan
Rajasthan
to the northeast, Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
to the south, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
to the east, and the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and the Pakistani province of Sindh
Sindh
to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad.[15] The Gujarati-speaking people of India
India
are indigenous to the state. Gujarat
Gujarat
is the third-largest state economy in India
India
with ₹14.96 lakh crore (US$230 billion) in gross domestic product. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. Lothal
Lothal
is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch
Bharuch
and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, and during the succession of royal Saka
Saka
dynasties from the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
era. Gujarat
Gujarat
is one of three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient history 2.2 Medieval history 2.3 Rajput
Rajput
Period 2.4 Muslim
Muslim
rule

2.4.1 Islamic Conquests 1197–1614 AD 2.4.2 The Sultanate of Gujarat
Sultanate of Gujarat
and the merchants 2.4.3 Gujarat
Gujarat
in the Mughal Empire

2.5 Maratha
Maratha
Empire 2.6 European Colonialism 1614–1947 AD 2.7 Post independence

3 Geography

3.1 Rann of Kutch

4 Demographics

4.1 Religion 4.2 Language

5 Governance and administration 6 Economy

6.1 Infrastructure 6.2 Industrial growth 6.3 Energy 6.4 Agriculture

7 Culture

7.1 Literature 7.2 Cuisine 7.3 Cinema 7.4 Music 7.5 Festivals 7.6 Diffusion of culture

8 Flora and fauna 9 Tourism 10 Transport

10.1 Air

10.1.1 International airports 10.1.2 Domestic airports operated by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) 10.1.3 State-operated airports

10.2 Rail 10.3 Sea 10.4 Road

11 Education and research

11.1 Research

12 Notable individuals 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] Modern-day Gujarat
Gujarat
is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term Gurjaradesa, meaning the land of the Gurjars, supposedly a subtribe of the Huns
Huns
which ruled Gujarat
Gujarat
in the 8th and 9th centuries CE.[16][17][18][19] Parts of modern Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi (land of the Gurjars) for centuries before the Mughal period.[20] History[edit] Main article: History of Gujarat Ancient history[edit]

The docks of ancient Lothal
Lothal
as they are today

Ancient water reservoir at Dholavira

Gujarat
Gujarat
was one of the main central areas of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization.[21] It contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal
Lothal
was where India's first port was established. The ancient city of Dholavira
Dholavira
is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley
Indus Valley
settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat.[22] The ancient history of Gujarat
Gujarat
was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt, Bahrain
Bahrain
and Sumer
Sumer
in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.[22][23] There was a succession of Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire
Pala Empire
and Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and then the Chaulukyas. The early history of Gujarat
Gujarat
reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime. He ruled Giringer (modern day Junagadh) (322 BC to 294 BC) and built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh
Junagadh
but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
incursion into Gujarat
Gujarat
led by Demetrius. In the first half of the 1st century AD, there is the story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat
Gujarat
with Apostle Thomas. The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat.[24][25] For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD, Saka
Saka
rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history. The weather-beaten rock at Junagadh
Junagadh
gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(100 AD) of the Saka
Saka
satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
and the Western Satraps. The greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
and conquered some parts of Gujarat
Gujarat
in the 2nd century CE.[26]

Coin of the Gujuras of Sindh, Chavda dynasty, circa 570–712 CE. Crowned Sasanian-style bust right / Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames.[27]

The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
with the conquest of Gujarat
Gujarat
by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's successor Skandagupta left an inscription (450 AD) on a rock at Junagadh
Junagadh
which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods. The Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire. Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the Maitraka
Maitraka
general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in 470 AD he set up what came to be known as the Maitraka
Maitraka
state. He shifted his capital from Giringer to Valabhipur, near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became very powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat
Gujarat
and adjoining Malwa. A university was set up by the Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the noted Nalanda University. It was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited in 640 AD along the Silk Road.[28] Gujarat
Gujarat
was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle Ages. The oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
by a Merchant of the First Century.[29][30] Medieval history[edit] In the early 8th century, the Arabs
Arabs
of the Umayyad Caliphate established an Empire in the name of the rising religion Islam, which stretched from Spain in the west to Afghanistan and modern-day Pakistan
Pakistan
in the east. Al-Junaid, the successor of Qasim, finally subdued the Hindu
Hindu
resistance within Sindh
Sindh
and had established a secure base. The Arab rulers tried to expand their empire southeast, which culminated in the Caliphate campaigns in India
India
fought in 730 CE. However, the Arab invaders were defeated and repelled from the areas east of the Indus
Indus
river by a Hindu
Hindu
alliance between Nagabhata I of the Pratihara
Pratihara
Dynasty, Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
of the Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and Bappa Rawal of guhilot dynasty. After this victory, the Arab invaders were driven out of Gujarat. General Pulakesi, a Chalukya
Chalukya
prince of Lata, received the title Avanijanashraya (refuge of the people of the earth) and honorific of "Repeller of the unrepellable" by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
of the Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
for the protection of Gujarat
Gujarat
during the battle at Navsari, where Syrian
Syrian
troops suffered a crushing defeat.[31] In the late 8th century, the Kannauj Triangle period started. The three major Indian dynasties – the northwest Indian Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Dynasty, the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
and the east Indian Pala Empire
Pala Empire
– dominated India
India
from the 8th to 10th centuries. During this period the northern part of Gujarat
Gujarat
was ruled by the north Indian Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
dynasty and the southern part of Gujarat
Gujarat
was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty.[32] However, the earliest epigraphical records of the Gurjars of Broach attest that the royal bloodline of the Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
dynasty of Dadda I-II-III (650–750) ruled south Gujarat.[33] Southern Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty
Rashtrakuta dynasty
until it was captured by the south Indian ruler Tailapa II
Tailapa II
of the Western Chalukya Empire.[34] Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
from Greater Iran
Greater Iran
migrated to the western borders of South Asia
Asia
( Gujarat
Gujarat
and Sindh) during the 8th or 10th century,[35] to avoid persecution by Muslim
Muslim
invaders who were in the process of conquering Iran. The descendants of those Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
refugees came to be known as the Parsi.[36][37][38][39] Rajput
Rajput
Period[edit]

Rani ki vav
Rani ki vav
11th century

Taranga Jain
Jain
Temple constructed by Kumarapala (1143–1172 CE)

In the early 8th century some parts of Gujarat
Gujarat
was ruled by the south Indian Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty. In the early 8th century the Arabs
Arabs
of the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
established an Empire which stretched from Spain in the west to Afghanistan and Pakistan
Pakistan
in the east. The Arab rulers tried to expand their empire in the 8th century and invaded Gujarat but the Arab invaders were defeated by the south Indian general Pulakesi who was sent by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
of the Chalukya
Chalukya
Dynasty. After this victory, the Arab invaders were driven out of Gujarat. Pulakesi received the title Avanijanashraya (refuge of the people of the earth) by Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
for the protection of Gujarat. In the late 8th century the Kannauj Triangle period started. The 3 major Indian Dynasties the northwest Indian Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Dynasty, the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
and the east Indian Pala Empire
Pala Empire
dominated India
India
from the 8th to 10th centuries. During this period the northern part of Gujarat
Gujarat
was ruled by the north Indian Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Dynasty and the southern part of Gujarat
Gujarat
was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty.[32] Southern Gujarat
Gujarat
was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty until it was captured by the south Indian ruler Tailapa II
Tailapa II
of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire.[34] The Chaulukya dynasty[40] ruled Gujarat
Gujarat
from c. 960 to 1243. Gujarat was a major center of Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade, and their capital at Anhilwara
Anhilwara
(Patan) was one of the largest cities in India, with population estimated at 100,000 in the year 1000. After 1243, the Solankis lost control of Gujarat
Gujarat
to their feudatories, of whom the Vaghela chiefs of Dholka
Dholka
came to dominate Gujarat. In 1292 the Vaghelas became tributaries of the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri in the Deccan. Karandev of the Vaghela dynasty
Vaghela dynasty
was the last Hindu
Hindu
ruler of Gujarat. He was defeated and overthrown by the superior forces of Allauddin Khilji
Allauddin Khilji
from Delhi
Delhi
in 1297. With his defeat, Gujarat
Gujarat
not only became part of the Muslim
Muslim
empire but the Rajput
Rajput
hold over Gujarat
Gujarat
lost for ever. Muslim
Muslim
rule[edit] Islamic Conquests 1197–1614 AD[edit]

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat.

After the Ghoris
Ghoris
had assumed a position of Muslim
Muslim
supremacy over North India, Qutbuddin Aibak attempted to conquer Gujarat
Gujarat
and annex it to his empire in 1197 but failed in his ambitions.[41] An independent Muslim
Muslim
community continued to flourish in Gujarat
Gujarat
for the next hundred years, championed by Arab merchants settling along the western coast belonging to the Shafi'ite
Shafi'ite
madhhab.[42] From 1297 to 1300, Allauddin Khilji, the Turkic Sultan of Delhi, destroyed the Hindu
Hindu
metropolis of Anhilwara
Anhilwara
and incorporated Gujarat
Gujarat
into the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. After Timur's sacking of Delhi
Delhi
at the end of the 14th century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim
Muslim
Rajput
Rajput
governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar (Muzaffar Shah I) asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmed Shah (ruled 1411 to 1442), established Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
as the capital. Khambhat
Khambhat
eclipsed Bharuch
Bharuch
as Gujarat's most important trade port. Gujarat's relations with Egypt, which was then the premier Arab power in the Middle East remained friendly over the next century and the Egyptian scholar, Badruddin-ad-Damamimi, spent several years in Gujarat
Gujarat
in the shade of the Sultan before proceeding to the Bahmani Sultanate of the Deccan.[43] Shah e Alam, a famous Sufi-saint of the Chishti
Chishti
order who was the descendant of Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht
Jahaniyan Jahangasht
from Bukhara
Bukhara
soon arrived among other luminaries such as Arab theologian Ibn Suwaid, several Sayyid
Sayyid
Sufi members of the Aydarus family of Tarim in Yemen,[44] Iberian court interpreter Ali al-Andalusi from Granada,[45] and the Arab jurist Bahraq from Hadramaut
Hadramaut
who was appointed a tutor of the prince.[46] Among the illustrious names who arrived during the reign of Mahmud Begada
Mahmud Begada
was the philosopher Haibatullah Shah Mir from Shiraz, and the scholar intellectual Abu Fazl Ghazaruni from Persia[47][48] who tutored and adopted Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, author of the Akbarnama.[49] Later, a close alliance between the Ottoman Turks and Gujarati sultans to effectively safeguard Jeddah
Jeddah
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
trade from Portuguese imperialism, encouraged the existence of powerful Rumi elites within the kingdom who took the post of viziers in Gujarat
Gujarat
keen to maintain ties with the Ottoman state.[50][51][52][53][54] Humayun
Humayun
had also briefly occupied the province in 1536, but fled due to the threat Bahadur Shah, the Gujarat
Gujarat
king, imposed.[55] The Sultanate of Gujarat
Sultanate of Gujarat
remained independent until 1572, when the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great
conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire.[56] The Surat
Surat
port (the only Indian port facing westwards) then became the principal port of India
India
during Mughal rule to gain widespread international repute. The eminent city of Surat, famous for its cargo export of silk and diamonds had come on a par with contemporary Venice and Beijing
Beijing
which were some of the great mercantile cities of Europe and Asia,[57] and earned the distinguished title, Bab al-Makkah (Gate of Mecca).[58][59] Drawn by the religious renaissance taking place under Akbar, Mohammed Ghaus moved to Gujarat
Gujarat
and established spiritual centers for the Shattari
Shattari
Sufi order from Iran, founding the Ek Toda Mosque
Ek Toda Mosque
and producing such devotees as Wajihuddin Alvi
Wajihuddin Alvi
of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
whose many successors moved to Bijapur
Bijapur
during the height of the Adil Shahi dynasty.[60] At the same time, Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
high priest Azar Kayvan who was a native of Fars, immigrated to Gujarat
Gujarat
founding the Zoroastrian school of illuminationists which attracted key Shi'ite Muslim
Muslim
admirers of the Safavid
Safavid
philosophical revival from Isfahan. Early 14th-century Maghrebi
Maghrebi
adventurer, Ibn Batuta, who famously visited India
India
with his entourage, recalls in his memoirs about Cambay, one of the great emporia of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
that indeed:

Cambay
Cambay
is one of the most beautiful cities as regards the artistic architecture of its houses and the construction of its mosques. The reason is that the majority of its inhabitants are foreign merchants, who continually build their beautiful houses and wonderful mosques – an achievement in which they endeavor to surpass each other.

Many of these "foreign merchants" were transient visitors, men of South Arabian and Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
ports, who migrated in and out of Cambay
Cambay
with the rhythm of the monsoons. But others were men with Arab or Persian patronyms whose families had settled in the town generations, even centuries earlier, intermarrying with Gujarati women, and assimilating everyday customs of the Hindu
Hindu
hinterland.[61] The Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
heralded the dawn of pioneer Portuguese and Spanish long-distance travel in search of alternative trade routes to "the East Indies", moved by the trade of gold, silver and spices. In 1497, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
is said to have discovered the Europe-to- India
India
sea route which changed the course of history, thanks to Kutchi sailor Kanji Malam, who showed him the route from the East African coasts of Mozambique
Mozambique
sailing onwards to Calicut
Calicut
off the Malabar coast
Malabar coast
in India.[62][63][64] Later, the Gujarat
Gujarat
Sultanate allied with the Ottomans and Egyptian Mamluks
Mamluks
naval fleets led by governor-generals Malik Ayyaz
Malik Ayyaz
and Amir Husain Al-Kurdi, vanquished the Portuguese in the 1508 Battle of Chaul
Battle of Chaul
resulting in the first Portuguese defeat at sea in the Indian Ocean.[65] To 16th-century European observers, Gujarat
Gujarat
was a fabulously wealthy country. The customs revenue of Gujarat
Gujarat
alone in the early 1570s was nearly three times the total revenue of the whole Portuguese empire
Portuguese empire
in Asia
Asia
in 1586–87, when it was at its height.[66] Indeed, when the British arrived on the coast of Gujarat, houses in Surat
Surat
already had windows of Venetian glass imported from Constantinople
Constantinople
through the Ottoman empire.[67] In 1514, the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa described the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Rander known otherwise as City of Mosques in Surat
Surat
province, which gained the fame and reputation of illustrious Islamic scholars, Sufi-saints, merchants and intellectuals from all over the world:[68]

Ranel (Rander) is a good town of the Moors, built of very pretty houses and squares. It is a rich and agreeable place ... the Moors
Moors
of the town trade with Malacca, Bengal, Tawasery (Tannasserim), Pegu, Martaban, and Sumatra
Sumatra
in all sort of spices, drugs, silks, musk, benzoin and porcelain. They possess very large and fine ships and those who wish Chinese articles will find them there very completely. The Moors
Moors
of this place are white and well dressed and very rich they have pretty wives, and in the furniture of these houses have china vases of many kinds, kept in glass cupboards well arranged. Their women are not secluded like other Moors, but go about the city in the day time, attending to their business with their faces uncovered as in other parts.

The conquest of the Kingdom of Gujarat
Gujarat
marked a significant event of Akbar's reign. Being the major trade gateway and departure harbour of pilgrim ships to Mecca, it gave the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
free access to the Arabian sea and control over the rich commerce that passed through its ports. The territory and income of the empire were vastly increased.[69] The Sultanate of Gujarat
Sultanate of Gujarat
and the merchants[edit]

A modern Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Agiary
Agiary
in Western India

For the best part of two centuries, the independent Rajput
Rajput
Sultanate of Gujarat
Gujarat
was the cynosure of its neighbors on account of its wealth and prosperity, which had long made the Gujarati merchant a familiar figure in the ports of the Indian Ocean.[70] Gujaratis, including Hindus and Muslims as well as the enterprising Parsi
Parsi
class of Zoroastrians, had been specializing in the organisation of overseas trade for many centuries, and had moved into various branches of commerce such as commodity trade, brokerage, money-changing, money-lending and banking.[71] By the 17th century, Chavuse and Baghdadi Jews
Baghdadi Jews
had assimilated into the social world of the Surat
Surat
province, later on their descendants would give rise to the Sassoons of Bombay and the Ezras of Calcutta, and other influential Indian-Jewish figures who went on to play a philanthropical role in the commercial development of 19th-century British Crown Colony of Shanghai.[72] Spearheaded by Khoja, Bohra, Bhatiya shahbandars and Moorish nakhudas who dominated sea navigation and shipping, Gujarat's transactions with the outside world had created the legacy of an international transoceanic empire which had a vast commercial network of permanent agents stationed at all the great port cities across the Indian Ocean. These networks extended to the Philippines
Philippines
in the east, East Africa
East Africa
in the west, and via maritime and the inland caravan route to Russia
Russia
in the north.[73] As Tome Pires, a Portuguese official at Malacca, writing of conditions during the reigns of Mahmud I and Mozaffar II, expressed it: "Cambay stretches out two arms; with her right arm she reaches toward Aden
Aden
and with the other towards Malacca" (Pires, I, p. 41) and also described Gujarat's active trade with Goa, Deccan and the Malabar. His contemporary, Duarte Barbosa, describing Gujarat's maritime trade, recorded the import of horses from the Middle East and elephants from Malabar, and lists exports which included muslins, chintzes and silks, carnelian, ginger and other spices, aromatics, opium, indigo and other substances for dyeing, cereals and legumes (Barbosa, I, pp. 108–58). Persia
Persia
was the destination for many of these commodities, and they were partly paid for in horses and pearls taken from Hormuz (Barbosa, I, p. 82). It was the latter item, in particular, which led Sultan Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
of Delhi, according to Ali-Muhammad Khan, author of the Mirat-i-Ahmadi, to complain that the "support of the throne of Delhi
Delhi
is wheat and barley but the foundation of the realm of Gujarat
Gujarat
is coral and pearls" (apud Bayley, p. 20). Hence, the sultans of Gujarat
Gujarat
possessed ample means to sustain lavish patronage of religion and the arts, to build madrasas and ḵānaqāhs, and to provide douceurs for the literati, mainly poets and historians, whose presence and praise enhanced the fame of the dynasty.[74] Even at the time of Tom Pires' travel to the East Indies
Indies
in the early 16th century, Gujarati merchants had earned an international reputation for their commercial acumen and this encouraged the visit of merchants from Cairo, Armenia, Abyssinia, Khorasan, Shiraz, Turkestan
Turkestan
and Guilans from Aden
Aden
and Hormuz.[75] Pires noted in his Suma Orientale:[76]

These [people] are [like] Italians in their knowledge of and dealings in merchandise ... they are men who understand merchandise; they are so properly steeped in the sound and harmony of it, that the Gujaratees say that any offence connected with merchandise is pardonable. There are Gujaratees settled everywhere. They work some for some and others for others. They are diligent, quick men in trade. They do their accounts with fingers like ours and with our very writings.

Gujarat
Gujarat
in the Mughal Empire[edit]

Portrait of Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb

Gujarat
Gujarat
was one of the twelve original subahs (imperial top-level provinces) established by Mughal padshah (emperor) Akbar the Great, with seat at Ahmedabad, bordering on Thatta (Sindh), Ajmer, Malwa
Malwa
and later Ahmadnagar subahs. Aurangzeb, who was better known by his imperial title Alamgir ("Conqueror of the World"), was born at Dahod, Gujarat, and was the sixth Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
ruling with an iron fist over most of the Indian subcontinent. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and Mumtaz Mahal. At the time of his birth, his father, Shah Jahan, was then the Subahdar (governor) of Gujarat, and his grandfather, Jehangir, was the Mughal Emperor. Before he became emperor, Aurangzeb was made Subahdar of Gujarat
Gujarat
subah as part of his training and was stationed at Ahmedabad. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was a notable expansionist and was amongst the wealthiest of the Mughal rulers, with an annual yearly tribute of £38,624,680 (in 1690). During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to more than 3.2 million square kilometers and he ruled over a population estimated as being in the range of 100–150 million subjects. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had great love for his place of birth. In 1704, he wrote a letter to his eldest son, Muhammad Azam Shah, asking him to be kind and considerate to the people of Dahod
Dahod
as it was his birthplace. Muhammad Azam was then the Subedar (governor) of Gujarat. In his letter, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
wrote:[77]

My son of exalted rank, the town of Dahod, one of the dependencies of Gujarat, is the birthplace of this sinner. Please consider a regard for the inhabitants of that town as incumbent on you.

Maratha
Maratha
Empire[edit]

Peshwa
Peshwa
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
riding a horse

When the cracks had started to develop in the edifice of the Mughal empire in the mid-17th century, the Marathas were consolidating their power in the west, Chatrapati Shivaji, the great Maratha
Maratha
ruler, attacked Surat
Surat
in southern Gujarat
Gujarat
twice first in 1664 and again in 1672.[78] These attacks marked the entry of the Marathas into Gujarat. However, before the Maratha
Maratha
inroads into Gujarat, the Europeans had made their presence felt, with the Portuguese leading them, followed by the Dutch and the English. The Peshwas had established their sovereignty over parts of Gujarat and collected taxes and tributes through their representatives. Damaji Gaekwad
Gaekwad
and Kadam Bande divided the Peshwa's territory between them,[79] with Damaji establishing the sway of Gaekwad
Gaekwad
over Gujarat and made Baroda
Baroda
(present day Vadodara
Vadodara
in southern Gujarat) his capital. The ensuing internecine war among the Marathas was fully exploited by the British, who interfered in the affairs of both Gaekwads and the Peshwas. In Saurashtra, as elsewhere, the Marathas were met with resistance.[80] The decline of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
helped form larger peripheral states in Saurashtra, including Junagadh, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
and a few others, which largely resisted the Maratha incursions.[80] European Colonialism 1614–1947 AD[edit]

Princely states
Princely states
of Gujarat
Gujarat
in 1924

In the 1600s, the Dutch, French, English and Portuguese all established bases along the western coast of the region. Portugal
Portugal
was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, and after the Battle of Diu, acquired several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. These enclaves were administered by Portuguese India
India
under a single union territory for over 450 years, only to be later incorporated into the Republic of India
India
on 19 December 1961 by military conquest. The British East India
India
Company established a factory in Surat
Surat
in 1614 following the commercial treaty made with Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Nuruddin Salim Jahangir, which formed their first base in India, but it was eclipsed by Bombay after the English received it from Portugal
Portugal
in 1668 as part of the marriage treaty of Charles II of England
Charles II of England
and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal. The state was an early point of contact with the west, and the first British commercial outpost in India
India
was in Gujarat.[81] 17th-century French explorer François Pyrard de Laval, who is remembered for his 10-year sojourn in South Asia, bears witness accounts that the Gujaratis were always prepared to learn workmanship from the Portuguese, also in turn imparting skills to the Portuguese:[82]

I have never seen men of wit so fine and polished as are these Indians: they have nothing barbarous or savage about them, as we are apt to suppose. They are unwilling indeed to adopt the manners and customs of the Portuguese; yet do they regularly learn their manufactures and workmanship, being all very curious and desirous of learning. In fact the Portuguese take and learn more from them than they from the Portuguese.

Later in the 17th century, Gujarat
Gujarat
came under control of the Hindu Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
that rose defeating the Muslim
Muslim
Mughals and who dominated the politics of India. Most notably, from 1705 to 1716, Senapati Khanderao Dabhade
Khanderao Dabhade
led the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
forces in Baroda. Pilaji Gaekwad, first ruler of Gaekwad
Gaekwad
dynasty, established the control over Baroda
Baroda
and other parts of Gujarat.

Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
in 1909, northern portion

The British East India
India
Company wrested control of much of Gujarat
Gujarat
from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
in 1802–1803. Many local rulers, notably the Rajput
Rajput
Maratha
Maratha
Gaekwad
Gaekwad
Maharajas of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. An epidemic outbreak in 1812 killed half the population of Gujarat.[83]

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
picking salt at Dandi beach, South Gujarat
South Gujarat
ending the Salt satyagraha
Salt satyagraha
on 5 April 1930

Gujarat
Gujarat
was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda
Baroda
state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch
Kutch
and northern and eastern Gujarat
Gujarat
were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda), Panchmahal and Surat, were governed directly by British officials. Post independence[edit]

Gujarat
Gujarat
in Bombay state

After Indian independence and the partition of India
India
in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat
Gujarat
into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad
Kathiawad
peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
together with most of Baroda
Baroda
state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. Bombay state
Bombay state
was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra (Kathiawar) and parts of Hyderabad state
Hyderabad state
and Madhya Pradesh in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by Gujarati nationalists, the Mahagujarat Movement, and Marathi nationalists, the Samyukta Maharashtra, for their own states led to the split of Bombay state
Bombay state
on linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. In 1969 riots, at least 660 died and properties worth millions were destroyed.[84][85] The first capital of Gujarat
Gujarat
was Ahmedabad; the capital was moved to Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
in 1970. Nav Nirman
Nav Nirman
Andolan was a socio-political movement of 1974. It was a students' and middle-class people's movement against economic crisis and corruption in public life. This was the first and last successful agitation after the Independence of India
India
that ousted an elected government.[86][87][88] The Morvi dam failure, in 1979, resulted in the death of thousands of people and large economic loss.[89] In the 1980s, a reservation policy was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various castes.[90] The 2001 Gujarat earthquake
2001 Gujarat earthquake
was located about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District. This magnitude 7.7 shock killed around 20,000 people (including at least 18 in South-eastern Pakistan), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes.[91] In February 2002, the Godhra Train Attack
Godhra Train Attack
lead to statewide riots, resulting in the deaths of 1044 people – 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus, and hundreds missing still unaccounted for.[92] Akshardham Temple was attacked by two terrorists in September 2002, killing 32 people and injuring more than 80 others. National Security Guards intervented to end siege killing both terrorists.[93] On 26 July 2008 a series of seventeen bomb blasts rocked the city, killing and injuring several people.[94] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Gujarat See also: Climate of Gujarat and List of rivers of Gujarat

Physical map of Gujarat

Sardar Sarovar Project, Gujarat, partially completed (up to E.L.121.92 m)

Gujarat
Gujarat
borders Pakistan's Tharparkar, Badin and Thatta districts of Sindh
Sindh
province to the northwest, is bounded by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the southwest, the state of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
to the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the north was known as Anarta, the Kathiawar
Kathiawar
peninsula, "Saurastra", and the south as "Lata".[95] Gujarat
Gujarat
was also known as Pratichya and Varuna.[96] The Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
makes up the state's western coast. The capital, Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
is a planned city. Gujarat
Gujarat
has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,030 km2) with the longest coast line(24% of Indian sea coast) 1,600 kilometres (990 mi), dotted with 41 ports: one major, 11 intermediate and 29 minor. The Sabarmati
Sabarmati
is the largest river in Gujarat
Gujarat
followed by the Tapi, although the Narmada covers the longest distance in its passage through the state. The Sardar Sarovar Project
Sardar Sarovar Project
is built on the Narmada River, one of the major rivers of peninsular India
India
with a length of around 1,312 kilometres (815 mi). It is one of only three rivers in peninsular India
India
that run from east to west – the others being the Tapi River and the Mahi River. A riverfront project has been built on the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
River. Rann of Kutch[edit] Main article: Rann of Kutch The Rann of Kutch
Kutch
is a seasonally marshy saline clay desert located in the Thar Desert
Thar Desert
biogeographic region in between the province of Sindh and the state of Gujarat. Situated 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the village of Kharaghoda in the Surendranagar District
Surendranagar District
and Pakistan's Sindh
Sindh
province. The name "Rann" comes from the Gujarati word rann (રણ) meaning "desert".

Kiro Hill

White Rann of Kutch

Cracked earth in the Rann of Kutch

The colorful Rann Utsav Festival is held annually in the Rann of Kutch

Salt worker

White Desert view from Mount Karo

Nilgai group at Little Rann of kutch

Demographics[edit] Main article: Gujarati people

Population Growth 

Census Pop.

1951 16,263,000

1961 20,633,000

26.9%

1971 26,697,000

29.4%

1981 34,086,000

27.7%

1991 41,310,000

21.2%

2001 50,671,000

22.7%

2011 60,383,628

19.2%

Source:Census of India[97]

The population of Gujarat
Gujarat
State was 60,383,628, according to the 2011 census data. The population density is 308 km−2 (797.6/sq mi), lower than other Indian states. As per the census of 2011, the state has a sex ratio of 918 girls for every 1000 boys, one of the lowest (ranked 24) amongst the 29 states in India. While Gujarati speakers constitute a majority of Gujarat's population, the metropolitan areas of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Surat
Surat
are cosmopolitan, with numerous other ethnic and language groups. Marwaris compose large minorities of economic migrants; smaller communities of people from the other states of India
India
has also migrated to Gujarat
Gujarat
for employment. Portuguese, Anglo-Indians, Jews and Parsis also live in the areas.[98] Sindhi presence is traditionally important here following the Partition of India
India
in 1947.[99] Religion[edit]

Religion in Gujarat
Gujarat
(2011)[100]   Hinduism (88.57%)    Islam
Islam
(9.67%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.96%)   Christianity (0.52%)   Sikhism (0.10%)   Buddhism (0.05%)   Others (0.03%)   Not stated (0.10%)

Palitana
Palitana
Temples

According to 2011 census, the religious makeup in Gujarat
Gujarat
was 88.6% Hindu, 9.7% Muslim, 1.0% Jain, 0.5% Christian, 0.1% Sikh, 0.05% Buddhist
Buddhist
and 0.03% others. Around 0.1% did not state any religion.[100] Hinduism is the major religion of the state, as about 89% population of the state is Hindu. A major part of the Hindu population follow Vaishnavism.[citation needed] Muslims are the biggest minority in the state accounting for 9.5% of the population. Gujarat
Gujarat
has the third-largest population of Jains in India, following Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Rajasthan.[100] The Zoroastrians, also known in India
India
as Parsi
Parsi
and Irani, are believed to have migrated to Gujarat
Gujarat
to escape adverse conditions in Persia
Persia
and maintain their traditions. They have also played an instrumental role in economic development, with several of the best-known business conglomerates of India
India
run by Parsi-Zoroastrians, including the Tata, Godrej, and Wadia families. There is a small Jewish community centred around Magen Abraham Synagogue.

Hathisingh Jain
Jain
Temple, Ahmedabad

Gurudwara Govinddham, Ahmedabad

Magen Abraham Jewish Synagogue

Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque, 15th century), Ahmedabad

Modhera Sun Temple
Modhera Sun Temple
built by Bhimdev I

Language[edit] Main article: Gujarati language

Gujarati written in Gujarati script

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī?) is an Indo-Aryan language evolved from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and local Prakrits, and is part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, and is its main language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. About 49 million people speak Gujarati, making it the 26th most-spoken native language in the world. Along with Romani, Kutchi, and Sindhi, it is amongst the most western of Indo-Aryan languages. According to the 52nd report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities under Ministry of Minority Affairs, majority of the population speak Gujarati with 84.40% speakers, followed by Bhili (4.75%), Hindi
Hindi
(4.71%), Sindhi (1.89%), Marathi (1.51%) and Urdu (1.09%).[101] People from the Kutch
Kutch
region of Gujarat
Gujarat
also speak in the Kutchi mother tongue, and to a great extent appreciate Sindhi as well. Memoni is the mother tongue of Kathiawar
Kathiawar
and Sindhi Memons, most of them who are exclusively Muslims. Almost 88% of the Gujarati Muslims speak Gujarati as their mother tongue, whilst the other 12% speak Urdu. A sizeable proportion of Gujarati Muslims are bilingual in both languages; Islamic academic institutions (Darul Uloom) place a high prestige on learning Urdu
Urdu
and Arabic, with students' memorising the Quran and ahadith, and emphasising the oral and literary importance of mastering these languages as a compulsory rite of religion. Other native languages spoken in low proportions are Bhili and Gamit, which are spoken exclusively among the tribals.[citation needed] Apart from this, English, Marwari, Sindhi, Punjabi, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Bengali, Odia, Malayalam, Marathi and others are spoken by a considerable number of economic migrants who have flocked to the state in recent decades seeking employment and higher standards of living. The languages taught in schools under the three-language formula are:[102] First Language: Gujarati/Hindi/Marathi/English/Urdu Second Language: Gujarati/English Third Language: Hindi In previous years, Sindhi was also taught as a first language[103], but this has changed. Governance and administration[edit] Main articles: Politics of Gujarat, Government of Gujarat, Gujarat Legislative Assembly, and Districts of Gujarat See also: Chief Ministers of Gujarat

Gandhinagar, the capital of Gujarat
Gujarat
State. The picture shown above is of the Legislative Assembly and seat of Gujarat
Gujarat
government.

Gujarat
Gujarat
has 33 districts and 250 Talukas. They can broadly be defined into 4 regions.[104]

Central Gujarat

Ahmedabad Vadodara Anand Chhota Udaipur Dahod Kheda Mahisagar Panchmahal

North Gujarat

Gandhinagar Aravalli Banaskantha Mehsana Patan Sabarkantha

Saurashtra - Kutch

Rajkot Amreli Bhavnagar Botad Devbhoomi Dwarka Gir Somnath Jamnagar Junagadh Morbi Porbandar Surendranagar Kachchh

South Gujarat

Surat Bharuch Dang Narmada Navsari Tapi Valsad

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Gujarat As of the 2011 Census

Rank Name District Pop.

Ahmedabad

Surat 1 Ahmedabad Ahmedabad 5,577,940

Vadodara

Rajkot

2 Surat Surat 4,962,002

3 Vadodara Vadodara 1,670,806

4 Rajkot Rajkot 1,286,678

5 Bhavnagar Bhavnagar 593,368

6 Jamnagar Jamnagar 479,920

7 Junagadh Junagadh 319,462

8 Gandhidham Kutch 247,992

9 Nadiad Kheda 218,095

10 Gandhinagar Gandhinagar 206,167

Gujarat
Gujarat
is governed by a Legislative Assembly of 182 members. Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult suffrage from one of 182 constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for scheduled castes and 27 for scheduled tribes. The term of office for a member of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly elects a speaker who presides over the meetings of the legislature. A governor is appointed by the President of India, and is to address the state legislature after every general election and the commencement of each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly. The leader of the majority party or coalition in the legislature (Chief Minister) or his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly. The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister.

Swarnim Sankul 2, a Government of Gujarat
Government of Gujarat
office

After the independence of India
India
in 1947, the Indian National Congress (INC) ruled the Bombay State
Bombay State
(which included present-day Gujarat
Gujarat
and Maharashtra). Congress continued to govern Gujarat
Gujarat
after the state's creation in 1960. During and after India's State of Emergency of 1975–1977, public support for the INC eroded, but it continued to hold government until 1995 with brief rule of nine months by Janata Morcha. In the 1995 Assembly elections, the Congress lost to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) led by Keshubhai Patel who became the Chief Minister. His government lasted only two years. The fall of that government was provoked by a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela. BJP again won election in 1998 with clear majority. In 2001, following the loss of two assembly seats in by-elections, Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Narendra Modi. BJP retained a majority in the 2002 election, and Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
remained as Chief Minister. On 1 June 2007, Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
became the longest serving Chief Minister of Gujarat.[105][106][107] BJP retained the power in subsequent elections in 2007 and 2012 and Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
continued as the Chief Minister. After Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
became the Prime Minister of India
India
in 2014, Anandiben Patel
Anandiben Patel
became the first female Chief Minister of the state. Vijay Rupani
Vijay Rupani
took over as Chief Minister and Nitin Patel as Dy. Chief Minister on 7 August 2016 after Anandiben Patel
Anandiben Patel
resigned earlier on 3 August. Economy[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2016)

Main article: Economy of Gujarat During the British Raj, Gujarati businesses served to play a major role to enrich the economy of Karachi
Karachi
and Mumbai.[108] Major agricultural produce of the state includes cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), dates, sugar cane, milk and milk products. Industrial products include cement and petrol.[109] According to a 2009 report on economic freedom by the Cato Institute, Gujarat
Gujarat
is the first most free state in India
India
(the second one being Tamil Nadu).[110] Reliance Industries operates the oil refinery at Jamnagar, which is the world's largest grass-roots refinery at a single location. The world's largest shipbreaking yard is in Gujarat
Gujarat
near Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
at Alang. India's only Liquid Chemical Port Terminal at Dahej, developed by Gujarat
Gujarat
Chemical Port Terminal Co Ltd. Gujarat
Gujarat
has two of the three liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals in the country ( Dahej
Dahej
and Hazira). Two more LNG terminals are proposed, at Pipavav
Pipavav
and Mundra.

Mundra
Mundra
Port Kutch

Gujrat has 85% village connectivity with all‐weather roads.[111] Nearly 100% of Gujarat's 18,000 villages have been connected to the electrical grid for 24-hour power to households and eight hours of power to farms, through the Jyotigram Yojana.[112] As of 2015[update], Gujarat
Gujarat
ranks first nationwide in gas-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 8%, and second nationwide in nuclear electricity generation with national market share of over 1%.[113] More than 900,000 internet users and all villages are connected with broadband internet.[citation needed] The state registered 12.8% agricultural growth in the last five years against the national average of 2%.[114] Gujarat
Gujarat
records highest decadal agricultural growth rate of 10.97%. Over 20% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Gujarat.[115] As per RBI report, in year 2006–07, 26% out of total bank finance in India
India
was in Gujarat. In a July 2011 report, The Economist
The Economist
referred to Gujarat
Gujarat
as India's Guangdong.[citation needed] As per a recent survey report of the Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Labour Bureau, Gujarat has the lowest unemployment rate of 1% against the national average of 3.8%.[116] It also has the biggest industrial area for ceramic business in Morbi, Himatanagar, which produces around 80% of the country's gross ceramic production and around 80% of compact fluorescent lamp (CFL).[citation needed] Legatum Institute's Global Prosperity Index 2012 has recognised Gujarat
Gujarat
as the highest-scoring amongst all states of India
India
on matters of social capital.[citation needed] The state ranks 15th alongside Germany in a list of 142 nations worldwide, and actually ranks higher than several developed nations.[117] Infrastructure[edit]

Tallest Building in Gujarat: GIFT One

Tallest tower in Gujarat, GIFT One was inaugurated on 10 January 2013. One other tower called GIFT Two has been finished and more towers are planned.[118] Industrial growth[edit]

Surat
Surat
is one of the fastest growing cities in the world.

Shown here is the Tata Nano, the world's least expensive car.[119] Sanand, Gujarat
Gujarat
is home to Tata Nano.

Ashram Road, Ahmedabad, is one of the major roads of the city. It runs parallel to the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
river.

Gujarat's major cities include Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkot, Jamnagar
Jamnagar
and Bhavnagar. In 2010, Forbes
Forbes
list of the world's fastest growing cities included Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
at number 3 after Chengdu
Chengdu
and Chongqing
Chongqing
from China.[120][121] The state is rich in calcite, gypsum, manganese, lignite, bauxite, limestone, agate, feldspar, and quartz sand, and successful mining of these minerals is done in their specified areas. Jamnagar
Jamnagar
is the hub for manufacturing brass parts. Gujarat
Gujarat
produces about 98% of India's required amount of soda ash, and gives the country about 78% of the national requirement of salt. It is one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP significantly above India's average. Kalol, Khambhat, and Ankleshwar are today known for their oil and natural gas production. Dhuvaran has a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil, and gas. Also, on the Gulf of Khambhat, 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Bhavnagar, is the Alang
Alang
Ship Recycling Yard (the world's largest). General Motors manufactures its cars at Halol near Vadodara, Tata Motors
Tata Motors
manufactures the Tata Nano
Tata Nano
from Sanand
Sanand
near Ahmedabad, and AMW trucks are made near Bhuj. Surat, a city by the Gulf of Khambhat, is a hub of the global diamond trade. In 2003, 92% of the world's diamonds were cut and polished in Surat.[122] Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR) spread across 453,000 square hectares—in Bharuch.[citation needed] Gujarat
Gujarat
is one of the first few states in India
India
to have encouraged private-sector investment, some of which are already in operation.[citation needed] In addition, the liquid cargo (chemicals) handling port at Dahej
Dahej
is also set up in joint sector and made operational.[citation needed] At an investor's summit entitled "Vibrant Gujarat
Gujarat
Global Investor Summit", arranged between 11 and 13 January 2015, at Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar, the state government signed 21000 Memoranda of Understanding for Special
Special
Economic Zones worth a total of ₹ 2.5 million crores (short scale).[123] However, most of the investment was from domestic industry.[124] In the fourth Vibrant Gujarat
Gujarat
Global Investors' Summit held at Science City, Ahmedabad, in January 2009, there were 600 foreign delegates. In all, 8668 MOUs worth ₹ 12500 billion were signed, estimated to create 2.5 million new job opportunities in the state.[125] In 2011, Vibrant Gujarat
Gujarat
Global Investors' Summit MOUs worth ₹ 21 trillion (US$ 463 billion) were signed. Gujarat
Gujarat
is state with surplus electricity.[126] The Kakrapar Atomic Power Station(KAPS) is a nuclear power station run by NPCIL that lies in the proximity of the city of Surat. Recently, the Gujarat Government has upgraded its installed capacity of 13,258 megawatts (MW) by adding another 3,488 MW.[citation needed] According to the official sources, against demand of 40,793 million units during the nine months since April 2010, Gujarat
Gujarat
produced 43,848 million units. Gujarat
Gujarat
sold surplus power to 12 states: Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal.[127] Energy[edit]

Astonfield's 11.5 MW solar plant in Gujarat

Gujarat
Gujarat
invests in development of solar energy in the state and has had India's largest solar power plant as of January 2012.[128] It has allotted 716 MW of solar power capacity to 34 national and international solar project developers in 2009, against the planned 500 MW capacity under its solar power policy.[129] This is expected to bring in investments of INR 120 billion and generate employment for 5,000 people. By 2014, Gujarat
Gujarat
plans on producing 1000MW of energy by solar power.[130] Agriculture[edit]

Traditional farming

The total geographical area of Gujarat
Gujarat
is 19,602,400 hectares, of which crops take up 10,630,700 hectares[verification needed].[131] The three main sources of growth in Gujarat's agriculture are from cotton production, the rapid growth of high-value foods such as livestock, fruits and vegetables, and from wheat production, which saw an annual average growth rate of 28% between 2000 and 2008 (According to the International Food Policy Research Institute).[132] Other major produce includes bajra, groundnut, cotton, rice, maize, wheat, mustard, sesame, pigeon pea, green gram, sugarcane, mango, banana, sapota, lime, guava, tomato, potato, onion, cumin, garlic, isabgul and fennel. Whilst, in recent times, Gujarat
Gujarat
has seen a high average annual growth of 9% in the agricultural sector, the rest of India
India
has an annual growth rate of around 3%. This success was lauded by former President of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.[133] The strengths of Gujarat's agricultural success have been attributed to diversified crops and cropping patters; climatic diversity (8 climatic zones for agriculture); the existence of 4 agricultural universities in the state, which promote research in agricultural efficiency and sustainability;[134] co-operatives; adoption of hi-tech agriculture such as tissue culture, green houses and shed-net houses; agriculture export zones; strong marketing infrastructure, which includes cold storages, processing units, logistic hubs and consultancy facilities.[135] Gujarat
Gujarat
is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, tur, and gram. The state has an agricultural economy; the total crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area.[136] Animal husbandry and dairying have played vital roles in the rural economy of Gujarat. Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a co-operative basis and has more than a million members. Gujarat
Gujarat
is the largest producer of milk in India. The Amul
Amul
milk co-operative federation is well known all over India, and it is Asia's biggest dairy.[137] Amongst livestock raised are buffalo and other cattle, sheep, and goats. As per the results of livestock census 1997, there were 20.97 million head of livestock in Gujarat
Gujarat
State. In the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year 2002–03, the Gujarat
Gujarat
produced 6.09 million tonnes of milk, 385 million eggs and 2.71 million kg of wool. Gujarat
Gujarat
also contributes inputs to the textiles, oil, and soap industries, amongst others. The adoption of cooperatives in Gujarat
Gujarat
is widely attributed to much of the success in the agricultural sector, particularly sugar and dairy cooperatives. Cooperative
Cooperative
farming has been a component of India's strategy for agricultural development since 1951. Whilst the success of these was mixed throughout the country, their positive impact on the states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Gujarat
Gujarat
have been the most significant. In 1995 alone, the two states had more registered co-operatives than any other region in the country. Out of these, the agricultural cooperatives have received much attention. Many have focused on subsidies and credit to farmers and rather than collective gathering, they have focused on facilitating collective processing and marketing of produce. However, whilst they have led to increased productivity, their effect on equity in the region has been questioned, because membership in agricultural co-operatives has tended to favour landowners whilst limiting the entry of landless agricultural labourers.[138] An example of co-operative success in Gujarat
Gujarat
can be illustrated through dairy co-operatives, with the particular example of Amul
Amul
(Anand Milk Union Limited).

Amul
Amul
Plant at Anand

Amul
Amul
Was formed as a dairy cooperative in 1946,[139] in the city of Anand, Gujarat. The cooperative, Gujarat
Gujarat
Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), is jointly owned by around 2.6 million milk producers in Gujarat. Amul
Amul
has been seen as one of the best examples of cooperative achievement and success in a developing economy and The Amul
Amul
pattern of growth has been taken as a model for rural development, particularly in the agricultural sector of developing economies. The company stirred the White Revolution of India
India
(also known as Operation Flood), the world's biggest dairy development program, and made the milk-deficient nation of India
India
the largest milk producer in the world, in 2010.[140] The " Amul
Amul
Model" aims to stop the exploitation by middlemen and encourage freedom of movement since the farmers are in control of procurement, processing and packaging of the milk and milk products.[141] The company is worth 2.5 billion US dollars (as of 2012).[142] 70% of Gujarat's area is classified as semi-arid to arid climatically, thus the demand on water from various economic activities puts a strain on the supply.[143] Of the total gross irrigated area, 16–17% is irrigated by government-owned canals and 83–84% by privately owned tube wells and other wells extracting groundwater, which is the predominant source of irrigation and water supply to the agricultural areas. As a result, Gujarat
Gujarat
has faced problems with groundwater depletion, especially after demand for water went up in the 1960s. As access to electricity in rural areas increased, subermersible electric pumps became more popular in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the Gujarat Electricity Board switched to flat tariff rates linked to the horsepower of pumps, which increased tubewell irrigation again and decreased the use of electric pumps. By the 1990s, groundwater abstraction rates exceeded groundwater recharge rate in many districts, whilst only 37.5% of all districts has "safe" recharge rates. Groundwater maintenance and preventing unnecessary loss of the available water supplies is now an issue faced by the state.[144] The Sardar Sarovar Project, a debated dam project in the Narmada valley consisting of a network of canals, has significantly increased irrigation in the region. However, its impact on communities who were displaced is still a contested issue. Recently, in 2012, Gujarat
Gujarat
began an experiment to reduce water loss due to evaporation in canals and to increase sustainability in the area by constructing solar panels over the canals. A one megawatt (MW) solar power project set up at Chandrasan, Gujarat
Gujarat
uses solar panels fixed over a 750-metre stretch of an irrigation canal. Unlike many solar power projects, this one does not take up large amounts of land since the panels are constructed over the canals, and not on additional land. This results in lower upfront costs since land does not need to be acquired, cleared or modified to set up the panels. The Chandrasan project is projected to save 9 million litres of water per year.[145] The Government of Gujarat, to improve soil management and introduce farmers to new technology, started on a project which involved giving every farmer a Soil Health Card. This acts like a ration card, providing permanent identification for the status of cultivated land, as well as farmers' names, account numbers, survey numbers, soil fertility status and general fertiliser dose. Samples of land from each village are taken and analysed by the Gujarat
Gujarat
Narmada Valley Fertiliser Corporation, State Fertiliser Corporation and Indian Farmers Fertilisers Co-operative. 1,200,000 soil test data from the villages was collected as of 2008, from farmer's field villages have gone into a database. Assistance and advice for this project was given by local agricultural universities and crop and soil-specific data was added to the database. This allows the soil test data to be interpreted and recommendations or adjustments made in terms of fertiliser requirements, which are also added to the database.[146] Culture[edit]

This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. (October 2016)

Main article: Culture of Gujarat Gujarat
Gujarat
is home to the Gujarati people. It was also the home of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and Vallabhbhai Patel, who preached unity between all religions and became a worldwide figure for peaceful struggle against tyranny. Literature[edit] Main article: Gujarati literature Gujarati literature's history may be traced to 1000 AD. Since then literature has flourished till date. Well known laureates of Gujarati literature are Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Mirabai, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Mahatma Gandhi, K. M. Munshi, Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Swaminarayan, Pannalal Patel
Pannalal Patel
and Rajendra Shah.[147] Kavi Kant, Zaverchand Meghani
Zaverchand Meghani
and Kalapi
Kalapi
are famous Gujarati poets. Gujarat
Gujarat
Vidhya Sabha, Gujarat
Gujarat
Sahitya Sabha, and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad are Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
based literary institutions promoting the spread of Gujarati literature. Saraswatichandra is a landmark novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. Writers like Aanand Shankar Dhruv, Ashvini Bhatt, Balwantray Thakore, Bhaven Kachhi, Bhagwatikumar Sharma, Chandrakant Bakshi, Gunvant Shah, Harindra Dave, Harkisan Mehta, Jay Vasavada, Jyotindra Dave, Kanti Bhatt, Kavi Nanalal, Khabardar, Sundaram, Makarand Dave, Ramesh Parekh, Suresh Dalal, Tarak Mehta, Vinod Bhatt, Dhruv Bhatt and Varsha Adalja have influenced Gujarati thinkers. A notable contribution to Gujarati language
Gujarati language
literature came from the Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like Vachanamrut
Vachanamrut
and poetry in the form of bhajans. [148] Shrimad Rajchandra
Shrimad Rajchandra
Vachnamrut and Shri Atma Siddhi
Atma Siddhi
Shastra , written in 19th century by philosopher Shrimad Rajchandra
Shrimad Rajchandra
(Mahatma Gandhi's guru) are very well known.[149][150] Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai. Bhavai
Bhavai
is a folk musical performance of stage plays. Ketan Mehta
Ketan Mehta
and Sanjay Leela Bhansali explored artistic use of bhavai in films such as Bhavni Bhavai, Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India
India
and Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. Dayro (gathering) involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature. Famous Mumbai
Mumbai
theatre veteran, Alyque Padamsee, best known in the English-speaking world for playing Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
in Sir Richard Attenborough's Gandhi, was from a traditional Gujarati-Kutchi family from Kathiawar.[151] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Gujarati cuisine

Khaman
Khaman
Dhokla is a popular Gujarati farsan.

Gujarati food is primarily vegetarian. It has been portrayed in eminent Bollywood
Bollywood
films, including the 2009 feature film 3 Idiots.[152] The typical Gujarati thali consists of roti or bhakri, dal or kadhi, khichdi, rice and sabzi. Indian pickle and chhundo are used as condiments. The four major regions of Gujarat
Gujarat
all bring their own styles to Gujarati food. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty, and spicy at the same time. In Saurashtra region, chass (buttermilk) is believed to be a must-have in their daily food. Cinema[edit] Main article: Gujarati cinema The Gujarati film industry
Gujarati film industry
dates back to 1932, when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta, was released.[153][154][155] After flourishing through the 1960s to 1980s, the industry saw a decline. The industry is revived in recent times. The film industry has produced more than one thousand films since its inception.[156] The Government of Gujarat announced a 100% entertainment tax exemption for Gujarati films in 2005[157] and a policy of incentives in 2016.[158] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Gujarat Gujarati folk music, known as Sugam Sangeet, is a hereditary profession of the Barot, Gadhvi and Charan communities. The omnipresent instruments in Gujarati folk music include wind instruments, such as turi, bungal, and pava, string instruments, such as the ravan hattho, ektaro, and jantar and percussion instruments, such as the manjira and zanz pot drum.[159] Festivals[edit]

Garba during Navaratri in Ahmedabad

International Kite Festival, Ahmedabad

The folk traditions of Gujarat
Gujarat
include bhavai and raas-garba. Bhavai is a folk theatre; it is partly entertainment and partly ritual, and is dedicated to Amba. The raas-garba is a folk dance done as a celebration of Navratri
Navratri
by Gujarati people. The folk costume of this dance is chaniya choli for women and kedia for men. Different styles and steps of garba include dodhiyu, simple five, simple seven, popatiyu, trikoniya (hand movement which forms an imagery triangle), lehree, tran taali, butterfly, hudo, two claps and many more Sheri garba is one of the oldest form of garba where all the ladies wear red patola sari and sing along while dancing.It is a very graceful form of garba.[160] Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
is a festival where people of Gujarat
Gujarat
fly kites. In Gujarat, from December through to Makar Sankranti, people start enjoying kite flying. Undhiyu, a special dish made of various vegetables, is a must-have of Gujarati people
Gujarati people
on Makar Sankranti. Surat
Surat
is especially well known for the strong string which is made by applying glass powder on the row thread to provide it a cutting edge.[161] Apart from Navratri
Navratri
and Uttarayana, Diwali, Holi, Tazia and others are also celebrated. Diffusion of culture[edit]

Tourists playing Dandiya Raas

Due to close proximity to the Arabian Sea, Gujarat
Gujarat
has developed a mercantile ethos which maintained a cultural tradition of seafaring, long-distance trade, and overseas contacts with the outside world since ancient times, and the diffusion of culture through Gujarati diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition. During the pre-modern period, various European sources have observed that these merchants formed diaspora communities outside of Gujarat, and in many parts of the world, such as the Persian Gulf, Middle East, Horn of Africa, Hong Kong and Indonesia[162] long before the internal rise of the Maratha
Maratha
Dynasty, and the British Raj
British Raj
colonial occupation.[163] Early 1st-century Western historians such as Strabo
Strabo
and Dio Cassius are testament to Gujarati people's role in the spread of Buddhism in the Mediterranean, when it was recorded that the sramana monk Zarmanochegas
Zarmanochegas
(Ζαρμανοχηγὰς) of Barygaza
Barygaza
met Nicholas of Damascus in Antioch
Antioch
while Augustus was ruling the Roman Empire, and shortly thereafter proceeded to Athens
Athens
where he burnt himself to death in an act to demonstrate his faith.[164][165] A tomb was made to the sramana, still visible in the time of Plutarch,[166] which bore the mention "ΖΑΡΜΑΝΟΧΗΓΑΣ ΙΝΔΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΒΑΡΓΟΣΗΣ" ("The sramana master from Barygaza
Barygaza
in India").[167] The progenitor of the Sinhala language
Sinhala language
is believed to be Prince Vijaya, son of King Simhabahu who ruled Simhapura (modern-day Sihor near Bhavnagar).[168] Prince Vijaya
Prince Vijaya
was banished by his father for his lawlessness and set forth with a band of adventurers. This tradition was followed by other Gujaratis. For example, in the Ajanta Frescoes, a Gujarati prince is shown entering Sri Lanka.[169] Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia, most of them being Gujaratis. King Aji Saka, who is said to have come to Java
Java
in Indonesia
Indonesia
in year 1 of the Saka
Saka
calendar, is believed by some to be a king of Gujarat.[170] The first Indian settlements in Java
Java
Island of Indonesia are believed to have been established with the coming of Prince Dhruvavijaya of Gujarat, with 5000 traders.[170] Some stories propose a Brahmin named Tritresta was the first to bring Gujarati migrants with him to Java, so some scholars equate him with Aji Saka.[171] A Gujarati ship has been depicted in a sculpture at Borabudur, Java.[169] Flora and fauna[edit] Main article: List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of Gujarat, India

A young male Asiatic lion, which occurs in and around Gir National Park[172]

Lesser flamingo, Jamnagar

Striped hyena
Striped hyena
at the Gir Forest National Park

According to the India
India
State of Forest Report 2011, Gujarat
Gujarat
has 9.7% of its total geographical area under forest cover.[173] As per the districts, The Dangs
The Dangs
has the largest area under forest cover. Gujarat has four national parks and 21 sanctuaries. It is the only home of Asiatic lions and outside Africa, is the only present natural habitat of lions. Gir Forest National Park
Gir Forest National Park
in the southwest part of the state covers part of the lions' habitat. Apart from lions, Indian leopards are also found in state. They are spread across the large plains of Saurashtra and the mountains of South Gujarat. Other National parks include Vansda National Park, Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar
Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar
and Narara Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutchh, Jamnagar. Wildlife sanctuaries include: Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Porbandar
Porbandar
Bird Sanctuary, Kutch
Kutch
Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, Kutch
Kutch
Bustard Sanctuary, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary, Anjal, Balaram-Ambaji, Barda, Jambughoda, Khavda, Paniya, Purna, Rampura, Ratan Mahal, and Surpaneshwar. Gujarat
Gujarat
has some of the major mountain ranges of India, including Aravalli, Sahyadri (Western Ghats), Vindhya and Saputara. Apart from this Gir hills, Barda, Jessore, Chotila, etc. are situated in different parts of Gujarat. Girnar
Girnar
is the tallest peak and Saputara
Saputara
is the only hill-station in the state.

Indroda Dinosaur and Fossil Park, Gandhinagar

In the early 1980s, palaeontologists found dinosaur bones and fossils of at least 13 species Balasinor
Balasinor
in Kheda
Kheda
District.[174] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Gujarat

Saputara
Saputara
– a hill station in Gujarat

Gujarat
Gujarat
is one of the most popular states in India
India
for tourism with an annual footfall of 19.81 million tourists in 2010–11.[175] It offers scenic beauty from the Great Rann of Kutch
Kutch
to the hills of Saputara and is the sole home of pure Asiatic lions in the world.[176] During the historic reigns of the sultans, Hindu
Hindu
craftsmanship blended with Islamic architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
style. Many structures in the state are built in this fashion. It is also the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, great iconic figures of India's Independence movement. Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
is currently the brand ambassador of Gujarat
Gujarat
Tourism. The 'Khushboo Gujarat
Gujarat
Ki' campaign by Bollywood
Bollywood
megastar Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
has enhanced tourism in Gujarat
Gujarat
by 14 per cent, twice that of national growth rate.[177]

Museums

Gujarat
Gujarat
has a variety of museums on different genres that are run by the state's Department of Museums located at the principal state museum, Baroda
Baroda
Museum & Picture Gallery in Vadodara,[178] which is also the location of the Maharaja
Maharaja
Fateh Singh Museum. The Kirti Mandir, Porbandar, Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Ashram, and Kaba Gandhi No Delo
Kaba Gandhi No Delo
are museums related to Mahatma Gandhi, the former being the place of his birth and the latter two where he lived in his lifetime. Kaba Gandhi No Delo in Rajkot
Rajkot
exhibits part of a rare collection of photographs relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi. Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Ashram is the place where Gandhi initiated the Dandi March. On 12 March 1930 he vowed that he would not return to the Ashram until India
India
won independence.[179]

Statue of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
in Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Ashram

Lakhota Museum in Jamnagar

The Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum
Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum
is housed within Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of the erswhile Maharajas, located in Vadodara. The Calico Museum of Textiles
Calico Museum of Textiles
is managed by the Sarabhai Foundation and is one of the most popular tourist spots in Ahmedabad. The Lakhota Museum at Jamnagar
Jamnagar
is a palace transformed into museum, which was residence of the Jadeja Rajputs. The collection of the museum includes artefacts spanning from 9th to 18th centuries, pottery from medieval villages nearby and the skeleton of a whale. Other well known museums in the state include the Kutch
Kutch
Museum in Bhuj, which is the oldest museum in Gujarat
Gujarat
founded in 1877, the Watson Museum
Watson Museum
of human history and culture in Rajkot,[180] Gujarat Science City and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
National Memorial in Ahmedabad.

Religious sites

Dwarkadhish Temple

Religious sites play a major part in the tourism of Gujarat. Somnath is the first amongst twelve Jyotirlingas, and is mentioned in the Rigveda. The Palitana temples
Palitana temples
of Jainism
Jainism
on Mount Shatrunjaya, Palitana
Palitana
are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Svetambara
Svetambara
and Digambara
Digambara
Jain
Jain
community.[181] Palitana
Palitana
is the world's only mountain with more than 900 temples.[182] The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque and Jama Masjid are holy mosques for Gujarati Muslims. The Sun Temple, Modhera is a ticketed monument, handled by the Archaeological Survey of India.[183] Dwarakadheesh Temple and Dakor
Dakor
holy pilgrimage sites are for devotees of Lord Krishna. Other religious sites in state include Mahudi, Shankheshwar, Ambaji, Dakor, Shamlaji, Chotila
Chotila
etc.

Fairs

Tarnetar
Tarnetar
Fair, Tarnetar

A five-day festival is held during Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivaratri
at the fort of Girnar, Junagadh, known as the Bhavanth Mahadev Fair (Gujarati: ભવનાથ નો મેળો). The Kutch
Kutch
Festival or Rann Festival (Gujarati: કચ્છ or રણ ઉત્સવ) is a festival celebrated at Kutch
Kutch
during Mahashivratri. The Modhra Dance Festival is a festival for classical dance, arranged by the Government of Gujarat's Cultural Department, to promote tourism in state and to keep traditions and culture alive.[184] The Ambaji
Ambaji
Fair is held in the Hindu
Hindu
month of Bhadrapad (around August–September) at Ambaji, during a time which is particularly suitable for farmers, when the busy monsoon season is about to end. The Bhadrapad fair is held at Ambaji
Ambaji
which is in the Danta Taluka of Banaskantha district, near the Gujarat- Rajasthan
Rajasthan
border. The walk from the bus station to the temple is less than one kilometre, under a roofed walkway. Direct buses are available from many places, including Mount Abu (45 km away), Palanpur (65 km away), Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Idar. The Bhadrapad fair is held in the centre of the Ambaji
Ambaji
village just outside the temple premises. The village is visited by the largest number of sanghas (pilgrim groups) during the fair. Many of them go there on foot, which is particularly enriching as it happens immediately after the monsoon, when the landscape is rich with greenery, streams are full of sparkling water and the air is fresh. About 1.5 million devotees are known to attend this fair each year from all over the world. Not only Hindus, but some devout Jains and Parsis also attend the functions, whilst some Muslims attend the fair for trade. The Tarnetar
Tarnetar
Fair is held during the first week of Bhadrapad, (September–October according to Gregorian calendar), and mostly serves as a place to find a suitable bride for tribal people from Gujarat. The region is believed to be the place where Arjuna
Arjuna
took up the difficult task of piercing the eye of a fish, rotating at the end of a pole, by looking at its reflection in the pond water, to marry Draupadi.[185] Other fairs in Gujarat
Gujarat
include Dang Durbar, Shamlaji Fair, Chitra Vichitra Fair, Dhrang Fair and Vautha Fair. The Government of Gujarat
Government of Gujarat
has banned alcohol since 1960.[186] Gujarat government collected the Best State Award for 'Citizen Security' by IBN7 Diamond States on 24 December 2012.[187]

Mandvi
Mandvi
Beach, Kutch

Somnath

The Palitana
Palitana
temple complex

Kirti Toran, Vadnagar

Vasai Jain
Jain
Temple

Jama Mosque, Champaner

Sun Temple, Modhera

The Mohabat Maqbara is a palace-mausoleum in the Junagadh
Junagadh
district

Hutheesing Jain
Jain
Temple

Vijay Vilas Palace, Mandvi, Kutch

Main shrine of Girnar
Girnar
Jain
Jain
temples

Laxmi Vilas Palace

Transport[edit] Air[edit]

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
International Airport, Ahmedabad

Surat
Surat
Airport

Gujarat
Gujarat
has seventeen airports. The Gujarat
Gujarat
Civil Aviation Board (GUJCAB) has been formed to foster development of aviation infrastructure in Gujarat. The Board is headed by the Chief Minister.[188] International airports[edit]

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
International Airport at Ahmedabad Vadodara
Vadodara
International Airport at Vadodara

Domestic airports operated by the Airports Authority of India (AAI)[edit]

Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
Airport — 9 km from the city of Bhavnagar Bhuj
Bhuj
Airport — Located on Airport Ring Road Bhuj
Bhuj
city Deesa Airport
Deesa Airport
– 5 km from Deesa Harni Airport
Harni Airport
– Integrated Terminal Airport (Vadodara) Jamnagar
Jamnagar
Airport – About 8 kilometres from the Jamnagar
Jamnagar
city Kandla Airport
Kandla Airport
(Gandhidham) — Situated at Kandla, near Gandhidham, in Kutch
Kutch
district Keshod Airport (Junagadh) — Keshod Airport is found 3 km from Keshod city in Junagadh
Junagadh
District Porbandar Airport
Porbandar Airport
— Situated 5 km from the city of Porbandar Rajkot
Rajkot
Airport — 4 km from the city of Rajkot Surat
Surat
Airport — Located on Magdalla Road Surat
Surat
city

State-operated airports[edit]

Mehsana Airport
Mehsana Airport
Mehsana Airport
Mehsana Airport
is about 2 km from Mehsana city Mandvi
Mandvi
airport[188]

Rail[edit]

Surat
Surat
railway station

Main page: Railway stations in Gujarat Main article: Indian Railways Further information: Pune – Mumbai
Mumbai
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
High-Speed Passenger Corridor Gujarat
Gujarat
comes under the Western Railway Zone
Western Railway Zone
of the Indian Railways. Vadodara
Vadodara
Railway Station is the busiest railway station in Gujarat
Gujarat
and the fourth busiest railway station in India. It is situated on the Mumbai
Mumbai
Delhi
Delhi
Western Railway Mainline. Other important railway stations are Surat
Surat
railway station, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Railway Station and Rajkot
Rajkot
Railway Station. Indian Railways
Indian Railways
is planning Delhi–Mumbai dedicated rail freight route passing through the state. The 39.259 km (24.394 mi) long tracks of the first phase of MEGA, a metro rail system for Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
is under construction. It is expected to complete by December 2018. The construction started on 14 March 2015.[189][190] Sea[edit]

Kandla Port

Gujarat
Gujarat
State has the longest sea coast of 1600 km in India. Kandla Port
Kandla Port
is one of the largest ports serving Western India. Other important ports in Gujarat
Gujarat
are the Port of Navlakhi, Port of Magdalla, Port Pipavav, Bedi Port, Port of Porbandar, Port of Veraval
Veraval
and the privately owned Mundra
Mundra
Port. The state also has Ro-Ro ferry service.[191] Road[edit]

Bus terminal in Vadodara, Gujarat

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
BRTS

Main articles: List of National Highways in Gujarat
Gujarat
and List of state highways in Gujarat Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation
Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation
(GSRTC) is the primary body responsible for providing the bus services within the state of Gujarat and also with the neighbouring states. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India. Apart from this, there are a number of services provided by GSRTC.

Mofussil Services — It connects major cities, smaller towns and villages within Gujarat. Intercity Bus Services — It also connects major cities — Ahmedabad, Surat, Veraval, Vapi, Vadodara
Vadodara
(Baroda) and Rajkot. Interstate Bus Services — It connects various cities of Gujarat with the neighbouring states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Rajasthan. City Services — GSRTC also provides city bus services at Surat, Vadodara, Vapi, Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
and Ahmedabad, within the state of Gujarat. Parcel Services — This service is used for transporting goods.

Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places.

There are also city buses in cities like Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
(AMTS and Ahmedabad BRTS), Surat
Surat
( Surat
Surat
BRTS), Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
(VTCOS) Vadodara
Vadodara
(Vinayak Logistics), Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
(VTCOS), Rajkot
Rajkot
(VTCOS and Rajkot
Rajkot
BRTS), Anand (VTCOS) etc.

Auto rickshaws are common mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government of Gujarat
Gujarat
is promoting bicycles to reduce pollution. Education and research[edit] Main article: Education in Gujarat See also: List of institutions of higher education in Gujarat

Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad

The Gujarat
Gujarat
National Law University, Gandhinagar

Campus at Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Gandhinagar

The Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board (GSHSEB) are in charge of the schools run by the Government of Gujarat. However, most of the private schools in Gujarat
Gujarat
are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education
(CBSE) and Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board. Gujarat
Gujarat
has 13 state universities and four agricultural universities.

The clock tower in Gujarat
Gujarat
University, Ahmedabad

The premier management college, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
ranks the best in India
India
and among the best management universities in the world. The top-notch institutes for Engineering and Research include IIT Gandhinagar, Institute of Infrastructure Technology research and Management (IITRAM), Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT) also in Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT) and P P Savani University in Surat, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University
Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University
(PDPU) in Gandhinagar, Nirma University
Nirma University
in Ahmedabad, M.S. University in Vadodara, Marwadi Education Foundation's Group of Institutions (MEFGI) in Rajkot
Rajkot
and Birla Vishwakarma Mahavidyalaya (BVM) in Vallabh Vidyanagar (a suburb in anand district). Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad(MICA) is one of the most famous institutes for mass communication and is well-renowned across India. In addition, Institute of Rural Management Anand
Institute of Rural Management Anand
(IRMA) is one of the leading sectoral institution in rural management. IRMA is a unique institution in the sense that it provides professional education to train managers for rural management. It is the only one of its kind in all Asia. The National Institute of Design (NID) in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research. Centre for Environmental Planning & Technology University, popularly known as (CEPT) is one of the best planning and architectural school not in India, but across the world; providing various technical and professional courses. In the emerging area of legal education, a premier institution Gujarat National Law University was founded in the capital city Gandhinagar which started imparting education from the year 2004 and is ranked in top institutions in the country. Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of Engineering
Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of Engineering
(LDCE) is also one of the top engineering college of the state.

Kala Bhavan, Maharaja
Maharaja
Sayajirao University of Baroda

The Maharaja
Maharaja
Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, is a premier university of Gujarat. It is one of the oldest universities of Gujarat and provides education in Faculty of Fine Arts, Engineering, Arts, Journalism, Education, Law, Social Work, Medicine, Science and Performing Arts. Originally known as the Baroda
Baroda
College of Science (established 1881), it became a university in 1949 after the independence of the country and later renamed after its benefactor Maharaja
Maharaja
Sayajirao Gaekwad
Gaekwad
III, the former ruler of Baroda
Baroda
State. Gujarat
Gujarat
University, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya, Sardar Patel University, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
University, Saurashtra University, Veer Narmad South Gujarat
South Gujarat
University, Dharmsinh Desai University and Hemchandracharya
Hemchandracharya
North Gujarat
North Gujarat
University are also amongst reputed universities, affiliating many reputed colleges. Research[edit] The Space Applications Centre
Space Applications Centre
(SAC) is an institution for space research and satellite communication in Ahmedabad, India, under the aegis of the Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO). Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati, played an important role in it. He also founded Physical Research Laboratory, a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar System, and cosmic radiation. He also envisioned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, one of the internationally reputed management research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and is the top ranked management institutes in the country.[192][193] Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute has been established under Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Government of India
India
at Bhavnagar. It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India
India
on 10 April 1954, with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine. It is working on reverse osmosis, electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields. The Gujarat
Gujarat
National Law University situated at Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
is the 5th Best Law School currently in India.

Rocket model at Science City, Ahmedabad

Gujarat
Gujarat
Science City,[194] is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre, and dancing musical fountains amongst others. Institute of Management under Nirma University
Nirma University
is constantly ranked amongst the top MBA colleges in India. International Institute of Management and Technical Studies affiliated with Gujarat
Gujarat
Knowledge Society, European Association for Distance Learning, Association of Indian Management Schools and Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Textile Industry's Research Association has performed globally for its Higher Education
Higher Education
Certification courses for working professionals. IIMT STUDIES also launched GET SET GO programme in 2013 in Affiliation with Gujarat Technological University and Gujarat
Gujarat
Knowledge Society, Department of Technical Education- Government of Gujarat.[195][196][197][198][199] B.K. School of Business Management is ranked sixth in financial management. K. S. School of Business Management is also an MBA college in Gujarat University providing a five-year integrated MBA course. Shanti Business School in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is a business school offering post graduate diploma in Management through corporate citizenship initiative. The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) was established by the Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat, in 2003 and is registered as a Society. ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar, in a sprawling and picturesque[clarification needed] area on the banks of Sabarmati
Sabarmati
river. Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of potential. The ISR is the only institute in India
India
fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier international institute in few years time. Notable individuals[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

See also: List of people from Gujarat

Mahatma Gandhi, who spearheaded the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule, was a Gujarati.[200] Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
Independent India's first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister, was from Karamsad. Morarji Desai, The 4th Prime Minister of India
India
(1977–1979). Vikram Sarabhai, who was "Father of the Indian Space Programme" came from a family of Jain
Jain
industrialists from Ahmedabad.[201] Shrimad Rajchandra, a revered Jain
Jain
poet, philosopher and reformer best known as the spiritual guru of Mahatma Gandhi.[202] Dhirubhai Ambani, founder of Reliance industries
Reliance industries
was from Chorvad, Gujarat. Azim Premji, software magnate and chairman of Wipro Limited
Wipro Limited
is ethnically Gujarati.[203] Pioneer industrialist Jamsetji Tata, who founded the Tata Group, one of India's biggest multinational conglomerates, came from a Parsi family of Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
in Navsari, and is considered the "Father of Indian Industry".[204] Muhammad Ali Jinnah, revered in Pakistan
Pakistan
as Quaid-i-Azam (Great Leader), Baba-i-Qaum (Father of the Nation) and first Governor general of Pakistan
Pakistan
was from a Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
family in Rajkot. Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister of India
India
is from Vadnagar, Gujarat. Urjit Patel, current Governor of Reserve Bank of India
India
is from Kheda district, Gujarat.

See also[edit]

India
India
portal Gujarat
Gujarat
portal

Outline of Gujarat

Rajputs of Gujarat Gujarati people Dharasana Satyagraha Navnirman Andolan Mahagujarat Movement

Outline of India

Index of India-related articles Bibliography of India Jethwa Rajputs Persian Inscriptions on Indian Monuments

References[edit]

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Gujarat
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Gujarat
India
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Mango
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(Keri)". Nri Gujarati News. Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "INTER-STATE COUNCIL SECRETARIAT, Ministry of Home Affairs". Retrieved 13 February 2018.  ^ "West Zone Cultural Centre". wzccindia.com. Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Retrieved 13 February 2018.  ^ "Geological Survey of India". Retrieved 13 February 2018.  ^ Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi; Binay Kumar Rai (1977). The Tribal Culture of India. Concept Publishing Company.  ^ "History of Gujarat". Official Portal
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of the Gujarat Government.  ^ Vijay P. Singh; Il Won Seo; Jung H. Sonu (2006), Water Resources Planning and Management, Water Resources Publication, p. 19, ISBN 9781887201247  ^ Alison Arnold; Bruno Nettl (2000), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia : the Indian subcontinent, Taylor & Francis, p. 623, ISBN 9780824049461  ^ V. V. Sugunan (1995), Reservoir Fisheries of India, Food and Agriculture Organization, p. 287, ISBN 9789251036730  ^ " Gujarat
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draws its name from the Gurjara (supposedly a subtribe of the Huns), who ruled the area during the 8th and 9th centuries CE.  ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Achut Dattatrya Pusalker; A. K. Majumdar; Dilip Kumar Ghose; Vishvanath Govind Dighe; Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (1977). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 153.  ^ "Devdutt Pattanaik explores Gujarat
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through the ages and finds, in its archaeology, its myths and legends, its cultures and histories, a microcosm of the multilayered country he loves".  ^ a b "History of Gujarat". Mapsofindia.com. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India. p. 11. ^ The Acts of Judas Thomas, M.R. James, Tr. by M.R. James, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924. ^ Medlycott, A. E. India
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and the Apostle Thomas ^ Trade And Trade Routes In Ancient India
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von Moti Chandra page: 99 ^ CNG Coins ^ Mote, Sally Hovey Wriggins ; with a foreword by Frederick W. (1996). Xuanzang : a Buddhist
Buddhist
pilgrim on the Silk Road. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2801-2. Retrieved 16 February 2015.  ^ Vashi, Ashish (Oct 21, 2010), Saga of Barygaza, The Times of India, The book describes an episode of a foreigner bringing costly gifts for kings, saying, "And for the King there are very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, and the choicest ointments.  ^ William H. Schoff (1912), The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
by a Merchant of the First Century (digitalized), New York, retrieved 1 October 2013, As a sign of these places to those approaching from the sea there are serpents, very large and black; for at the other places on this coast and around Barygaza, they are smaller, and in color bright green, running into gold ... Now the whole country of India
India
has very many rivers, and very great ebb and flow of the tides; increasing at the new moon, and at the full moon for three days, and falling off during the intervening days of the moon. But about Barygaza
Barygaza
it is much greater, so that the bottom is suddenly seen, and now parts of the dry land are sea, and now it is dry where ships were sailing just before; and the rivers, under the inrush of the flood tide, when the whole force of the sea is directed against them, are driven upwards more strongly against their natural current, for many stadia.  ^ Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994). The end of the jihād state : the reign of Hishām ibn ʻAbd al-Malik and the collapse of the Umayyads. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 189. ISBN 0-7914-1828-6. Retrieved 10 January 2014. The Syrian
Syrian
troops became increasingly reluctant to serve on the ill-omened Indian front, which seemed, after so many failures, to be well on its way to becoming the worst front.  ^ a b Ancient India
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by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p. 366 ^ Manjulal Ranchholdlal Majmudar (1960). Historical and cultural chronology of Gujarat, Volume 1. Maharaja
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Sayajirao University of Baroda. p. 147.  ^ a b History, Religion and Culture of India, by S. Gajrani p.32 ^ Hodivala 1920, p. 88 ^ Boyce 2001, p. 148 ^ Khanbaghi 2006, p. 17 ^ Jackson 1906, p. 27 ^ Bleeker & Widengren 1971, p. 212 ^ Rose, Horace Arthur; Ibbetson (1990). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. Asian Educational Services. p. 300. ISBN 81-206-0505-5.  ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1980). Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-06117-7. Retrieved 16 February 2015.  ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1980). Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-06117-7. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  ^ Muhammed Ibrahim Dar (1952). Literary and Cultural Activities in Gujarat
Gujarat
Under the Khaljis and Sultanate. Bazm-i-Ishaʻat, Ismail Yusuf College. p. 51. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ J. Spencer Trimingham, John O. Voll, The Sufi Orders in Islam, pg 73 ^ Subrahmanyam, Muzaffar Alam, Sanjay (2012). Writing the Mughal world : studies on culture and politics. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-231-15811-4. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ Richard Maxwell Eaton. The Sufis of Bijapur, 1300–1700: Social Roles of Sufis in Medieval India. Princeton University Press, 2015. p. 127. Retrieved 18 February 2015.  ^ Achyut Yagnik. Ahmedabad: From Royal city to Megacity. Penguin UK, 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2015.  ^ Mansooruddin Quraishi. Muslim
Muslim
education and learning in Gujarat, 1297–1758. Faculty of Education and Psychology, Maharaja
Maharaja
Sayajirao University of Baroda, 1972. p. 47. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ Alvi Azra (1985). Socio Religious Outlook of Abul Fazl. Lahore Pakistan: Vanguard Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-210-40543-7.  ^ Giancarlo Casale (2010). The Ottoman Age of Exploration. Oxford University Press. p. 104. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ Ali Anooshahr (2008). The Ghazi Sultans and the Frontiers of Islam: A Comparative Study of the Late Medieval and Early Modern Periods. Routledge. p. 43. Retrieved 24 February 2015. Nevertheless, there were indeed people in India, specifically in Gujarat, who by about 1486 knew the Ottomans as the primary Ghazi sultans of western domains of the abode of Islam, and had tried to elevate their own standing by posing as comrade ghazis fighting irreligion in the east.  ^ Kurup, editor, K.K.N. (1997). India's naval traditions : the role of Kunhali Marakkars. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-7211-083-3. Retrieved 24 February 2015. Gujarati merchants had very long standing relations with the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Red Sea
Red Sea
regions. Aden, Ormuz and Mecca were frequently visited by them. They took gold, quicksilver, vermilion, copper, rose-water, camlets, scarlet-in-grain, coloured woollen cloth, glass beads and weapons which were brought by merchants from Cairo
Cairo
to Aden. The above mentioned items were collected by merchants from Italy, Greece and Damascus. Horses
Horses
from various parts of Arabia and Persia
Persia
especially from Ormuz were brought by the Gujarati merchants to India. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Arthur Percival Newton (1936). The Cambridge History of the British Empire. CUP Archive. p. 23. Retrieved 24 February 2015. The annual pilgrimages of Indian Muslim
Muslim
to Mecca, whose route lay through Gujarat
Gujarat
(which was called the Gate of Mecca) had been for some years interrupted by the domination of the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
by the Portuguese and also by the disorder prevailing in Gujarat.  ^ Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-520-93869-4. Retrieved 24 February 2015. From the other direction, the enhanced security of the Hejaz provided not only profits for Gujarati merchants but succor for Gujarat's Muslim
Muslim
sultans. In times of insecurity, Gujarati sultans would send their families and treasures to the Hejaz for safekeeping ... the sultanate indeed fell, in 1573, and the triumphant emperor Akbar, retained his services giving him charge of pious endowments in Gujarat dedicated to Mecca and Medina.  ^ A.V. Williams. Chapter 9 – The Ebb of the Tide – Humayun
Humayun
– 1530–1556 A.D. p. 228. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ Poros, Maritsa V. (2011). Modern migrations : Gujarati Indian networks in New York and London. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7222-8. Retrieved 16 February 2015. Indeed, Fernand Braudel likened Surat
Surat
to some of the great mercantile cities of Europe and Asia, such as Venice
Venice
and Beijing ... Godinho estimated that Surat's population was more than 100, 000, with people from all over the world residing in the city or frequenting it for business. He even claimed that it surpasses our "Evora in grandeur"  ^ David Smith (2003). Hinduism and modernity. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 62. ISBN 0-631-20862-3. Retrieved 11 February 2015. Surat was then the place of embarkation of pilgrims to Mecca; known as Bab al-Makkah or the Gate of Mecca, it was almost a sacred place for the Muslims of India. More to the point it was the main city for foreign imports, where many merchants had their bases, and all the European trading companies were established. Its population was more than 100, 000.  ^ The journal of Asian studies, Volume 35, Issues 1–2. Retrieved 11 February 2015. For a pious emperor, Surat
Surat
had more than economic and political importance; it was the port from which the hajj (pilgrimage) ships left Mughal India
India
for the Red Sea. The port was variously known as Bab-al-Makkah, the Bab-ul-Hajj, the Dar-al-Hajj, and the Bandar-i-Mubarak.  ^ Richard Maxwell Eaton. The Sufis of Bijapur, 1300–1700: Social Roles of Sufis in Medieval India. Princeton University Press, 2015. p. 60. Retrieved 18 February 2015.  ^ Dunn, Ross E. (1986). The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-520-05771-5. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ "Gujarati showed Vasco 'da' way". The Times of India. Oct 3, 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2013. Historians have differed over the identity of the sailor, calling him a Christian, a Muslim
Muslim
and a Gujarati. According to another account, he was the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid. Some historians suggest Majid could not have been near the vicinity at the time. German author Justus says it was Malam who accompanied Vasco ... Italian researcher Sinthia Salvadori too has concluded that it was Malam who showed Gama the way to India. Salvadori has made this observation in her 'We Came In Dhows', an account written after interacting with people in Gujarat.  ^ N. Subrahmanian; Tamil̲an̲pan̲; S. Jeyapragasam (1976). Homage to a Historian: A Festschrift. Dr. N. Subrahmanian 60th Birthday Celebration Committee. p. 62. Retrieved 1 October 2013.  ^ Darwis Khudori (2007). Rethinking solidarity in global society : the challenge of globalisation for social and solidarity movements : 50 years after Bandung Asian-African Conference 1955. Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre. p. 35. ISBN 978-983-3782-13-0. Retrieved 1 October 2013.  ^ Peter Padfield (1979). Tide of Empires: 1481–1654. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7100-0150-4.  ^ Pearson, M. N. (1976). Merchants and rulers in Gujarat : the response to the Portuguese in the sixteenth century (illustrated ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-520-02809-8. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ Goody, Jack (1996). The East in the West (Repr. 1998. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-521-55673-6. Retrieved 4 October 2013.  ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Gujarát Surat
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gets 100% tax rebate". Business Standard News. Retrieved 13 July 2015.  ^ Desh Gujarat
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govt announces new policy for incentives to Gujarati films". DeshGujarat. Retrieved 4 February 2016.  ^ "Dance & Music". NRI Division Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ "Navratri". Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 12 February 2012.  ^ "Kite Festival". Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 12 February 2012.  ^ Rai, Rajesh; Reeves, Peter (2008). Rajesh Rai, Peter Reeves, ed. The South Asian Diaspora: Transnational networks and changing identities. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-203-89235-0. The Gujarati merchant diaspora can still be found in the littoral cities of West Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
on the one hand and in Southeast Asia
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on the other.  ^ "'Even British were envious of Gujaratis'". THE TIMES OF INDIA. 11 December 2012. "Most people perceive that British dominated everything in the 19th century when the Indian sub-continent was under their control. But Gujarati merchants, especially those from Kutch, dominated the economy all along the East African coast. So while British were ruling, Gujaratis were making all the money," said Pearson." As financers, they (Gujarati merchants) had agents to collect tax, they had money to provide loans, they dominated the merchandise business and they were also into slavery business at Nairobi, Mombasa, Zanzibar on the East African coast and to some extent their influence was also on the South African region," he said. "In fact, the dominance of Gujarati merchants on economy was to such an extent that at one point of time the British even complained about it. They, however, couldn't make any difference as most of them were either administrators or soldiers," said Pearson  ^ "Strabo, Geography, NOTICE". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ "Cassius Dio — Book 54". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ Plutarch. 'Life of Alexander' in The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans. (trans John Dryden and revised Arthur Hugh Clough) The Modern Library (Random House Inc). New York. p.850 ^ Elledge CD. Life After Death in Early Judaism. Mohr Siebeck Tilbringen 2006 ISBN 3-16-148875-X pp. 122–125 ^ P. 25 Historical and cultural chronology of Gujarat, Volume 1 by Manjulal Ranchholdlal Majmudar ^ a b P. 4 Shyamji Krishna
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