†The state of Bombay was divided into two states i.e. Maharashtra
Gujarat by the Bombay (Reorganisation) Act 1960
Symbols of Gujarat(de facto)
"Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat" by Narmad
Gujarat (/ˌɡʊdʒəˈrɑːt/ Gujarat
['gudʒəɾɑt̪] ( listen)) is a state in Western
India and Northwest India with an area
of 196,024 km2 (75,685 sq mi), a coastline of
1,600 km (990 mi)–most of which lies on the Kathiawar
peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. It is bordered by
Rajasthan to the northeast,
Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu to the south, Dadra and
Nagar Haveli and
Maharashtra to the southeast,
Madhya Pradesh to the
east, and the
Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of
Sindh to the
west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is
Ahmedabad. The Gujarati-speaking people of
India are indigenous to
Gujarat is the third-largest state economy in
₹14.96 lakh crore (US$230 billion) in gross domestic product.
The state encompasses some sites of the ancient
Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro.
believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal
Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading
centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, and during the succession of
Saka dynasties from the
Western Satraps era.
Gujarat is one of
three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol.
2.1 Ancient history
2.2 Medieval history
2.4.1 Islamic Conquests 1197–1614 AD
Sultanate of Gujarat
Sultanate of Gujarat and the merchants
Gujarat in the Mughal Empire
2.6 European Colonialism 1614–1947 AD
2.7 Post independence
3.1 Rann of Kutch
5 Governance and administration
6.2 Industrial growth
7.6 Diffusion of culture
8 Flora and fauna
10.1.1 International airports
10.1.2 Domestic airports operated by the Airports Authority of India
10.1.3 State-operated airports
11 Education and research
12 Notable individuals
13 See also
15 External links
Gujarat is derived from
Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa, meaning
the land of the Gurjars, supposedly a subtribe of the
Huns which ruled
Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries CE. Parts of
Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or
Gurjarabhumi (land of the Gurjars) for centuries before the Mughal
Main article: History of Gujarat
The docks of ancient
Lothal as they are today
Ancient water reservoir at Dholavira
Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the
Civilization. It contains ancient metropolitan cities from the
Indus Valley such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. The ancient
Lothal was where India's first port was established. The
ancient city of
Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent
archaeological sites in India, belonging to the
Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether,
Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in
The ancient history of
Gujarat was enriched by the commercial
activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of
trade and commerce ties with Egypt,
Sumer in the Persian
Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC. There was a
Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty,
Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire,
Pala Empire and
Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well
as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and then the Chaulukyas.
The early history of
Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of
Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what
is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of
Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime. He ruled Giringer (modern day
Junagadh) (322 BC to 294 BC) and built a dam on the Sudarshan lake.
Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered
engraving of his edicts on the rock at
Junagadh but asked Governor
Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan
governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and
Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain,
there was an
Indo-Greek incursion into
Gujarat led by Demetrius. In
the first half of the 1st century AD, there is the story of a merchant
of King Gondaphares landing in
Gujarat with Apostle Thomas. The
incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that
the port city described is in Gujarat.
For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD,
played a prominent part in Gujarat's history. The weather-beaten rock
Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler
Rudradaman I (100 AD) of the
Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap
Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on
the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered
Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south
Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps. The greatest and
the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra
Satakarni who defeated the
Western Satraps and conquered some parts of
Gujarat in the 2nd century CE.
Coin of the Gujuras of Sindh, Chavda dynasty, circa 570–712 CE.
Crowned Sasanian-style bust right / Fire altar with ribbons and
attendants; star and crescent flanking flames.
The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the
Gupta Empire with the
Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's
successor Skandagupta left an inscription (450 AD) on a rock at
Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the
embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods.
Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire.
Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into
Senapati Bhatarka, the
Maitraka general of the Guptas, took
advantage of the situation and in 470 AD he set up what came to be
known as the
Maitraka state. He shifted his capital from Giringer to
Valabhipur, near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas
of Vallabhi became very powerful with their rule prevailing over large
Gujarat and adjoining Malwa. A university was set up by the
Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic
pursuits and was compared with the noted Nalanda University. It was
during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese
Xuanzang visited in 640 AD along the Silk
Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other
Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle
Ages. The oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime
history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the
Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the
Indian Ocean by a Merchant of
the First Century.
In the early 8th century, the
Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate
established an Empire in the name of the rising religion Islam, which
stretched from Spain in the west to Afghanistan and modern-day
Pakistan in the east. Al-Junaid, the successor of Qasim, finally
Hindu resistance within
Sindh and had established a secure
base. The Arab rulers tried to expand their empire southeast, which
culminated in the Caliphate campaigns in
India fought in 730 CE.
However, the Arab invaders were defeated and repelled from the areas
east of the
Indus river by a
Hindu alliance between
Nagabhata I of the
Vikramaditya II of the
Chalukya dynasty and Bappa
Rawal of guhilot dynasty. After this victory, the Arab invaders were
driven out of Gujarat. General Pulakesi, a
Chalukya prince of Lata,
received the title Avanijanashraya (refuge of the people of the earth)
and honorific of "Repeller of the unrepellable" by the south Indian
Vikramaditya II of the
Chalukya dynasty for the protection of
Gujarat during the battle at Navsari, where
Syrian troops suffered a
In the late 8th century, the Kannauj Triangle period started. The
three major Indian dynasties – the northwest Indian
Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian
Rashtrakuta Dynasty and
the east Indian
Pala Empire – dominated
India from the 8th to 10th
centuries. During this period the northern part of
Gujarat was ruled
by the north Indian
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty and the southern part of
Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty.
However, the earliest epigraphical records of the Gurjars of Broach
attest that the royal bloodline of the
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of
Dadda I-II-III (650–750) ruled south Gujarat. Southern Gujarat
was ruled by the south Indian
Rashtrakuta dynasty until it was
captured by the south Indian ruler
Tailapa II of the Western Chalukya
Greater Iran migrated to the western borders of
Gujarat and Sindh) during the 8th or 10th century, to
avoid persecution by
Muslim invaders who were in the process of
conquering Iran. The descendants of those
Zoroastrian refugees came to
be known as the Parsi.
Rani ki vav
Rani ki vav 11th century
Jain Temple constructed by Kumarapala (1143–1172 CE)
In the early 8th century some parts of
Gujarat was ruled by the south
Chalukya dynasty. In the early 8th century the
Arabs of the
Umayyad Caliphate established an Empire which stretched from Spain in
the west to Afghanistan and
Pakistan in the east. The Arab rulers
tried to expand their empire in the 8th century and invaded Gujarat
but the Arab invaders were defeated by the south Indian general
Pulakesi who was sent by the south Indian Emperor
Vikramaditya II of
Chalukya Dynasty. After this victory, the Arab invaders were
driven out of Gujarat. Pulakesi received the title Avanijanashraya
(refuge of the people of the earth) by
Vikramaditya II for the
protection of Gujarat. In the late 8th century the Kannauj Triangle
period started. The 3 major Indian Dynasties the northwest Indian
Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian
Rashtrakuta Dynasty and
the east Indian
Pala Empire dominated
India from the 8th to 10th
centuries. During this period the northern part of
Gujarat was ruled
by the north Indian
Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty and the southern part of
Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty.
Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty
until it was captured by the south Indian ruler
Tailapa II of the
The Chaulukya dynasty ruled
Gujarat from c. 960 to 1243. Gujarat
was a major center of
Indian Ocean trade, and their capital at
Anhilwara (Patan) was one of the largest cities in India, with
population estimated at 100,000 in the year 1000. After 1243, the
Solankis lost control of
Gujarat to their feudatories, of whom the
Vaghela chiefs of
Dholka came to dominate Gujarat. In 1292 the
Vaghelas became tributaries of the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri in the
Deccan. Karandev of the
Vaghela dynasty was the last
Hindu ruler of
Gujarat. He was defeated and overthrown by the superior forces of
Allauddin Khilji from
Delhi in 1297. With his defeat,
Gujarat not only
became part of the
Muslim empire but the
Rajput hold over
Islamic Conquests 1197–1614 AD
Mughal Emperor Akbar triumphantly enters Surat.
Ghoris had assumed a position of
Muslim supremacy over North
Qutbuddin Aibak attempted to conquer
Gujarat and annex it to
his empire in 1197 but failed in his ambitions. An independent
Muslim community continued to flourish in
Gujarat for the next hundred
years, championed by Arab merchants settling along the western coast
belonging to the
Shafi'ite madhhab. From 1297 to 1300, Allauddin
Khilji, the Turkic Sultan of Delhi, destroyed the
Hindu metropolis of
Anhilwara and incorporated
Gujarat into the
Delhi Sultanate. After
Timur's sacking of
Delhi at the end of the 14th century weakened the
Rajput governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar
(Muzaffar Shah I) asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmed
Shah (ruled 1411 to 1442), established
Ahmedabad as the capital.
Bharuch as Gujarat's most important trade port.
Gujarat's relations with Egypt, which was then the premier Arab power
in the Middle East remained friendly over the next century and the
Egyptian scholar, Badruddin-ad-Damamimi, spent several years in
Gujarat in the shade of the Sultan before proceeding to the Bahmani
Sultanate of the Deccan.
Shah e Alam, a famous Sufi-saint of the
Chishti order who was the
descendant of Makhdoom
Jahaniyan Jahangasht from
Bukhara soon arrived
among other luminaries such as Arab theologian Ibn Suwaid, several
Sayyid Sufi members of the Aydarus family of Tarim in Yemen,
Iberian court interpreter Ali al-Andalusi from Granada, and the
Arab jurist Bahraq from
Hadramaut who was appointed a tutor of the
prince. Among the illustrious names who arrived during the reign
Mahmud Begada was the philosopher Haibatullah Shah Mir from Shiraz,
and the scholar intellectual Abu Fazl Ghazaruni from Persia
who tutored and adopted Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, author of the
Akbarnama. Later, a close alliance between the Ottoman Turks and
Gujarati sultans to effectively safeguard
Jeddah and the
Red Sea trade
from Portuguese imperialism, encouraged the existence of powerful Rumi
elites within the kingdom who took the post of viziers in
to maintain ties with the Ottoman state.
Humayun had also briefly occupied the province in 1536, but fled due
to the threat Bahadur Shah, the
Gujarat king, imposed. The
Sultanate of Gujarat
Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1572, when the Mughal
Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal
Surat port (the only Indian port facing westwards) then became the
principal port of
India during Mughal rule to gain widespread
international repute. The eminent city of Surat, famous for its cargo
export of silk and diamonds had come on a par with contemporary Venice
Beijing which were some of the great mercantile cities of Europe
and Asia, and earned the distinguished title, Bab al-Makkah (Gate
Drawn by the religious renaissance taking place under Akbar, Mohammed
Ghaus moved to
Gujarat and established spiritual centers for the
Shattari Sufi order from Iran, founding the
Ek Toda Mosque
Ek Toda Mosque and
producing such devotees as
Wajihuddin Alvi of
Ahmedabad whose many
successors moved to
Bijapur during the height of the Adil Shahi
dynasty. At the same time,
Zoroastrian high priest
Azar Kayvan who
was a native of Fars, immigrated to
Gujarat founding the Zoroastrian
school of illuminationists which attracted key Shi'ite
Safavid philosophical revival from Isfahan.
Maghrebi adventurer, Ibn Batuta, who famously
India with his entourage, recalls in his memoirs about Cambay,
one of the great emporia of the
Indian Ocean that indeed:
Cambay is one of the most beautiful cities as regards the artistic
architecture of its houses and the construction of its mosques. The
reason is that the majority of its inhabitants are foreign merchants,
who continually build their beautiful houses and wonderful mosques –
an achievement in which they endeavor to surpass each other.
Many of these "foreign merchants" were transient visitors, men of
South Arabian and
Persian Gulf ports, who migrated in and out of
Cambay with the rhythm of the monsoons. But others were men with Arab
or Persian patronyms whose families had settled in the town
generations, even centuries earlier, intermarrying with Gujarati
women, and assimilating everyday customs of the
Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery heralded the dawn of pioneer Portuguese and
Spanish long-distance travel in search of alternative trade routes to
"the East Indies", moved by the trade of gold, silver and spices. In
1497, Portuguese explorer
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama is said to have discovered the
India sea route which changed the course of history, thanks
to Kutchi sailor Kanji Malam, who showed him the route from the East
African coasts of
Mozambique sailing onwards to
Calicut off the
Malabar coast in India. Later, the
allied with the
Ottomans and Egyptian
Mamluks naval fleets led by
Malik Ayyaz and Amir Husain Al-Kurdi, vanquished the
Portuguese in the 1508
Battle of Chaul
Battle of Chaul resulting in the first
Portuguese defeat at sea in the Indian Ocean.
To 16th-century European observers,
Gujarat was a fabulously wealthy
country. The customs revenue of
Gujarat alone in the early 1570s was
nearly three times the total revenue of the whole
Portuguese empire in
Asia in 1586–87, when it was at its height. Indeed, when the
British arrived on the coast of Gujarat, houses in
Surat already had
windows of Venetian glass imported from
Constantinople through the
Ottoman empire. In 1514, the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa
described the cosmopolitan atmosphere of
Rander known otherwise as
City of Mosques in
Surat province, which gained the fame and
reputation of illustrious Islamic scholars, Sufi-saints, merchants and
intellectuals from all over the world:
Ranel (Rander) is a good town of the Moors, built of very pretty
houses and squares. It is a rich and agreeable place ... the
Moors of the town trade with Malacca, Bengal, Tawasery (Tannasserim),
Pegu, Martaban, and
Sumatra in all sort of spices, drugs, silks, musk,
benzoin and porcelain. They possess very large and fine ships and
those who wish Chinese articles will find them there very completely.
Moors of this place are white and well dressed and very rich they
have pretty wives, and in the furniture of these houses have china
vases of many kinds, kept in glass cupboards well arranged. Their
women are not secluded like other Moors, but go about the city in the
day time, attending to their business with their faces uncovered as in
The conquest of the Kingdom of
Gujarat marked a significant event of
Akbar's reign. Being the major trade gateway and departure harbour of
pilgrim ships to Mecca, it gave the
Mughal Empire free access to the
Arabian sea and control over the rich commerce that passed through its
ports. The territory and income of the empire were vastly
Sultanate of Gujarat
Sultanate of Gujarat and the merchants
Agiary in Western India
For the best part of two centuries, the independent
Gujarat was the cynosure of its neighbors on account of its wealth
and prosperity, which had long made the Gujarati merchant a familiar
figure in the ports of the Indian Ocean. Gujaratis, including
Hindus and Muslims as well as the enterprising
Parsi class of
Zoroastrians, had been specializing in the organisation of overseas
trade for many centuries, and had moved into various branches of
commerce such as commodity trade, brokerage, money-changing,
money-lending and banking.
By the 17th century, Chavuse and
Baghdadi Jews had assimilated into
the social world of the
Surat province, later on their descendants
would give rise to the Sassoons of Bombay and the Ezras of Calcutta,
and other influential Indian-Jewish figures who went on to play a
philanthropical role in the commercial development of 19th-century
British Crown Colony of Shanghai. Spearheaded by Khoja, Bohra,
Bhatiya shahbandars and Moorish nakhudas who dominated sea navigation
and shipping, Gujarat's transactions with the outside world had
created the legacy of an international transoceanic empire which had a
vast commercial network of permanent agents stationed at all the great
port cities across the Indian Ocean. These networks extended to the
Philippines in the east,
East Africa in the west, and via maritime and
the inland caravan route to
Russia in the north.
As Tome Pires, a Portuguese official at Malacca, writing of conditions
during the reigns of Mahmud I and Mozaffar II, expressed it: "Cambay
stretches out two arms; with her right arm she reaches toward
with the other towards Malacca" (Pires, I, p. 41) and also
described Gujarat's active trade with Goa, Deccan and the Malabar. His
contemporary, Duarte Barbosa, describing Gujarat's maritime trade,
recorded the import of horses from the Middle East and elephants from
Malabar, and lists exports which included muslins, chintzes and silks,
carnelian, ginger and other spices, aromatics, opium, indigo and other
substances for dyeing, cereals and legumes (Barbosa, I,
Persia was the destination for many of these
commodities, and they were partly paid for in horses and pearls taken
from Hormuz (Barbosa, I, p. 82). It was the latter item, in
particular, which led Sultan
Sikandar Lodi of Delhi, according to
Ali-Muhammad Khan, author of the Mirat-i-Ahmadi, to complain that the
"support of the throne of
Delhi is wheat and barley but the foundation
of the realm of
Gujarat is coral and pearls" (apud Bayley,
p. 20). Hence, the sultans of
Gujarat possessed ample means to
sustain lavish patronage of religion and the arts, to build madrasas
and ḵānaqāhs, and to provide douceurs for the literati, mainly
poets and historians, whose presence and praise enhanced the fame of
Even at the time of Tom Pires' travel to the East
Indies in the early
16th century, Gujarati merchants had earned an international
reputation for their commercial acumen and this encouraged the visit
of merchants from Cairo, Armenia, Abyssinia, Khorasan, Shiraz,
Turkestan and Guilans from
Aden and Hormuz. Pires noted in his
These [people] are [like] Italians in their knowledge of and dealings
in merchandise ... they are men who understand merchandise; they
are so properly steeped in the sound and harmony of it, that the
Gujaratees say that any offence connected with merchandise is
pardonable. There are Gujaratees settled everywhere. They work some
for some and others for others. They are diligent, quick men in trade.
They do their accounts with fingers like ours and with our very
Gujarat in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
Gujarat was one of the twelve original subahs (imperial top-level
provinces) established by Mughal padshah (emperor) Akbar the Great,
with seat at Ahmedabad, bordering on Thatta (Sindh), Ajmer,
later Ahmadnagar subahs.
Aurangzeb, who was better known by his imperial title Alamgir
("Conqueror of the World"), was born at Dahod, Gujarat, and was the
Mughal Emperor ruling with an iron fist over most of the Indian
subcontinent. He was the third son and sixth child of
Shah Jahan and
Mumtaz Mahal. At the time of his birth, his father, Shah Jahan, was
then the Subahdar (governor) of Gujarat, and his grandfather,
Jehangir, was the Mughal Emperor. Before he became emperor, Aurangzeb
was made Subahdar of
Gujarat subah as part of his training and was
stationed at Ahmedabad.
Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and was
amongst the wealthiest of the Mughal rulers, with an annual yearly
tribute of £38,624,680 (in 1690). During his lifetime, victories in
the south expanded the
Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square
kilometers and he ruled over a population estimated as being in the
range of 100–150 million subjects.
Aurangzeb had great love for his place of birth. In 1704, he wrote a
letter to his eldest son, Muhammad Azam Shah, asking him to be kind
and considerate to the people of
Dahod as it was his birthplace.
Muhammad Azam was then the Subedar (governor) of Gujarat.
In his letter,
My son of exalted rank, the town of Dahod, one of the dependencies of
Gujarat, is the birthplace of this sinner. Please consider a regard
for the inhabitants of that town as incumbent on you.
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I riding a horse
When the cracks had started to develop in the edifice of the Mughal
empire in the mid-17th century, the Marathas were consolidating their
power in the west, Chatrapati Shivaji, the great
Surat in southern
Gujarat twice first in 1664 and again in
1672. These attacks marked the entry of the Marathas into Gujarat.
However, before the
Maratha inroads into Gujarat, the Europeans had
made their presence felt, with the Portuguese leading them, followed
by the Dutch and the English.
The Peshwas had established their sovereignty over parts of Gujarat
and collected taxes and tributes through their representatives. Damaji
Gaekwad and Kadam Bande divided the Peshwa's territory between
them, with Damaji establishing the sway of
Gaekwad over Gujarat
Baroda (present day
Vadodara in southern Gujarat) his
capital. The ensuing internecine war among the Marathas was fully
exploited by the British, who interfered in the affairs of both
Gaekwads and the Peshwas.
In Saurashtra, as elsewhere, the Marathas were met with
resistance. The decline of the
Mughal Empire helped form larger
peripheral states in Saurashtra, including Junagadh, Jamnagar,
Bhavnagar and a few others, which largely resisted the Maratha
European Colonialism 1614–1947 AD
Princely states of
Gujarat in 1924
In the 1600s, the Dutch, French, English and Portuguese all
established bases along the western coast of the region.
the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, and after the Battle of
Diu, acquired several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including
Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. These enclaves were
administered by Portuguese
India under a single union territory for
over 450 years, only to be later incorporated into the Republic of
India on 19 December 1961 by military conquest.
The British East
India Company established a factory in
Surat in 1614
following the commercial treaty made with
Mughal Emperor Nuruddin
Salim Jahangir, which formed their first base in India, but it was
eclipsed by Bombay after the English received it from
Portugal in 1668
as part of the marriage treaty of
Charles II of England
Charles II of England and Catherine
of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal. The state was an
early point of contact with the west, and the first British commercial
India was in Gujarat.
17th-century French explorer François Pyrard de Laval, who is
remembered for his 10-year sojourn in South Asia, bears witness
accounts that the Gujaratis were always prepared to learn workmanship
from the Portuguese, also in turn imparting skills to the
I have never seen men of wit so fine and polished as are these
Indians: they have nothing barbarous or savage about them, as we are
apt to suppose. They are unwilling indeed to adopt the manners and
customs of the Portuguese; yet do they regularly learn their
manufactures and workmanship, being all very curious and desirous of
learning. In fact the Portuguese take and learn more from them than
they from the Portuguese.
Later in the 17th century,
Gujarat came under control of the Hindu
Maratha Empire that rose defeating the
Muslim Mughals and who
dominated the politics of India. Most notably, from 1705 to 1716,
Khanderao Dabhade led the
Maratha Empire forces in Baroda.
Pilaji Gaekwad, first ruler of
Gaekwad dynasty, established the
Baroda and other parts of Gujarat.
Bombay Presidency in 1909, northern portion
The British East
India Company wrested control of much of
the Marathas during the
Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1802–1803. Many
local rulers, notably the
Gaekwad Maharajas of Baroda
(Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged
British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule.
An epidemic outbreak in 1812 killed half the population of
Mahatma Gandhi picking salt at Dandi beach,
South Gujarat ending the
Salt satyagraha on 5 April 1930
Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay
Presidency, with the exception of
Baroda state, which had a direct
relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947,
most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar,
Kutch and northern
Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but
several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad,
Broach (Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda), Panchmahal and Surat, were governed
directly by British officials.
Gujarat in Bombay state
After Indian independence and the partition of
India in 1947, the new
Indian government grouped the former princely states of
three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely
states on the
Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which
included the former British districts of
Bombay Presidency together
with most of
Baroda state and the other former princely states of
Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch,
Saurashtra (Kathiawar) and parts of
Hyderabad state and Madhya Pradesh
in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north
and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by Gujarati nationalists, the
Mahagujarat Movement, and Marathi nationalists, the Samyukta
Maharashtra, for their own states led to the split of
Bombay state on
linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat
and Maharashtra. In 1969 riots, at least 660 died and properties worth
millions were destroyed.
The first capital of
Gujarat was Ahmedabad; the capital was moved to
Gandhinagar in 1970.
Nav Nirman Andolan was a socio-political movement
of 1974. It was a students' and middle-class people's movement against
economic crisis and corruption in public life. This was the first and
last successful agitation after the Independence of
India that ousted
an elected government.
The Morvi dam failure, in 1979, resulted in the death of thousands of
people and large economic loss. In the 1980s, a reservation policy
was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests
in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between
people belonging to various castes.
2001 Gujarat earthquake
2001 Gujarat earthquake was located about 9 km
south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch
District. This magnitude 7.7 shock killed around 20,000 people
(including at least 18 in South-eastern Pakistan), injured another
167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes.
In February 2002, the
Godhra Train Attack
Godhra Train Attack lead to statewide riots,
resulting in the deaths of 1044 people – 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus,
and hundreds missing still unaccounted for. Akshardham Temple was
attacked by two terrorists in September 2002, killing 32 people and
injuring more than 80 others. National Security Guards intervented to
end siege killing both terrorists. On 26 July 2008 a series of
seventeen bomb blasts rocked the city, killing and injuring several
Main article: Geography of Gujarat
Climate of Gujarat and List of rivers of Gujarat
Physical map of Gujarat
Sardar Sarovar Project, Gujarat, partially completed (up to
Gujarat borders Pakistan's Tharparkar, Badin and Thatta districts of
Sindh province to the northwest, is bounded by the
Arabian Sea to the
southwest, the state of
Rajasthan to the northeast,
Madhya Pradesh to
the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra
and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the north was known as
Kathiawar peninsula, "Saurastra", and the south as
Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna. The
Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. The capital,
Gandhinagar is a planned city.
Gujarat has an area of
75,686 sq mi (196,030 km2) with the longest coast
line(24% of Indian sea coast) 1,600 kilometres (990 mi), dotted
with 41 ports: one major, 11 intermediate and 29 minor.
Sabarmati is the largest river in
Gujarat followed by the Tapi,
although the Narmada covers the longest distance in its passage
through the state. The
Sardar Sarovar Project
Sardar Sarovar Project is built on the Narmada
River, one of the major rivers of peninsular
India with a length of
around 1,312 kilometres (815 mi). It is one of only three rivers
India that run from east to west – the others being
the Tapi River and the Mahi River. A riverfront project has been built
Rann of Kutch
Main article: Rann of Kutch
The Rann of
Kutch is a seasonally marshy saline clay desert located in
Thar Desert biogeographic region in between the province of Sindh
and the state of Gujarat. Situated 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the
village of Kharaghoda in the
Surendranagar District and Pakistan's
Sindh province. The name "Rann" comes from the Gujarati word rann
(રણ) meaning "desert".
White Rann of Kutch
Cracked earth in the Rann of Kutch
The colorful Rann Utsav Festival is held annually in the Rann of Kutch
White Desert view from Mount Karo
Nilgai group at Little Rann of kutch
Main article: Gujarati people
Source:Census of India
The population of
Gujarat State was 60,383,628, according to the 2011
census data. The population density is 308 km−2 (797.6/sq mi),
lower than other Indian states. As per the census of 2011, the state
has a sex ratio of 918 girls for every 1000 boys, one of the lowest
(ranked 24) amongst the 29 states in India.
While Gujarati speakers constitute a majority of Gujarat's population,
the metropolitan areas of
Surat are cosmopolitan, with
numerous other ethnic and language groups. Marwaris compose large
minorities of economic migrants; smaller communities of people from
the other states of
India has also migrated to
Gujarat for employment.
Portuguese, Anglo-Indians, Jews and Parsis also live in the areas.
Sindhi presence is traditionally important here following the
India in 1947.
Not stated (0.10%)
According to 2011 census, the religious makeup in
Gujarat was 88.6%
Hindu, 9.7% Muslim, 1.0% Jain, 0.5% Christian, 0.1% Sikh, 0.05%
Buddhist and 0.03% others. Around 0.1% did not state any
religion. Hinduism is the major religion of the state, as about
89% population of the state is Hindu. A major part of the Hindu
population follow Vaishnavism. Muslims are the
biggest minority in the state accounting for 9.5% of the population.
Gujarat has the third-largest population of Jains in India, following
Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
The Zoroastrians, also known in
Parsi and Irani, are believed
to have migrated to
Gujarat to escape adverse conditions in
maintain their traditions. They have also played an instrumental role
in economic development, with several of the best-known business
India run by Parsi-Zoroastrians, including the Tata,
Godrej, and Wadia families. There is a small Jewish community centred
around Magen Abraham Synagogue.
Jain Temple, Ahmedabad
Gurudwara Govinddham, Ahmedabad
Magen Abraham Jewish Synagogue
Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque, 15th century), Ahmedabad
Modhera Sun Temple
Modhera Sun Temple built by Bhimdev I
Main article: Gujarati language
Gujarati written in Gujarati script
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī?) is an Indo-Aryan
language evolved from
Sanskrit and local Prakrits, and is part of the
greater Indo-European language family. It is native to the Indian
state of Gujarat, and is its main language, as well as of the adjacent
union territories of
Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
About 49 million people speak Gujarati, making it the 26th most-spoken
native language in the world. Along with Romani, Kutchi, and Sindhi,
it is amongst the most western of Indo-Aryan languages.
According to the 52nd report of the commissioner for linguistic
minorities under Ministry of Minority Affairs, majority of the
population speak Gujarati with 84.40% speakers, followed by Bhili
Hindi (4.71%), Sindhi (1.89%), Marathi (1.51%) and Urdu
People from the
Kutch region of
Gujarat also speak in the Kutchi
mother tongue, and to a great extent appreciate Sindhi as well. Memoni
is the mother tongue of
Kathiawar and Sindhi Memons, most of them who
are exclusively Muslims.
Almost 88% of the
Gujarati Muslims speak Gujarati as their mother
tongue, whilst the other 12% speak Urdu. A sizeable proportion of
Gujarati Muslims are bilingual in both languages; Islamic academic
institutions (Darul Uloom) place a high prestige on learning
Arabic, with students' memorising the Quran and ahadith, and
emphasising the oral and literary importance of mastering these
languages as a compulsory rite of religion. Other native languages
spoken in low proportions are Bhili and Gamit, which are spoken
exclusively among the tribals.
Apart from this, English, Marwari, Sindhi, Punjabi, Tamil, Kannada,
Telugu, Bengali, Odia, Malayalam, Marathi and others are spoken by a
considerable number of economic migrants who have flocked to the state
in recent decades seeking employment and higher standards of living.
The languages taught in schools under the three-language formula
First Language: Gujarati/Hindi/Marathi/English/Urdu
Second Language: Gujarati/English
Third Language: Hindi
In previous years, Sindhi was also taught as a first language,
but this has changed.
Governance and administration
Main articles: Politics of Gujarat, Government of Gujarat, Gujarat
Legislative Assembly, and Districts of Gujarat
See also: Chief Ministers of Gujarat
Gandhinagar, the capital of
Gujarat State. The picture shown above is
of the Legislative Assembly and seat of
Gujarat has 33 districts and 250 Talukas. They can broadly be defined
into 4 regions.
Saurashtra - Kutch
Largest cities or towns in Gujarat
As of the 2011 Census
Gujarat is governed by a Legislative Assembly of 182 members. Members
of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult suffrage
from one of 182 constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for scheduled
castes and 27 for scheduled tribes. The term of office for a member of
the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly
elects a speaker who presides over the meetings of the legislature. A
governor is appointed by the President of India, and is to address the
state legislature after every general election and the commencement of
each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly. The leader of
the majority party or coalition in the legislature (Chief Minister) or
his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly.
The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister.
Swarnim Sankul 2, a
Government of Gujarat
Government of Gujarat office
After the independence of
India in 1947, the Indian National Congress
(INC) ruled the
Bombay State (which included present-day
Maharashtra). Congress continued to govern
Gujarat after the state's
creation in 1960.
During and after India's State of Emergency of 1975–1977, public
support for the INC eroded, but it continued to hold government until
1995 with brief rule of nine months by Janata Morcha. In the 1995
Assembly elections, the Congress lost to the Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) led by
Keshubhai Patel who became the Chief Minister. His
government lasted only two years. The fall of that government was
provoked by a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela. BJP again
won election in 1998 with clear majority. In 2001, following the loss
of two assembly seats in by-elections,
Keshubhai Patel resigned and
yielded power to Narendra Modi. BJP retained a majority in the 2002
Narendra Modi remained as Chief Minister. On 1 June
Narendra Modi became the longest serving Chief Minister of
Gujarat. BJP retained the power in subsequent elections
in 2007 and 2012 and
Narendra Modi continued as the Chief Minister.
Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of
India in 2014,
Anandiben Patel became the first female Chief Minister of the
Vijay Rupani took over as Chief Minister and Nitin Patel as Dy.
Chief Minister on 7 August 2016 after
Anandiben Patel resigned earlier
on 3 August.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2016)
Main article: Economy of Gujarat
During the British Raj, Gujarati businesses served to play a major
role to enrich the economy of
Karachi and Mumbai. Major
agricultural produce of the state includes cotton, groundnuts
(peanuts), dates, sugar cane, milk and milk products. Industrial
products include cement and petrol. According to a 2009 report on
economic freedom by the Cato Institute,
Gujarat is the first most free
India (the second one being Tamil Nadu). Reliance
Industries operates the oil refinery at Jamnagar, which is the world's
largest grass-roots refinery at a single location. The world's largest
shipbreaking yard is in
Bhavnagar at Alang. India's only
Liquid Chemical Port Terminal at Dahej, developed by
Port Terminal Co Ltd.
Gujarat has two of the three liquefied natural
gas (LNG) terminals in the country (
Dahej and Hazira). Two more LNG
terminals are proposed, at
Pipavav and Mundra.
Mundra Port Kutch
Gujrat has 85% village connectivity with all‐weather roads.
Nearly 100% of Gujarat's 18,000 villages have been connected to the
electrical grid for 24-hour power to households and eight hours of
power to farms, through the Jyotigram Yojana. As of 2015[update],
Gujarat ranks first nationwide in gas-based thermal electricity
generation with a national market share of over 8%, and second
nationwide in nuclear electricity generation with national market
share of over 1%.
More than 900,000 internet users and all villages are connected with
broadband internet. The state registered 12.8%
agricultural growth in the last five years against the national
average of 2%.
Gujarat records highest decadal agricultural growth rate of 10.97%.
Over 20% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices
in Gujarat. As per RBI report, in year 2006–07, 26% out of
total bank finance in
India was in Gujarat.
In a July 2011 report,
The Economist referred to
Gujarat as India's
As per a recent survey report of the
Chandigarh Labour Bureau, Gujarat
has the lowest unemployment rate of 1% against the national average of
It also has the biggest industrial area for ceramic business in Morbi,
Himatanagar, which produces around 80% of the country's gross ceramic
production and around 80% of compact fluorescent lamp (CFL).[citation
Legatum Institute's Global Prosperity Index 2012 has recognised
Gujarat as the highest-scoring amongst all states of
India on matters
of social capital. The state ranks 15th alongside
Germany in a list of 142 nations worldwide, and actually ranks higher
than several developed nations.
Tallest Building in Gujarat: GIFT One
Tallest tower in Gujarat, GIFT One was inaugurated on 10 January 2013.
One other tower called GIFT Two has been finished and more towers are
Surat is one of the fastest growing cities in the world.
Shown here is the Tata Nano, the world's least expensive car.
Gujarat is home to Tata Nano.
Ashram Road, Ahmedabad, is one of the major roads of the city. It runs
parallel to the
Gujarat's major cities include Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkot,
Jamnagar and Bhavnagar. In 2010,
Forbes list of the world's fastest
growing cities included
Ahmedabad at number 3 after
Chongqing from China. The state is rich in calcite, gypsum,
manganese, lignite, bauxite, limestone, agate, feldspar, and quartz
sand, and successful mining of these minerals is done in their
Jamnagar is the hub for manufacturing brass parts.
Gujarat produces about 98% of India's required amount of soda ash, and
gives the country about 78% of the national requirement of salt. It is
one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP
significantly above India's average. Kalol, Khambhat, and Ankleshwar
are today known for their oil and natural gas production. Dhuvaran has
a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil, and gas. Also, on the
Gulf of Khambhat, 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Bhavnagar,
Alang Ship Recycling Yard (the world's largest). General Motors
manufactures its cars at Halol near Vadodara,
Tata Motors manufactures
Tata Nano from
Sanand near Ahmedabad, and AMW trucks are made near
Bhuj. Surat, a city by the Gulf of Khambhat, is a hub of the global
diamond trade. In 2003, 92% of the world's diamonds were cut and
polished in Surat.
Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR) spread
across 453,000 square hectares—in Bharuch.
Gujarat is one of the first few states in
India to have encouraged
private-sector investment, some of which are already in
operation. In addition, the liquid cargo (chemicals)
handling port at
Dahej is also set up in joint sector and made
operational. At an investor's summit entitled
Gujarat Global Investor Summit", arranged between 11 and 13
January 2015, at Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar, the state government
signed 21000 Memoranda of Understanding for
Special Economic Zones
worth a total of ₹ 2.5 million crores (short scale).
However, most of the investment was from domestic industry. In
the fourth Vibrant
Gujarat Global Investors' Summit held at Science
City, Ahmedabad, in January 2009, there were 600 foreign delegates. In
all, 8668 MOUs worth ₹ 12500 billion were signed, estimated to
create 2.5 million new job opportunities in the state. In
Gujarat Global Investors' Summit MOUs worth ₹ 21
trillion (US$ 463 billion) were signed.
Gujarat is state with surplus electricity. The Kakrapar Atomic
Power Station(KAPS) is a nuclear power station run by NPCIL that lies
in the proximity of the city of Surat. Recently, the Gujarat
Government has upgraded its installed capacity of 13,258 megawatts
(MW) by adding another 3,488 MW. According to the
official sources, against demand of 40,793 million units during the
nine months since April 2010,
Gujarat produced 43,848 million units.
Gujarat sold surplus power to 12 states: Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka,
Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal.
Astonfield's 11.5 MW solar plant in Gujarat
Gujarat invests in development of solar energy in the state and has
had India's largest solar power plant as of January 2012. It has
allotted 716 MW of solar power capacity to 34 national and
international solar project developers in 2009, against the planned
500 MW capacity under its solar power policy. This is expected to
bring in investments of INR 120 billion and generate employment
for 5,000 people. By 2014,
Gujarat plans on producing 1000MW of energy
by solar power.
The total geographical area of
Gujarat is 19,602,400 hectares, of
which crops take up 10,630,700 hectares[verification needed]. The
three main sources of growth in Gujarat's agriculture are from cotton
production, the rapid growth of high-value foods such as livestock,
fruits and vegetables, and from wheat production, which saw an annual
average growth rate of 28% between 2000 and 2008 (According to the
International Food Policy Research Institute). Other major
produce includes bajra, groundnut, cotton, rice, maize, wheat,
mustard, sesame, pigeon pea, green gram, sugarcane, mango, banana,
sapota, lime, guava, tomato, potato, onion, cumin, garlic, isabgul and
fennel. Whilst, in recent times,
Gujarat has seen a high average
annual growth of 9% in the agricultural sector, the rest of
an annual growth rate of around 3%. This success was lauded by former
President of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.
The strengths of Gujarat's agricultural success have been attributed
to diversified crops and cropping patters; climatic diversity (8
climatic zones for agriculture); the existence of 4 agricultural
universities in the state, which promote research in agricultural
efficiency and sustainability; co-operatives; adoption of hi-tech
agriculture such as tissue culture, green houses and shed-net houses;
agriculture export zones; strong marketing infrastructure, which
includes cold storages, processing units, logistic hubs and
Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in
India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra,
maize, tur, and gram. The state has an agricultural economy; the total
crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area.
Animal husbandry and dairying have played vital roles in the rural
economy of Gujarat. Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk
production, functions on a co-operative basis and has more than a
Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India. The
Amul milk co-operative federation is well known all over India, and it
is Asia's biggest dairy. Amongst livestock raised are buffalo and
other cattle, sheep, and goats. As per the results of livestock census
1997, there were 20.97 million head of livestock in
Gujarat State. In
the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the
year 2002–03, the
Gujarat produced 6.09 million tonnes of milk, 385
million eggs and 2.71 million kg of wool.
Gujarat also contributes
inputs to the textiles, oil, and soap industries, amongst others.
The adoption of cooperatives in
Gujarat is widely attributed to much
of the success in the agricultural sector, particularly sugar and
Cooperative farming has been a component of
India's strategy for agricultural development since 1951. Whilst the
success of these was mixed throughout the country, their positive
impact on the states of
Gujarat have been the most
significant. In 1995 alone, the two states had more registered
co-operatives than any other region in the country. Out of these, the
agricultural cooperatives have received much attention. Many have
focused on subsidies and credit to farmers and rather than collective
gathering, they have focused on facilitating collective processing and
marketing of produce. However, whilst they have led to increased
productivity, their effect on equity in the region has been
questioned, because membership in agricultural co-operatives has
tended to favour landowners whilst limiting the entry of landless
agricultural labourers. An example of co-operative success in
Gujarat can be illustrated through dairy co-operatives, with the
particular example of
Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited).
Amul Plant at Anand
Amul Was formed as a dairy cooperative in 1946, in the city of
Anand, Gujarat. The cooperative,
Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing
Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), is jointly owned by around 2.6 million milk
producers in Gujarat.
Amul has been seen as one of the best examples
of cooperative achievement and success in a developing economy and The
Amul pattern of growth has been taken as a model for rural
development, particularly in the agricultural sector of developing
economies. The company stirred the White Revolution of
known as Operation Flood), the world's biggest dairy development
program, and made the milk-deficient nation of
India the largest milk
producer in the world, in 2010. The "
Amul Model" aims to stop the
exploitation by middlemen and encourage freedom of movement since the
farmers are in control of procurement, processing and packaging of the
milk and milk products. The company is worth 2.5 billion US
dollars (as of 2012).
70% of Gujarat's area is classified as semi-arid to arid climatically,
thus the demand on water from various economic activities puts a
strain on the supply. Of the total gross irrigated area, 16–17%
is irrigated by government-owned canals and 83–84% by privately
owned tube wells and other wells extracting groundwater, which is the
predominant source of irrigation and water supply to the agricultural
areas. As a result,
Gujarat has faced problems with groundwater
depletion, especially after demand for water went up in the 1960s. As
access to electricity in rural areas increased, subermersible electric
pumps became more popular in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the Gujarat
Electricity Board switched to flat tariff rates linked to the
horsepower of pumps, which increased tubewell irrigation again and
decreased the use of electric pumps. By the 1990s, groundwater
abstraction rates exceeded groundwater recharge rate in many
districts, whilst only 37.5% of all districts has "safe" recharge
rates. Groundwater maintenance and preventing unnecessary loss of the
available water supplies is now an issue faced by the state. The
Sardar Sarovar Project, a debated dam project in the Narmada valley
consisting of a network of canals, has significantly increased
irrigation in the region. However, its impact on communities who were
displaced is still a contested issue. Recently, in 2012,
an experiment to reduce water loss due to evaporation in canals and to
increase sustainability in the area by constructing solar panels over
the canals. A one megawatt (MW) solar power project set up at
Gujarat uses solar panels fixed over a 750-metre stretch
of an irrigation canal. Unlike many solar power projects, this one
does not take up large amounts of land since the panels are
constructed over the canals, and not on additional land. This results
in lower upfront costs since land does not need to be acquired,
cleared or modified to set up the panels. The Chandrasan project is
projected to save 9 million litres of water per year.
The Government of Gujarat, to improve soil management and introduce
farmers to new technology, started on a project which involved giving
every farmer a Soil Health Card. This acts like a ration card,
providing permanent identification for the status of cultivated land,
as well as farmers' names, account numbers, survey numbers, soil
fertility status and general fertiliser dose. Samples of land from
each village are taken and analysed by the
Gujarat Narmada Valley
Fertiliser Corporation, State Fertiliser Corporation and Indian
Farmers Fertilisers Co-operative. 1,200,000 soil test data from the
villages was collected as of 2008, from farmer's field villages have
gone into a database. Assistance and advice for this project was given
by local agricultural universities and crop and soil-specific data was
added to the database. This allows the soil test data to be
interpreted and recommendations or adjustments made in terms of
fertiliser requirements, which are also added to the database.
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with
Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may
contain suggestions. (October 2016)
Main article: Culture of Gujarat
Gujarat is home to the Gujarati people. It was also the home of
Mahatma Gandhi and Vallabhbhai Patel, who preached unity between all
religions and became a worldwide figure for peaceful struggle against
Main article: Gujarati literature
Gujarati literature's history may be traced to 1000 AD. Since then
literature has flourished till date. Well known laureates of Gujarati
literature are Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Mirabai, Akho,
Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad,
Govardhanram Tripathi, Mahatma Gandhi, K. M. Munshi, Umashankar Joshi,
Suresh Joshi, Swaminarayan,
Pannalal Patel and Rajendra Shah.
Zaverchand Meghani and
Kalapi are famous Gujarati poets.
Gujarat Vidhya Sabha,
Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, and Gujarati Sahitya
Ahmedabad based literary institutions promoting the
spread of Gujarati literature. Saraswatichandra is a landmark novel by
Govardhanram Tripathi. Writers like Aanand Shankar Dhruv, Ashvini
Bhatt, Balwantray Thakore, Bhaven Kachhi, Bhagwatikumar Sharma,
Chandrakant Bakshi, Gunvant Shah, Harindra Dave, Harkisan Mehta, Jay
Vasavada, Jyotindra Dave, Kanti Bhatt, Kavi Nanalal, Khabardar,
Sundaram, Makarand Dave, Ramesh Parekh, Suresh Dalal, Tarak Mehta,
Vinod Bhatt, Dhruv Bhatt and Varsha Adalja have influenced Gujarati
A notable contribution to
Gujarati language literature came from the
Swaminarayan paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like
Vachanamrut and poetry in the form of bhajans. 
Shrimad Rajchandra Vachnamrut and Shri
Atma Siddhi Shastra , written
in 19th century by philosopher
Shrimad Rajchandra (Mahatma Gandhi's
guru) are very well known.
Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai.
Bhavai is a folk musical
performance of stage plays.
Ketan Mehta and Sanjay Leela Bhansali
explored artistic use of bhavai in films such as Bhavni Bhavai, Oh
Darling! Yeh Hai
India and Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. Dayro (gathering)
involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature.
Mumbai theatre veteran, Alyque Padamsee, best known in the
English-speaking world for playing
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Sir Richard
Attenborough's Gandhi, was from a traditional Gujarati-Kutchi family
Main article: Gujarati cuisine
Khaman Dhokla is a popular Gujarati farsan.
Gujarati food is primarily vegetarian. It has been portrayed in
Bollywood films, including the 2009 feature film 3
Idiots. The typical Gujarati thali consists of roti or bhakri,
dal or kadhi, khichdi, rice and sabzi. Indian pickle and chhundo are
used as condiments. The four major regions of
Gujarat all bring their
own styles to Gujarati food. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively
sweet, salty, and spicy at the same time. In Saurashtra region, chass
(buttermilk) is believed to be a must-have in their daily food.
Main article: Gujarati cinema
Gujarati film industry
Gujarati film industry dates back to 1932, when the first Gujarati
film, Narsinh Mehta, was released. After flourishing
through the 1960s to 1980s, the industry saw a decline. The industry
is revived in recent times. The film industry has produced more than
one thousand films since its inception. The Government of Gujarat
announced a 100% entertainment tax exemption for Gujarati films in
2005 and a policy of incentives in 2016.
Main article: Music of Gujarat
Gujarati folk music, known as Sugam Sangeet, is a hereditary
profession of the Barot,
Charan communities. The
omnipresent instruments in Gujarati folk music include wind
instruments, such as turi, bungal, and pava, string instruments, such
as the ravan hattho, ektaro, and jantar and percussion instruments,
such as the manjira and zanz pot drum.
Garba during Navaratri in Ahmedabad
International Kite Festival, Ahmedabad
The folk traditions of
Gujarat include bhavai and raas-garba. Bhavai
is a folk theatre; it is partly entertainment and partly ritual, and
is dedicated to Amba. The raas-garba is a folk dance done as a
Navratri by Gujarati people. The folk costume of this
dance is chaniya choli for women and kedia for men. Different styles
and steps of garba include dodhiyu, simple five, simple seven,
popatiyu, trikoniya (hand movement which forms an imagery triangle),
lehree, tran taali, butterfly, hudo, two claps and many more Sheri
garba is one of the oldest form of garba where all the ladies wear red
patola sari and sing along while dancing.It is a very graceful form of
Makar Sankranti is a festival where people of
kites. In Gujarat, from December through to Makar Sankranti, people
start enjoying kite flying. Undhiyu, a special dish made of various
vegetables, is a must-have of
Gujarati people on Makar Sankranti.
Surat is especially well known for the strong string which is made by
applying glass powder on the row thread to provide it a cutting
edge. Apart from
Navratri and Uttarayana, Diwali, Holi, Tazia and
others are also celebrated.
Diffusion of culture
Tourists playing Dandiya Raas
Due to close proximity to the Arabian Sea,
Gujarat has developed a
mercantile ethos which maintained a cultural tradition of seafaring,
long-distance trade, and overseas contacts with the outside world
since ancient times, and the diffusion of culture through Gujarati
diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition. During the
pre-modern period, various European sources have observed that these
merchants formed diaspora communities outside of Gujarat, and in many
parts of the world, such as the Persian Gulf, Middle East, Horn of
Africa, Hong Kong and Indonesia long before the internal rise of
Maratha Dynasty, and the
British Raj colonial occupation.
Early 1st-century Western historians such as
Strabo and Dio Cassius
are testament to Gujarati people's role in the spread of Buddhism in
the Mediterranean, when it was recorded that the sramana monk
Zarmanochegas (Ζαρμανοχηγὰς) of
Barygaza met Nicholas of
Antioch while Augustus was ruling the Roman Empire, and
shortly thereafter proceeded to
Athens where he burnt himself to death
in an act to demonstrate his faith. A tomb was made to the
sramana, still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore the
mention "ΖΑΡΜΑΝΟΧΗΓΑΣ ΙΝΔΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΒΑΡΓΟΣΗΣ"
("The sramana master from
Barygaza in India").
The progenitor of the
Sinhala language is believed to be Prince
Vijaya, son of King Simhabahu who ruled Simhapura (modern-day Sihor
Prince Vijaya was banished by his father for his
lawlessness and set forth with a band of adventurers. This tradition
was followed by other Gujaratis. For example, in the Ajanta Frescoes,
a Gujarati prince is shown entering Sri Lanka.
Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia, most of them being Gujaratis.
King Aji Saka, who is said to have come to
Indonesia in year 1
Saka calendar, is believed by some to be a king of
Gujarat. The first Indian settlements in
Java Island of Indonesia
are believed to have been established with the coming of Prince
Dhruvavijaya of Gujarat, with 5000 traders. Some stories propose
a Brahmin named Tritresta was the first to bring Gujarati migrants
with him to Java, so some scholars equate him with Aji Saka. A
Gujarati ship has been depicted in a sculpture at Borabudur,
Flora and fauna
Main article: List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of
A young male Asiatic lion, which occurs in and around Gir National
Lesser flamingo, Jamnagar
Striped hyena at the Gir Forest National Park
According to the
India State of Forest Report 2011,
Gujarat has 9.7%
of its total geographical area under forest cover. As per the
The Dangs has the largest area under forest cover. Gujarat
has four national parks and 21 sanctuaries. It is the only home of
Asiatic lions and outside Africa, is the only present natural habitat
Gir Forest National Park
Gir Forest National Park in the southwest part of the state
covers part of the lions' habitat. Apart from lions, Indian leopards
are also found in state. They are spread across the large plains of
Saurashtra and the mountains of South Gujarat. Other National parks
include Vansda National Park,
Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar
Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar and
Narara Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutchh, Jamnagar. Wildlife
sanctuaries include: Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, Nal Sarovar Bird
Porbandar Bird Sanctuary,
Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary,
Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, Jessore Sloth Bear
Sanctuary, Anjal, Balaram-Ambaji, Barda, Jambughoda, Khavda, Paniya,
Purna, Rampura, Ratan Mahal, and Surpaneshwar.
Gujarat has some of the major mountain ranges of India, including
Aravalli, Sahyadri (Western Ghats), Vindhya and Saputara. Apart from
this Gir hills, Barda, Jessore, Chotila, etc. are situated in
different parts of Gujarat.
Girnar is the tallest peak and
the only hill-station in the state.
Indroda Dinosaur and Fossil Park, Gandhinagar
In the early 1980s, palaeontologists found dinosaur bones and fossils
of at least 13 species
Main article: Tourism in Gujarat
Saputara – a hill station in Gujarat
Gujarat is one of the most popular states in
India for tourism with an
annual footfall of 19.81 million tourists in 2010–11. It offers
scenic beauty from the Great Rann of
Kutch to the hills of Saputara
and is the sole home of pure Asiatic lions in the world. During
the historic reigns of the sultans,
Hindu craftsmanship blended with
Islamic architecture, giving rise to the
Indo-Saracenic style. Many
structures in the state are built in this fashion. It is also the
Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, great
iconic figures of India's Independence movement.
Amitabh Bachchan is
currently the brand ambassador of
Gujarat Tourism. The 'Khushboo
Gujarat Ki' campaign by
Amitabh Bachchan has
enhanced tourism in
Gujarat by 14 per cent, twice that of national
Gujarat has a variety of museums on different genres that are run by
the state's Department of Museums located at the principal state
Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery in Vadodara, which is
also the location of the
Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum. The Kirti
Sabarmati Ashram, and
Kaba Gandhi No Delo
Kaba Gandhi No Delo are
museums related to Mahatma Gandhi, the former being the place of his
birth and the latter two where he lived in his lifetime. Kaba Gandhi
No Delo in
Rajkot exhibits part of a rare collection of photographs
relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi.
Sabarmati Ashram is the place
where Gandhi initiated the Dandi March. On 12 March 1930 he vowed
that he would not return to the Ashram until
Mahatma Gandhi in
Lakhota Museum in Jamnagar
Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum
Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum is housed within Lakshmi Vilas Palace,
the residence of the erswhile Maharajas, located in Vadodara.
Calico Museum of Textiles
Calico Museum of Textiles is managed by the Sarabhai Foundation
and is one of the most popular tourist spots in Ahmedabad.
The Lakhota Museum at
Jamnagar is a palace transformed into museum,
which was residence of the Jadeja Rajputs. The collection of the
museum includes artefacts spanning from 9th to 18th centuries, pottery
from medieval villages nearby and the skeleton of a whale.
Other well known museums in the state include the
Kutch Museum in
Bhuj, which is the oldest museum in
Gujarat founded in 1877, the
Watson Museum of human history and culture in Rajkot, Gujarat
Science City and Sardar
Vallabhbhai Patel National Memorial in
Religious sites play a major part in the tourism of Gujarat. Somnath
is the first amongst twelve Jyotirlingas, and is mentioned in the
Palitana temples of
Jainism on Mount Shatrunjaya,
Palitana are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the
Palitana is the world's
only mountain with more than 900 temples. The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque
and Jama Masjid are holy mosques for Gujarati Muslims. The Sun Temple,
Modhera is a ticketed monument, handled by the Archaeological Survey
of India. Dwarakadheesh Temple and
Dakor holy pilgrimage sites
are for devotees of Lord Krishna. Other religious sites in state
include Mahudi, Shankheshwar, Ambaji, Dakor, Shamlaji,
Tarnetar Fair, Tarnetar
A five-day festival is held during
Maha Shivaratri at the fort of
Girnar, Junagadh, known as the Bhavanth Mahadev Fair (Gujarati:
ભવનાથ નો મેળો). The
Kutch Festival or Rann
Festival (Gujarati: કચ્છ or રણ ઉત્સવ) is a
festival celebrated at
Kutch during Mahashivratri. The Modhra Dance
Festival is a festival for classical dance, arranged by the Government
of Gujarat's Cultural Department, to promote tourism in state and to
keep traditions and culture alive.
Ambaji Fair is held in the
Hindu month of Bhadrapad (around
August–September) at Ambaji, during a time which is particularly
suitable for farmers, when the busy monsoon season is about to end.
The Bhadrapad fair is held at
Ambaji which is in the Danta Taluka of
Banaskantha district, near the Gujarat-
Rajasthan border. The walk from
the bus station to the temple is less than one kilometre, under a
roofed walkway. Direct buses are available from many places, including
Mount Abu (45 km away), Palanpur (65 km away),
Idar. The Bhadrapad fair is held in the centre of the
just outside the temple premises. The village is visited by the
largest number of sanghas (pilgrim groups) during the fair. Many of
them go there on foot, which is particularly enriching as it happens
immediately after the monsoon, when the landscape is rich with
greenery, streams are full of sparkling water and the air is fresh.
About 1.5 million devotees are known to attend this fair each
year from all over the world. Not only Hindus, but some devout Jains
and Parsis also attend the functions, whilst some Muslims attend the
fair for trade.
Tarnetar Fair is held during the first week of Bhadrapad,
(September–October according to Gregorian calendar), and mostly
serves as a place to find a suitable bride for tribal people from
Gujarat. The region is believed to be the place where
Arjuna took up
the difficult task of piercing the eye of a fish, rotating at the end
of a pole, by looking at its reflection in the pond water, to marry
Draupadi. Other fairs in
Gujarat include Dang Durbar, Shamlaji
Fair, Chitra Vichitra Fair, Dhrang Fair and Vautha Fair.
Government of Gujarat
Government of Gujarat has banned alcohol since 1960. Gujarat
government collected the Best State Award for 'Citizen Security' by
IBN7 Diamond States on 24 December 2012.
Mandvi Beach, Kutch
Palitana temple complex
Kirti Toran, Vadnagar
Jama Mosque, Champaner
Sun Temple, Modhera
The Mohabat Maqbara is a palace-mausoleum in the
Vijay Vilas Palace, Mandvi, Kutch
Main shrine of
Laxmi Vilas Palace
Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport, Ahmedabad
Gujarat has seventeen airports. The
Gujarat Civil Aviation Board
(GUJCAB) has been formed to foster development of aviation
infrastructure in Gujarat. The Board is headed by the Chief
Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport at Ahmedabad
Vadodara International Airport at Vadodara
Domestic airports operated by the Airports Authority of India
Bhavnagar Airport — 9 km from the city of Bhavnagar
Bhuj Airport — Located on Airport Ring Road
Deesa Airport – 5 km from Deesa
Harni Airport – Integrated Terminal Airport (Vadodara)
Jamnagar Airport – About 8 kilometres from the
Kandla Airport (Gandhidham) — Situated at Kandla, near Gandhidham,
Keshod Airport (Junagadh) —
Keshod Airport is found 3 km from
Keshod city in
Porbandar Airport — Situated 5 km from the city of Porbandar
Rajkot Airport — 4 km from the city of Rajkot
Surat Airport — Located on Magdalla Road
Mehsana Airport —
Mehsana Airport is about 2 km from Mehsana
Surat railway station
Main page: Railway stations in Gujarat
Main article: Indian Railways
Further information: Pune –
Gujarat comes under the
Western Railway Zone
Western Railway Zone of the Indian Railways.
Vadodara Railway Station is the busiest railway station in
the fourth busiest railway station in India. It is situated on the
Delhi Western Railway Mainline. Other important railway
Surat railway station,
Ahmedabad Railway Station and
Rajkot Railway Station.
Indian Railways is planning Delhi–Mumbai
dedicated rail freight route passing through the state.
The 39.259 km (24.394 mi) long tracks of the first phase of
MEGA, a metro rail system for
Gandhinagar is under
construction. It is expected to complete by December 2018. The
construction started on 14 March 2015.
Gujarat State has the longest sea coast of 1600 km in India.
Kandla Port is one of the largest ports serving Western India. Other
important ports in
Gujarat are the Port of Navlakhi, Port of Magdalla,
Port Pipavav, Bedi Port, Port of Porbandar, Port of
Veraval and the
Mundra Port. The state also has Ro-Ro ferry
Bus terminal in Vadodara, Gujarat
Main articles: List of National Highways in
Gujarat and List of state
highways in Gujarat
Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation
Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is the primary body
responsible for providing the bus services within the state of Gujarat
and also with the neighbouring states. It is a public transport
corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat
and to the other states in India. Apart from this, there are a number
of services provided by GSRTC.
Mofussil Services — It connects major cities, smaller towns and
villages within Gujarat.
Intercity Bus Services — It also connects major cities —
Ahmedabad, Surat, Veraval, Vapi,
Vadodara (Baroda) and Rajkot.
Interstate Bus Services — It connects various cities of Gujarat
with the neighbouring states of Madhya Pradesh,
City Services — GSRTC also provides city bus services at Surat,
Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, within the state of
Parcel Services — This service is used for transporting goods.
Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for
festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places.
There are also city buses in cities like
Ahmedabad (AMTS and Ahmedabad
Rajkot (VTCOS and
Rajkot BRTS), Anand
Auto rickshaws are common mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government
Gujarat is promoting bicycles to reduce pollution.
Education and research
Main article: Education in Gujarat
See also: List of institutions of higher education in Gujarat
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar
Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication
Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board (GSHSEB)
are in charge of the schools run by the Government of Gujarat.
However, most of the private schools in
Gujarat are affiliated to the
Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and Council for the Indian
School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board.
Gujarat has 13 state
universities and four agricultural universities.
The clock tower in
Gujarat University, Ahmedabad
The premier management college, Indian Institute of Management
Ahmedabad ranks the best in
India and among the best management
universities in the world.
The top-notch institutes for Engineering and Research include IIT
Gandhinagar, Institute of Infrastructure Technology research and
Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and
Communication Technology (DA-IICT) also in
Gandhinagar , Sardar
Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT) and P P Savani
University in Surat,
Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University
Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU) in
Nirma University in Ahmedabad, M.S. University in
Vadodara, Marwadi Education Foundation's Group of Institutions (MEFGI)
Birla Vishwakarma Mahavidyalaya (BVM) in Vallabh
Vidyanagar (a suburb in anand district).
Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad(MICA) is one of the most
famous institutes for mass communication and is well-renowned across
Institute of Rural Management Anand
Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA) is one of the
leading sectoral institution in rural management. IRMA is a unique
institution in the sense that it provides professional education to
train managers for rural management. It is the only one of its kind in
The National Institute of Design (NID) in
internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary
institutions in the field of design education and research. Centre for
Environmental Planning & Technology University, popularly known as
(CEPT) is one of the best planning and architectural school not in
India, but across the world; providing various technical and
In the emerging area of legal education, a premier institution Gujarat
National Law University was founded in the capital city Gandhinagar
which started imparting education from the year 2004 and is ranked in
top institutions in the country.
Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of Engineering
Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of Engineering (LDCE) is also one of the
top engineering college of the state.
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, is a premier
university of Gujarat. It is one of the oldest universities of Gujarat
and provides education in Faculty of Fine Arts, Engineering, Arts,
Journalism, Education, Law, Social Work, Medicine, Science and
Performing Arts. Originally known as the
Baroda College of Science
(established 1881), it became a university in 1949 after the
independence of the country and later renamed after its benefactor
Gaekwad III, the former ruler of
Gujarat University, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya, Sardar Patel
Ahmedabad University, Saurashtra University, Veer Narmad
South Gujarat University,
Dharmsinh Desai University and
North Gujarat University are also amongst reputed
universities, affiliating many reputed colleges.
Space Applications Centre
Space Applications Centre (SAC) is an institution for space
research and satellite communication in Ahmedabad, India, under the
aegis of the
Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Dr. Vikram
Sarabhai, a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati,
played an important role in it. He also founded Physical Research
Laboratory, a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar
System, and cosmic radiation. He also envisioned Indian Institute of
Management Ahmedabad, one of the internationally reputed management
research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital
Ahmedabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute has been
established under Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
India at Bhavnagar. It was inaugurated by Late Pandit
Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of
India on 10 April 1954,
with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland
lakes and sub-soil brine. It is working on reverse osmosis, electro
membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science,
marine biotechnology, and other related fields. The
Law University situated at
Gandhinagar is the 5th Best Law School
currently in India.
Rocket model at Science City, Ahmedabad
Gujarat Science City, is a government initiative to draw more
students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX
3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre, and
dancing musical fountains amongst others. Institute of Management
Nirma University is constantly ranked amongst the top MBA
colleges in India. International Institute of Management and Technical
Studies affiliated with
Gujarat Knowledge Society, European
Association for Distance Learning, Association of Indian Management
Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association has
performed globally for its
Higher Education Certification courses for
working professionals. IIMT STUDIES also launched GET SET GO programme
in 2013 in Affiliation with
Gujarat Technological University and
Gujarat Knowledge Society, Department of Technical Education-
Government of Gujarat. B.K. School of
Business Management is ranked sixth in financial management. K. S.
School of Business Management is also an MBA college in Gujarat
University providing a five-year integrated MBA course. Shanti
Business School in
Ahmedabad is a business school offering post
graduate diploma in Management through corporate citizenship
The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) was established by the
Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat, in 2003 and
is registered as a Society. ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar, in a
sprawling and picturesque[clarification needed] area on the banks of
Sabarmati river. Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic
factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of
potential. The ISR is the only institute in
India fully dedicated to
seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier
international institute in few years time.
Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
See also: List of people from Gujarat
Mahatma Gandhi, who spearheaded the Indian independence movement
against British colonial rule, was a Gujarati.
Vallabhbhai Patel Independent India's first Deputy Prime
Minister and Home Minister, was from Karamsad.
Morarji Desai, The 4th Prime Minister of
Vikram Sarabhai, who was "Father of the Indian Space Programme" came
from a family of
Jain industrialists from Ahmedabad.
Shrimad Rajchandra, a revered
Jain poet, philosopher and reformer best
known as the spiritual guru of Mahatma Gandhi.
Dhirubhai Ambani, founder of
Reliance industries was from Chorvad,
Azim Premji, software magnate and chairman of
Wipro Limited is
Pioneer industrialist Jamsetji Tata, who founded the Tata Group, one
of India's biggest multinational conglomerates, came from a Parsi
Zoroastrians in Navsari, and is considered the "Father of
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, revered in
Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam (Great
Leader), Baba-i-Qaum (Father of the Nation) and first Governor general
Pakistan was from a Gujarati
Muslim family in Rajkot.
Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister of
India is from Vadnagar,
Urjit Patel, current Governor of Reserve Bank of
India is from Kheda
Outline of Gujarat
Rajputs of Gujarat
Outline of India
Index of India-related articles
Bibliography of India
Persian Inscriptions on Indian Monuments
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Brill. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-06117-7. Retrieved 16 February
^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1980). Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden:
Brill. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-06117-7. Retrieved 23 February
^ Muhammed Ibrahim Dar (1952). Literary and Cultural Activities in
Gujarat Under the Khaljis and Sultanate. Bazm-i-Ishaʻat, Ismail Yusuf
College. p. 51. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
^ J. Spencer Trimingham, John O. Voll, The Sufi Orders in Islam, pg 73
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world : studies on culture and politics. New York: Columbia
University Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-231-15811-4. Retrieved 20
^ Richard Maxwell Eaton. The Sufis of Bijapur, 1300–1700: Social
Roles of Sufis in Medieval India. Princeton University Press, 2015.
p. 127. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
^ Achyut Yagnik. Ahmedabad: From Royal city to Megacity. Penguin UK,
2011. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
^ Mansooruddin Quraishi.
Muslim education and learning in Gujarat,
1297–1758. Faculty of Education and Psychology,
University of Baroda, 1972. p. 47. Retrieved 19 February
^ Alvi Azra (1985). Socio Religious Outlook of Abul Fazl. Lahore
Pakistan: Vanguard Books. p. 6.
^ Giancarlo Casale (2010). The Ottoman Age of Exploration. Oxford
University Press. p. 104. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
^ Ali Anooshahr (2008). The Ghazi Sultans and the Frontiers of Islam:
A Comparative Study of the Late Medieval and Early Modern Periods.
Routledge. p. 43. Retrieved 24 February 2015. Nevertheless, there
were indeed people in India, specifically in Gujarat, who by about
1486 knew the
Ottomans as the primary Ghazi sultans of western domains
of the abode of Islam, and had tried to elevate their own standing by
posing as comrade ghazis fighting irreligion in the east.
^ Kurup, editor, K.K.N. (1997). India's naval traditions : the
role of Kunhali Marakkars. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre. p. 7.
ISBN 978-81-7211-083-3. Retrieved 24 February 2015. Gujarati
merchants had very long standing relations with the
Persian Gulf and
Red Sea regions. Aden, Ormuz and Mecca were frequently visited by
them. They took gold, quicksilver, vermilion, copper, rose-water,
camlets, scarlet-in-grain, coloured woollen cloth, glass beads and
weapons which were brought by merchants from
Cairo to Aden. The above
mentioned items were collected by merchants from Italy, Greece and
Horses from various parts of Arabia and
from Ormuz were brought by the Gujarati merchants to India. CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Arthur Percival Newton (1936). The Cambridge History of the British
Empire. CUP Archive. p. 23. Retrieved 24 February 2015. The
annual pilgrimages of Indian
Muslim to Mecca, whose route lay through
Gujarat (which was called the Gate of Mecca) had been for some years
interrupted by the domination of the
Arabian Sea by the Portuguese and
also by the disorder prevailing in Gujarat.
^ Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility
across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.
p. 122. ISBN 978-0-520-93869-4. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
From the other direction, the enhanced security of the Hejaz provided
not only profits for Gujarati merchants but succor for Gujarat's
Muslim sultans. In times of insecurity, Gujarati sultans would send
their families and treasures to the Hejaz for safekeeping ... the
sultanate indeed fell, in 1573, and the triumphant emperor Akbar,
retained his services giving him charge of pious endowments in Gujarat
dedicated to Mecca and Medina.
^ A.V. Williams. Chapter 9 – The Ebb of the Tide –
1530–1556 A.D. p. 228. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus
Books. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.
^ Poros, Maritsa V. (2011). Modern migrations : Gujarati Indian
networks in New York and London. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7222-8. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
Indeed, Fernand Braudel likened
Surat to some of the great mercantile
cities of Europe and Asia, such as
Venice and Beijing ... Godinho
estimated that Surat's population was more than 100, 000, with people
from all over the world residing in the city or frequenting it for
business. He even claimed that it surpasses our "Evora in
^ David Smith (2003). Hinduism and modernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
p. 62. ISBN 0-631-20862-3. Retrieved 11 February 2015. Surat
was then the place of embarkation of pilgrims to Mecca; known as Bab
al-Makkah or the Gate of Mecca, it was almost a sacred place for the
Muslims of India. More to the point it was the main city for foreign
imports, where many merchants had their bases, and all the European
trading companies were established. Its population was more than 100,
^ The journal of Asian studies, Volume 35, Issues 1–2. Retrieved 11
February 2015. For a pious emperor,
Surat had more than economic and
political importance; it was the port from which the hajj (pilgrimage)
ships left Mughal
India for the Red Sea. The port was variously known
as Bab-al-Makkah, the Bab-ul-Hajj, the Dar-al-Hajj, and the
^ Richard Maxwell Eaton. The Sufis of Bijapur, 1300–1700: Social
Roles of Sufis in Medieval India. Princeton University Press, 2015.
p. 60. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
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traveler of the fourteenth century. Berkeley: University of California
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Retrieved 1 October 2013. Historians have differed over the identity
of the sailor, calling him a Christian, a
Muslim and a Gujarati.
According to another account, he was the famous Arab navigator Ibn
Majid. Some historians suggest Majid could not have been near the
vicinity at the time. German author Justus says it was Malam who
accompanied Vasco ... Italian researcher Sinthia Salvadori too
has concluded that it was Malam who showed Gama the way to India.
Salvadori has made this observation in her 'We Came In Dhows', an
account written after interacting with people in Gujarat.
^ N. Subrahmanian; Tamil̲an̲pan̲; S. Jeyapragasam (1976). Homage to
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Kegan Paul. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7100-0150-4.
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response to the Portuguese in the sixteenth century (illustrated ed.).
Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 109.
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dnaindia.com. Retrieved 4 October 2013. Eminent historian Manekshah
Commissariat has quoted from this letter in his book 'A History of
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British Raj on bankers – Livemint".
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transnational networks and changing identities. London: Routledge.
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Role of Communalism and Institutionalised Injustices in India.
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India Launches Solar Power Project"
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Exciting Years in Theatre and Advertising. Penguin. p. 1.
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3 Idiots – Movie Review". Mid
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Asia on the
^ "'Even British were envious of Gujaratis'". THE TIMES OF INDIA. 11
December 2012. "Most people perceive that British dominated everything
in the 19th century when the Indian sub-continent was under their
control. But Gujarati merchants, especially those from Kutch,
dominated the economy all along the East African coast. So while
British were ruling, Gujaratis were making all the money," said
Pearson." As financers, they (Gujarati merchants) had agents to
collect tax, they had money to provide loans, they dominated the
merchandise business and they were also into slavery business at
Nairobi, Mombasa, Zanzibar on the East African coast and to some
extent their influence was also on the South African region," he said.
"In fact, the dominance of Gujarati merchants on economy was to such
an extent that at one point of time the British even complained about
it. They, however, couldn't make any difference as most of them were
either administrators or soldiers," said Pearson
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