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Coordinates: 11°N 10°W / 11°N 10°W / 11; -10

Republic
Republic
of Guinea République de Guinée (French)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Travail, Justice, Solidarité" (French) "Work, Justice, Solidarity"

Anthem: Liberté  (French) Freedom

Location of  Guinea  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital and largest city Conakry 9°31′N 13°42′W / 9.517°N 13.700°W / 9.517; -13.700

Official languages French

Vernacular languages

Fula Mandinka Susu

Ethnic groups

45.0% Fula 25.0% Mandinka 13.0% Susu 5.0% Kissi 5.0% Kpelle 7.0% others[1]

Demonym Guinean

Government Unitary presidential republic

• President

Alpha Condé

• Prime Minister

Mamady Youla

Legislature National Assembly

Independence

• from France

2 October 1958

Area

• Total

245,836 km2 (94,918 sq mi) (77th)

• Water (%)

negligible

Population

• 2016 estimate

12,395,924[2] (81st)

• 2014 census

11,628,972

• Density

40.9/km2 (105.9/sq mi) (164th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$26.451 billion[3]

• Per capita

$2,039[3]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$9.183 billion[3]

• Per capita

$707[3]

Gini (1994) 70.3 very high

HDI (2015)  0.414[4] low · 183th

Currency Guinean franc
Guinean franc
(GNF)

Time zone GMT (UTC+0)

Drives on the right

Calling code +224

ISO 3166 code GN

Internet TLD .gn

Guinea
Guinea
(/ˈɡɪni/ ( listen)), officially the Republic
Republic
of Guinea
Guinea
(French: République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea
French Guinea
(French: Guinée française), the modern country is sometimes referred to as Guinea- Conakry
Conakry
in order to distinguish it from other countries with "Guinea" in the name and the eponymous region, such as Guinea-Bissau and Equatorial Guinea.[5][6][7][8] Guinea
Guinea
has a population of 12.4 million and an area of 245,860 square kilometres (94,927 sq mi).[1] Guinea
Guinea
is a republic. The president is directly elected by the people and is head of state and head of government. The unicameral Guinean National Assembly is the legislative body of the country, and its members are also directly elected by the people. The judicial branch is led by the Guinea
Guinea
Supreme Court, the highest and final court of appeal in the country.[9] The country is named after the Guinea region. Guinea
Guinea
is a traditional name for the region of Africa
Africa
that lies along the Gulf of Guinea. It stretches north through the forested tropical regions and ends at the Sahel. The English term Guinea
Guinea
comes directly from the Portuguese word Guiné, which emerged in the mid-15th century to refer to the lands inhabited by the Guineus, a generic term for the black African peoples below the Senegal
Senegal
River, as opposed to the 'tawny' Zenaga Berbers, above it, whom they called Azenegues or Moors. Guinea
Guinea
is a predominantly Islamic
Islamic
country, with Muslims
Muslims
representing 85 percent of the population.[10][11][5] Guinea's people belong to twenty-four ethnic groups. French, the official language of Guinea, is the main language of communication in schools, in government administration, and the media, but more than twenty-four indigenous languages are also spoken. Guinea's economy is largely dependent on agriculture and mineral production.[12] It is the world's second largest producer of bauxite, and has rich deposits of diamonds and gold.[13] The country was at the core of the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Human rights in Guinea
Human rights in Guinea
remain a controversial issue. In 2011 the United States
United States
government claimed that torture by security forces, and abuse of women and children (e.g. female genital mutilation) were ongoing abuses of human rights.[14]

Contents

1 History

1.1 West African empires and Kingdoms in Guinea 1.2 Colonial era 1.3 Independence
Independence
and post-colonial rule (1958–2008) 1.4 Recent history

2 Government and politics

2.1 Political culture 2.2 Executive branch 2.3 Legislative branch 2.4 Foreign relations 2.5 Military

3 Geography

3.1 Regions and prefectures

4 Wildlife

4.1 Taxonomy

5 Economy

5.1 Natural resources 5.2 Mining 5.3 Oil 5.4 Agriculture

6 Problems and reforms

6.1 Mining controversies 6.2 Minority and women's rights

7 Transport infrastructure

7.1 Major roads

8 Demography

8.1 Urbanization 8.2 Languages 8.3 Ethnic groups 8.4 Religion

9 Education 10 Health

10.1 Ebola 10.2 Maternal and child healthcare 10.3 HIV/AIDS 10.4 Malnutrition 10.5 Malaria

11 Culture

11.1 Polygamy 11.2 Music 11.3 Cuisine

12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Guinea The land that is now Guinea
Guinea
belonged to a series of African empires until France
France
colonized it in the 1890s, and made it part of French West Africa. Guinea
Guinea
declared its independence from France
France
on 2 October 1958. From independence until the presidential election of 2010, Guinea
Guinea
was governed by a number of autocratic rulers.[15][16][17] For the origin of the name "Guinea" see Guinea
Guinea
(region) § Etymology. West African empires and Kingdoms in Guinea[edit] Main articles: Imamate of Futa Jallon
Imamate of Futa Jallon
and Wassoulou Empire What is now Guinea
Guinea
was on the fringes of the major West African empires. The Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
is believed to have been the earliest of these which grew on trade but contracted and ultimately fell due to the hostile influence of the Almoravids. It was in this period that Islam
Islam
first arrived in the region. The Sosso
Sosso
kingdom (12th to 13th centuries) briefly flourished in the resulting void but the Islamic
Islamic
Manding Mali Empire
Mali Empire
came to prominence when Soundiata Kéïta defeated the Sosso
Sosso
ruler Soumangourou Kanté at the semi-historical Battle of Kirina in c. 1235. The Mali Empire
Mali Empire
was ruled by Mansa (Emperors), the most famous being Kankou Moussa, who made a famous hajj to Mecca in 1324. Shortly after his reign the Mali Empire began to decline and was ultimately supplanted by its vassal states in the 15th century. The most successful of these was the Songhai Empire, which expanded its power from about 1460 and eventually surpassed the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
in both territory and wealth. It continued to prosper until a civil war over succession followed the death of Askia Daoud
Askia Daoud
in 1582. The weakened empire fell to invaders from Morocco
Morocco
at the Battle of Tondibi just three years later. The Moroccans proved unable to rule the kingdom effectively, however, and it split into many small kingdoms.

Samori Toure
Samori Toure
was the founder of the Wassoulou Empire, an Islamic
Islamic
state in present-day Guinea
Guinea
that resisted French colonial rule in West Africa
Africa
from 1882 until Touré's capture in 1898.

After the fall of the major West African empires, various kingdoms existed in what is now Guinea. Fulani
Fulani
Muslims
Muslims
migrated to Futa Jallon in Central Guinea
Guinea
and established an Islamic
Islamic
state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers. The Wassoulou or Wassulu empire was a short-lived (1878–1898) empire, led by Samori Toure in the predominantly Malinké area of what is now upper Guinea and southwestern Mali
Mali
(Wassoulou). It moved to Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
before being conquered by the French. Colonial era[edit] The slave trade came to the coastal region of Guinea
Guinea
with European traders in the 16th century. Slaves were exported to work elsewhere in the triangular trade. Guinea's colonial period began with French military penetration into the area in the mid-19th century. French domination was assured by the defeat in 1898 of the armies of Samori Touré, Mansa (or Emperor) of the Ouassoulou
Ouassoulou
state and leader of Malinké descent, which gave France control of what today is Guinea
Guinea
and adjacent areas. France
France
negotiated Guinea's present boundaries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the British for Sierra Leone, the Portuguese for their Guinea
Guinea
colony (now Guinea-Bissau), and Liberia. Under the French, the country formed the Territory of Guinea
Guinea
within French West Africa, administered by a governor general resident in Dakar. Lieutenant governors administered the individual colonies, including Guinea. Independence
Independence
and post-colonial rule (1958–2008)[edit] In 1958, the French Fourth Republic
Republic
collapsed due to political instability and its failures in dealing with its colonies, especially Indochina
Indochina
and Algeria. The founding of a Fifth Republic
Republic
was supported by the French people, while French President Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
made it clear on 8 August 1958 that France's colonies were to be given a stark choice between more autonomy in a new French Community
French Community
or immediate independence in the referendum to be held on 28 September 1958. The other colonies chose the former but Guinea
Guinea
— under the leadership of Ahmed Sékou Touré
Ahmed Sékou Touré
whose Democratic Party of Guinea
Guinea
(PDG) had won 56 of 60 seats in 1957 territorial elections — voted overwhelmingly for independence. The French withdrew quickly, and on 2 October 1958, Guinea
Guinea
proclaimed itself a sovereign and independent republic, with Sékou Touré as president.

President Ahmed Sékou Touré
Ahmed Sékou Touré
was supported by the Communist bloc states and in 1961 visited Yugoslavia.

France's withdrawal resulted in punitive economic reprisals, including the end of all French aid and investment. Guinea
Guinea
subsequently quickly aligned itself with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and adopted socialist policies. This alliance was short-lived, however, as Guinea
Guinea
moved towards a Chinese model of socialism. Despite this, however, the country continued to receive aid and investment from capitalist countries such as the United States. By 1960, Touré had declared the PDG the country's only legal political party and for the next 24 years, the government and the PDG were one. Touré was reelected unopposed to four seven-year terms as president, and every five years voters were presented with a single list of PDG candidates for the National Assembly. Advocating a hybrid African Socialism
Socialism
domestically and Pan-Africanism
Pan-Africanism
abroad, Touré quickly became a polarising leader, and his government became intolerant of dissent, imprisoning thousands and stifling the press. Throughout the 1960s the Guinean government nationalised land, removed French-appointed and traditional chiefs from power, and had strained ties with the French government and French companies. Touré's government relied on the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China for infrastructure aid and development but much of this was used for political and not economic purposes (such as the building of large stadiums to hold political rallies). Meanwhile, the country's roads, railways and other infrastructure languished and the economy stagnated.

Monument to commemorate the 1970 military victory over the Portuguese raid. The only objective not accomplished by the Portuguese raid was the capture of Ahmed Sékou Touré.

On 22 November 1970, Portuguese forces from neighboring Portuguese Guinea
Guinea
staged Operation Green Sea, a raid on Conakry
Conakry
by several hundred exiled Guinean opposition forces. Among their goals, the Portuguese military wanted to kill or capture Sekou Toure due his support of the PAIGC, an independence movement and rebel group that carried out attacks inside Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from their bases in Guinea.[18] After fierce fighting, the Portuguese-backed forces retreated, having freed several dozen Portuguese prisoners of war that were being held by the PAIGC
PAIGC
in Conakry
Conakry
but without having ousted Touré. In the years after the raid, massive purges were carried out by the Touré government and at least 50,000 people (1% of Guinea's entire population) was killed. Countless others were imprisoned, faced torture, or, often in the case of foreigners, were forced to leave the country (sometimes after having had their Guinean spouse arrested and their children placed into state custody). A declining economy, mass killings, a stifling political atmosphere, and a ban on all private economic transactions led in 1977 to the "Market Women's Revolt," anti-government riots that were started by women working in Conakry's Madina Market. This caused Touré to make major reforms. Touré vacillated from supporting the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to supporting the United States. The late 1970s and early 1980s saw some economic reforms but Touré's centralized control of the state remained. Even the relationship with France
France
improved; after the election of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
as French president, trade increased and the two countries exchanged diplomatic visits. Sékou Touré died on 26 March 1984 after a heart operation in the United States, and was replaced by Prime Minister Louis Lansana Beavogui, who was to serve as interim president pending new elections. The PDG was due to elect a new leader on 3 April 1984. Under the constitution, that person would have been the only candidate for president. However, hours before that meeting, Colonels Lansana Conté and Diarra Traoré seized power in a bloodless coup. Conté assumed the role of president, with Traoré serving as prime minister until December. Conté immediately denounced the previous regime’s record on human rights, released 250 political prisoners and encouraged approximately 200,000 more to return from exile. He also made explicit the turn away from socialism, but this did little to alleviate poverty and the country showed no immediate signs of moving towards democracy. In 1992, Conté announced a return to civilian rule, with a presidential poll in 1993 followed by elections to parliament in 1995 (in which his party – the Party of Unity and Progress – won 71 of 114 seats.) Despite his stated commitment to democracy, Conté's grip on power remained tight. In September 2001, the opposition leader Alpha Condé
Alpha Condé
was imprisoned for endangering state security, though he was pardoned 8 months later. He subsequently spent a period of exile in France. In 2001, Conté organized and won a referendum to lengthen the presidential term and in 2003 begun his third term after elections were boycotted by the opposition. In January 2005, Conté survived a suspected assassination attempt while making a rare public appearance in the capital Conakry. His opponents claimed that he was a "tired dictator"[19] whose departure was inevitable, whereas his supporters believed that he was winning a battle with dissidents. Guinea
Guinea
still faces very real problems and according to Foreign Policy is in danger of becoming a failed state.[20] In 2000, Guinea
Guinea
became embroiled in the instability which had long blighted the rest of West Africa
Africa
as rebels crossed the borders with Liberia
Liberia
and Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
and it seemed for a time that the country was headed for civil war.[21] Conté blamed neighbouring leaders for coveting Guinea's natural resources, though these claims were strenuously denied.[22] In 2003, Guinea
Guinea
agreed to plans with her neighbours to tackle the insurgents. In 2007, there were big protests against the government, resulting in the appointment of a new prime minister.[23] Recent history[edit] Conté remained in power until his death on 23 December 2008[24] and several hours following his death, Moussa Dadis Camara
Moussa Dadis Camara
seized control in a coup, declaring himself head of a military junta.[25] Protests against the coup became violent and 157 people were killed when, on 28 September 2009, the junta ordered its soldiers to attack people who had gathered to protest against Camara's attempt to become president.[26] The soldiers went on a rampage of rape, mutilation, and murder which caused many foreign governments to withdraw their support for the new regime.[27] On 3 December 2009, an aide shot Camara during a dispute over the rampage in September. Camara went to Morocco
Morocco
for medical care.[27][28] Vice-President (and defense minister) Sékouba Konaté flew back from Lebanon
Lebanon
to run the country in Camara's absence.[29] After meeting in Ouagadougou
Ouagadougou
on 13 and 14 January 2010, Camara, Konaté and Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso, produced a formal statement of twelve principles promising a return of Guinea
Guinea
to civilian rule within six months.[30] The presidential election was held on 27 June,[31][32] with a second election held on 7 November due to allegations of electoral fraud.[33] Voter turnout was high, and the elections went relatively smoothly.[34] Alpha Condé, leader of the opposition party Rally of the Guinean People (RGP), won the election promising to reform the security sector and review mining contracts.[35] In late February 2013, political violence erupted in Guinea
Guinea
after protesters took to the streets to voice their concerns over the transparency of the upcoming May 2013 elections. The demonstrations were fueled by the opposition coalition’s decision to step down from the electoral process in protest at the lack of transparency in the preparations for elections.[36] Nine people were killed during the protests, and around 220 were injured. Many of the deaths and injuries were caused by security forces using live ammunition on protesters.[37][38] The political violence also led to inter-ethnic clashes between the Fula and Malinke, the base of support for President Condé. The former mainly supported the opposition.[39] On 26 March 2013, the opposition party backed out of the negotiations with the government over the upcoming 12 May election. The opposition said that the government had not respected them, and had not kept any promises they agreed to.[40] On 25 March 2014, the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
said that Guinea's Ministry of Health had reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease
Ebola virus disease
in Guinea. This initial outbreak had a total of 86 cases, including 59 deaths. By 28 May, there were 281 cases, with 186 deaths.[41] It is believed that the first case was Emile Ouamouno, a 2-year-old boy who lived in the village of Meliandou. He fell ill on 2 December 2013 and died on 6 December.[42][43] On 18 September 2014, eight members of an Ebola education health care team were murdered by villagers in the town of Womey.[44] As of 1 November 2015, there have been 3,810 cases and 2,536 deaths in Guinea.[45] Government and politics[edit] Further information: Politics of Guinea

Alpha Condé, the current President of Guinea

The country is a republic. The president is directly elected by the people and is head of state and head of government. The unicameral National Assembly is the legislative body of the country, and its members are directly elected by the people. The judicial branch is led by the Guinea
Guinea
Supreme Court, the highest and final court of appeal in the country.[9] Guinea
Guinea
is a member of many international organizations including the African Union, Agency for the French-Speaking Community, African Development Bank, Economic Community of West African States, World Bank, Islamic
Islamic
Development Bank, IMF, and the United Nations. Political culture[edit] President Alpha Conde
Alpha Conde
derives support from Guinea's second-largest ethnic group, the Malinke.[46] Guinea's opposition is backed by the Fula ethnic group, also known as Peul, who account for around 40 percent of the population.[46] Executive branch[edit] The president of Guinea
Guinea
is normally elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the winning candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president. The president governs Guinea, assisted by a council of 25 civilian ministers appointed by him. The government administers the country through eight regions, 33 prefectures, over 100 subprefectures, and many districts (known as communes in Conakry
Conakry
and other large cities and villages or "quartiers" in the interior). District-level leaders are elected; the president appoints officials to all other levels of the highly centralized administration. Since the 2010 presidential elections, the head of state has been Alpha Condé. Legislative branch[edit] The National Assembly of Guinea, the country's legislative body, has not met since 2008 when it was dissolved after the military coup in December. Elections have been postponed many times since 2007. In April 2012, President Condé postponed the elections indefinitely, citing the need to ensure that they were "transparent and democratic".[47] The 2013 Guinean legislative election were held on 24 September 2013.[48] President Alpha Condé's party, the Rally of the Guinean People (RPG), won a plurality of seats in the National Assembly of Guinea, with 53 out of 114 seats. The opposition parties won a total of 53 seats, and opposition leaders denounced the official results as fraudulent. Foreign relations[edit] Further information: Foreign relations of Guinea Guinea's foreign relations, including those with its West African neighbors, have improved steadily since 1985.[49] Military[edit] Main article: Military of Guinea Guinea's armed forces are divided into five branches – army, navy, air force, the paramilitary National Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
and the Republican Guard – whose chiefs report to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who is subordinate to the Minister of Defense. In addition, regime security forces include the National Police Force (Sûreté National). The Gendarmerie, responsible for internal security, has a strength of several thousand. The army, with about 15,000 personnel, is by far the largest branch of the armed forces. It is mainly responsible for protecting the state borders, the security of administered territories, and defending Guinea's national interests. Air force personnel total about 700. The force's equipment includes several Russian-supplied fighter planes and transports. The navy has about 900 personnel and operates several small patrol craft and barges. Geography[edit]

A map showing Guinea's cities and administrative divisions

Guinea
Guinea
map of Köppen climate classification

Main article: Geography of Guinea Guinea
Guinea
shares its northern border with Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and its southern border with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ivory Coast. The nation forms a crescent as it curves from its western border on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
toward the east and the south. The sources of the Niger
Niger
River, Gambia River, and Senegal River
Senegal River
are all found in the Guinea
Guinea
Highlands.[50][51][52] At 245,857 km2 (94,926 sq mi), Guinea
Guinea
is roughly the size of the United Kingdom. There are 320 km (200 mi) of coastline and a total land border of 3,400 km (2,100 mi). Its neighbours are Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire), Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal
Senegal
and Sierra Leone. It lies mostly between latitudes 7° and 13°N, and longitudes 7° and 15°W (a small area is west of 15°). Guinea
Guinea
is divided into four main regions: Maritime Guinea, also known as Lower Guinea
Guinea
or the Basse-Coté lowlands, populated mainly by the Susu ethnic group; the cooler, mountainous Fouta Djallon
Fouta Djallon
that run roughly north-south through the middle of the country, populated by Fulas, the Sahelian Haute- Guinea
Guinea
to the northeast, populated by Malinké, and the forested jungle regions in the southeast, with several ethnic groups. Guinea's mountains are the source for the Niger, the Gambia, and Senegal
Senegal
Rivers, as well as the numerous rivers flowing to the sea on the west side of the range in Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
and Ivory Coast. The highest point in Guinea
Guinea
is Mount Nimba
Mount Nimba
at 1,752 m (5,748 ft). Although the Guinean and Ivorian sides of the Nimba Massif are a UNESCO
UNESCO
Strict Nature Reserve, the portion of the so-called Guinean Backbone continues into Liberia, where it has been mined for decades; the damage is quite evident in the Nzérékoré Region at 7°32′17″N 8°29′50″W / 7.53806°N 8.49722°W / 7.53806; -8.49722. Regions and prefectures[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Guinea

Regions of Guinea

The Republic
Republic
of Guinea
Guinea
covers 245,857 square kilometres (94,926 sq mi) of West Africa, about 10 degrees north of the equator. Guinea
Guinea
is divided into four natural regions with distinct human, geographic, and climatic characteristics:

Maritime Guinea
Maritime Guinea
(La Guinée Maritime) covers 18% of the country. Middle Guinea
Middle Guinea
(La Moyenne-Guinée) covers 20% of the country. Upper Guinea (La Haute-Guinée) covers 38% of the country. Forested Guinea
Guinea
(Guinée forestière) covers 23% of the country, and is both forested and mountainous.

Guinea
Guinea
is divided into eight administrative regions and subdivided into thirty-three prefectures. Conakry
Conakry
is Guinea's capital, largest city, and economic centre. Nzérékoré, located in the Guinée forestière region in Southern Guinea, is the second largest city. Other major cities in the country with a population above 100,000 include Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Guéckédou, Boke, Mamou
Mamou
and Kissidougou.

The capital Conakry
Conakry
with a population of 1,667,864 ranks as a special zone.

Region Capital Population (2014 census)

Conakry
Conakry
Region Conakry 1,667,864

Nzérékoré
Nzérékoré
Region Nzérékoré 1,663,582

Kankan
Kankan
Region Kankan 1,986,329

Kindia
Kindia
Region Kindia 1,559,185

Boké
Boké
Region Boké 1,081,445

Labé
Labé
Region Labé 995,717

Faranah
Faranah
Region Faranah 942,733

Mamou
Mamou
Region Mamou 732,117

Wildlife[edit] Main article: Wildlife of Guinea The wildlife of Guinea
Guinea
is very diverse due to the wide variety of different habitats. The southern part of the country lies within Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
Biodiversity Hotspot, while the north-east is characterized by dry savanna woodlands. Unfortunately, declining populations of large animals are restricted to uninhabited distant parts of parks and reserves. Taxonomy[edit] Species found in Guinea
Guinea
include the following:

Amphibians : Hemisus guineensis, Phrynobatrachus guineensis Reptiles : Acanthodactylus
Acanthodactylus
guineensis, Mochlus
Mochlus
guineensis Arachnids: Malloneta guineensis, Dictyna
Dictyna
guineensis Insects : Zorotypus
Zorotypus
guineensis, Euchromia guineensis Birds: Melaniparus guineensis

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Guinea

A proportional depiction of Guinea's export products

Malinke fisher women on the Niger
Niger
River, Niandankoro, Kankan
Kankan
Region, in eastern Guinea

Kissidougou
Kissidougou
market

Natural resources[edit] Guinea
Guinea
has abundant natural resources including 25% or more of the world's known bauxite reserves. Guinea
Guinea
also has diamonds, gold, and other metals. The country has great potential for hydroelectric power. Bauxite
Bauxite
and alumina are currently the only major exports. Other industries include processing plants for beer, juices, soft drinks and tobacco. Agriculture employs 80% of the nation's labor force. Under French rule, and at the beginning of independence, Guinea
Guinea
was a major exporter of bananas, pineapples, coffee, peanuts, and palm oil. Guinea has considerable potential for growth in agricultural and fishing sectors. Soil, water, and climatic conditions provide opportunities for large-scale irrigated farming and agro industry. Mining[edit] Main article: Mining industry of Guinea Guinea
Guinea
possesses over 25 billion tonnes (metric tons) of bauxite – and perhaps up to one-half of the world's reserves. In addition, Guinea's mineral wealth includes more than 4-billion tonnes of high-grade iron ore, significant diamond and gold deposits, and undetermined quantities of uranium. Possibilities for investment and commercial activities exist in all these areas, but Guinea's poorly developed infrastructure and rampant corruption continue to present obstacles to large-scale investment projects. Joint venture bauxite mining and alumina operations in northwest Guinea
Guinea
historically provide about 80% of Guinea's foreign exchange. Bauxite
Bauxite
is refined into alumina, which is later smelted into aluminium. The Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinea (fr) (CBG), which exports about 14 million tonnes of high-grade bauxite annually, is the main player in the bauxite industry. CBG is a joint venture, 49% owned by the Guinean government and 51% by an international consortium known as Halco Mining Inc., itself a joint venture controlled by aluminium producer Alcoa
Alcoa
(AA), global miner Rio Tinto Group
Rio Tinto Group
and Dadco Investments.[53] CBG has exclusive rights to bauxite reserves and resources in north-western Guinea
Guinea
through 2038.[54] In 2008 protesters upset about poor electrical services blocked the tracks CBG uses. Guineau often includes a proviso in its agreements with international oil companies requiring its partners to generate power for nearby communities.[55] The Compagnie des Bauxites de Kindia
Kindia
(CBK), a joint venture between the government of Guinea
Guinea
and RUSAL, produces some 2.5 million tonnes annually, nearly all of which is exported to Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe. Dian Dian, a Guinean/Ukrainian joint bauxite venture, has a projected production rate of 1,000,000 t (1,102,311 short tons; 984,207 long tons) per year, but is not expected to begin operation for several years. The Alumina Compagnie de Guinée (ACG), which took over the former Friguia Consortium, produced about 2.4 million tonnes in 2004 as raw material for its alumina refinery. The refinery exports about 750,000 tonnes of alumina. Both Global Alumina and Alcoa-Alcan have signed conventions with the government of Guinea
Guinea
to build large alumina refineries with a combined capacity of about 4 million tonnes per year. Diamonds
Diamonds
and gold also are mined and exported on a large scale. The bulk of diamonds are mined artisanally. The largest gold mining operation in Guinea
Guinea
is a joint venture between the government and Ashanti Goldfields of Ghana. AREDOR, a joint diamond-mining venture between the Guinean Government (50%) and an Australian, British, and Swiss consortium, began production in 1984 and mined diamonds that were 90% gem quality. Production stopped from 1993 until 1996, when First City Mining of Canada
Canada
purchased the international portion of the consortium. Société Minière de Dinguiraye (SMD) also has a large gold mining facility in Lero, near the Malian border. Oil[edit] Guinea
Guinea
signed a production sharing agreement with Hyperdynamics Corporation of Houston
Houston
in 2006 to explore a large offshore tract, and was recently in partnership with Dana Petroleum PLC (Aberdeen, United Kingdom). The initial well, the Sabu-1, was scheduled to begin drilling in October 2011 at a site in approximately 700 meters of water. The Sabu-1 targeted a four-way anticline prospect with upper Cretaceous sands and was anticipated to be drilled to a total depth of 3,600 meters.[56] Following the completion of exploratory drilling in 2012, the Sabu-1 well was not deemed commercially viable.[57] In November 2012, Hyperdynamics subsidiary SCS reached an agreement for a sale of 40% of the concession to Tullow Oil, bringing ownership shares in the Guinea offshore tract to 37% Hyperdynamics, 40% Tullow Oil, and 23% Dana Petroleum.[58] Hyperdynamics will have until September 2016 under the current agreement to begin drilling its next selected site, the Fatala Cenomanian
Cenomanian
turbidite fan prospect.[59][60] Agriculture[edit] The majority of Guineans work in the agriculture sector, which employs approximately 75% of the country. The rice is cultivated in the flooded zones between streams and rivers. However, the local production of rice is not sufficient to feed the country, so rice is imported from Asia. The agriculture sector of Guinea
Guinea
cultivates coffee beans, pineapples, peaches, nectarines, mangoes, oranges, bananas, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, pepper, and many other types of produce. Guinea
Guinea
is one of the emerging regional producers of apples and pears. There are many plantations of grapes, pomegranates, and recent years have seen the development of strawberry plantations based on the vertical hydroponic system. Problems and reforms[edit] In 2002, the IMF
IMF
suspended Guinea's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) because the government failed to meet key performance criteria. In reviews of the PRGF, the World Bank noted that Guinea
Guinea
had met its spending goals in targeted social priority sectors. However, spending in other areas, primarily defense, contributed to a significant fiscal deficit.[citation needed] The loss of IMF
IMF
funds forced the government to finance its debts through Central Bank advances. The pursuit of unsound economic policies has resulted in imbalances that are proving hard to correct. Under then-Prime Minister Diallo, the government began a rigorous reform agenda in December 2004 designed to return Guinea
Guinea
to a PRGF with the IMF. Exchange rates have been allowed to float, price controls on gasoline have been loosened, and government spending has been reduced while tax collection has been improved. These reforms have not reduced inflation, which hit 27% in 2004 and 30% in 2005. Currency depreciation
Currency depreciation
is also a concern. The Guinea
Guinea
franc was trading at 2550 to the dollar in January 2005. It hit 5554 to the dollar by October 2006. In August 2016 that number had reached 9089. Despite the opening in 2005 of a new road connecting Guinea
Guinea
and Mali, most major roadways remain in poor repair, slowing the delivery of goods to local markets. Electricity and water shortages are frequent and sustained, and many businesses are forced to use expensive power generators and fuel to stay open. Even though there are many problems plaguing Guinea's economy, not all foreign investors are reluctant to come to Guinea. Global Alumina's proposed alumina refinery has a price tag above $2 billion. Alcoa and Alcan are proposing a slightly smaller refinery worth about $1.5 billion. Taken together, they represent the largest private investment in sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
since the Chad- Cameroon
Cameroon
oil pipeline. Also, Hyperdynamics Corporation, an American oil company, signed an agreement in 2006 to develop Guinea's offshore Senegal
Senegal
Basin oil deposits in a concession of 31,000 square miles (80,000 km2); it is pursuing seismic exploration.[61] On 13 October 2009, Guinean Mines Minister Mahmoud Thiam announced that the China International Fund would invest more than $7bn (£4.5bn) in infrastructure. In return, he said the firm would be a "strategic partner" in all mining projects in the mineral-rich nation. He said the firm would help build ports, railway lines, power plants, low-cost housing and even a new administrative centre in the capital, Conakry.[62] In September 2011, Mohamed Lamine Fofana, the Mines Minister following the 2010 election, said that the government had overturned the agreement by the ex-military junta.[63] Youth unemployment remains a large problem. Guinea
Guinea
needs an adequate policy to address the concerns of urban youth. One problem is the disparity between their life and what they see on television. For youth who cannot find jobs, seeing the economic power and consumerism of richer countries only serves to frustrate them further.[64] Mining controversies[edit] Guinea
Guinea
has large reserves of the steel-making raw material, iron ore. Rio Tinto Group
Rio Tinto Group
was the majority owner of the $6 billion Simandou
Simandou
iron ore project, which it had called the world's best unexploited resource. This project is said to be of the same magnitude as the Pilbara
Pilbara
in Western Australia.[65] In 2017, Och-Ziff Capital Management Group pled guilty to a multi-year bribery scheme, after an investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) led to a trial in the United States
United States
and a fine of $412 million.[66] Following this, the SEC also filed a lawsuit in the US against head of Och-Ziff European operations, Michael Cohen,[67][68] for his role in a bribery scheme in the region.[69][70] In 2009 the government of Guinea
Guinea
gave the northern half of Simandou
Simandou
to BSGR[71] for an $165 million investment in the project and a pledge to spend $1 billion on railways, saying that Rio Tinto wasn't moving into production fast enough. The US Justice Department investigated allegations that BSGR had bribed President Conté's wife to get him the concession,[72] and so did the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the next elected President of Guinea, Alpha Condé, and an assortment of other national and international entities. In April 2014 the Guinean government cancelled the company's mining rights in Simandou. BSGR has denied any wrongdoing, and in May 2014 sought arbitration over the government of Guinea's decision to expropriate its mining rights.[73] In 2010 Rio Tinto signed a binding agreement with Aluminum Corporation of China Limited. to establish a joint venture for the Simandou
Simandou
iron ore project.[74] In November 2016, Rio Tinto admitted paying $10.5 million to a close adviser of President Alpha Condé
Alpha Condé
to obtain rights on Simandou.[75] Conde said he knew nothing about the bribe and denied any wrongdoing. However, according to recordings obtained by FRANCE 24, Guinean authorities were aware of the Simandou
Simandou
briberies.[76] In July 2017, the UK-based anti-fraud regulator, the Serious Fraud Office (SFO) and the Australian Federal Police[77] launched an investigation into Rio Tinto’s business practices in Guinea.[78][79] Further, In November 2016, the former mining minister of Guinea, Mahmoud Thiam, accused head of Rio Tinto’s Guinea
Guinea
operation department of offering him a bribe in 2010 to regain Rio Tinto's control over half of the undeveloped Simandou
Simandou
project. In September 2011, Guinea
Guinea
adopted a new mining code. The law set up a commission to review government deals struck during the chaotic days between the end of dictatorship in 2008 and Condé coming to power.[80] In September 2015, the French Financial Public Prosecutor’s Office launched an investigation into President Alpha Conde’s son, Mohamed Alpha Condé.[81] He was charged with embezzlement of public funds and receiving financial and other benefits from French companies that were interested in the Guinean mining industry.[82][83] In August 2016, son of a former Prime Minister of Gabon, who worked for Och-Ziff’s Africa
Africa
Management Ltd, a subsidiary of the U.S. hedge fund Och-Ziff, was arrested in the US and charged with bribing officials in Guinea, Chad
Chad
and Niger
Niger
on behalf of the company in order to secure mining concessions[84] and gain access to relevant confidential information.[85] The investigation also revealed that he was involved in rewriting Guinea’s mining law during President Conde’s rule.[86] In December 2016, the US Department of Justice announced that the man pleaded guilty to conspiring to make corrupt payments to government officials in Africa.[85] According to a Global Witness report, Sable Mining sought iron ore explorations rights to Mount Nimba
Mount Nimba
in Guinea
Guinea
by getting close to Conde towards the 2010 elections, backing his campaign for presidency and bribing his son.[87] These allegations have not been verified yet but in March 2016 Guinean authorities ordered an investigation into the matter.[88] The Conde government investigated two other contracts as well, one which left Hyperdynamic with a third of Guinea's offshore lease allocations as well as Rusal's purchase of the Friguia Aluminum refinery, in which it said that Rusal
Rusal
greatly underpaid.[89] Minority and women's rights[edit] Main article: Human rights
Human rights
in Guinea Homosexuality is illegal in Guinea.[90] Same sex relations are considered a strong taboo, and the prime minister declared in 2010 that he doesn't consider sexual orientation a legitimate human right.[14] According to Anastasia Gage, an associate professor at Tulane University, and Ronan van Rossem, an associate professor at Ghent University,[91] female genital mutilation in Guinea
Guinea
had been performed on more than 98% of women as of 2009[update].[92] In Guinea
Guinea
almost all cultures, religions, and ethnicities practice female genital mutilation.[93] The 2005 Demographic and Health Survey reported that 96% of women have gone through the operation. Prosecutions of its practitioners are nonexistent.[14] Transport infrastructure[edit] Main article: Transport in Guinea The railway from Conakry
Conakry
to Kankan
Kankan
ceased operating in the mid-1980s.[94] Domestic air services are intermittent. Most vehicles in Guinea
Guinea
are 20+ years old, and cabs are any four-door vehicle which the owner has designated as being for hire. Locals, nearly entirely without vehicles of their own, rely upon these taxis (which charge per seat) and small buses to take them around town and across the country. There is some river traffic on the Niger
Niger
and Milo rivers. Horses and donkeys pull carts, primarily to transport construction materials. Mining operations are expected to start at Simandou
Simandou
before the end of 2015. Rio Tinto Limited
Rio Tinto Limited
plans to build a 650 km railway to transport iron ore from the mine to the coast, near Matakong, for export.[95] Much of the Simandou
Simandou
iron ore is expected to be shipped to China for steel production.[96] Conakry
Conakry
International Airport is the largest airport in the country, with flights to other cities in Africa
Africa
as well as to Europe. Major roads[edit] The major roads of Guinea
Guinea
are the following:

N1 connects Conakry, Coyah, Kindia, Mamou, Dabola, Kouroussa, and Kankan. N2 connects Mamou, Faranah, Kissidougou, Guékédou, Macenta, Nzérékoré, and Lola. N4 connects Coyah, Forécariah, and, Farmoreya. N5 connects Mamou, Dalaba, Pita, and Labé. N6 connects Kissidougou, Kankan, and Siguiri. N20 connects Kamsar, Kolaboui, and Boké.

Demography[edit] Main article: Demography of Guinea The population of Guinea
Guinea
is estimated at 12.4 million. Conakry, the capital and largest city, is the hub of Guinea's economy, commerce, education, and culture. In 2014, the total fertility rate (TFR) of Guinea
Guinea
was estimated at 4.93 children born per woman.[97] Urbanization[edit]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Guinea http://www.geonames.org/GN/largest-cities-in-guinea.html

Rank Name Region Pop.

Conakry 1 Camayenne Conakry 1 871 242

Nzérékoré

2 Conakry Conakry 1 767 200

3 Nzérékoré Nzérékoré 132 728

4 Kindia Kindia 117 062

5 Kankan Kankan 114 009

6 Guéckédou Nzérékoré 79 140

7 Coyah Coyah 77 103

8 Kamsar Boké 61 527

9 Labé Labé 58 649

10 Kissidougou Faranah 47 099

Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Guinea

Guinean women

The official language of Guinea
Guinea
is French. Other significant languages spoken are Pular (Fulfulde or Fulani), Maninka (Malinke), Susu, Kissi, Kpelle, and Loma. Ethnic groups[edit] The population of Guinea
Guinea
comprises about 24 ethnic groups. The Mandinka, also known as Mandingo or Malinké, comprise 29.8%[98] of the population and are mostly found in eastern Guinea
Guinea
concentrated around the Kankan
Kankan
and Kissidougou
Kissidougou
prefectures.[1] The Fulas or Fulani (French: Peuls; Fula: Fulɓe), comprise 32.1%[98] of the population and are mostly found in the Futa Djallon
Futa Djallon
region. The Soussou, comprising 19.8% of the population, are predominantly in western areas around the capital Conakry, Forécariah, and Kindia. Smaller ethnic groups make up the remaining 18.3%[98] of the population, including Kpelle, Kissi, Zialo, Toma and others.[1] Approximately 10,000 non-Africans live in Guinea, predominantly Lebanese, French, and other Europeans.[99] Religion[edit] Further information: Religion in Guinea

[101]

Guinea
Guinea
religious sects[100]

Religion

Percent

Islam

85%

Christianity

8%

Traditional African religion

7%

The Conakry
Conakry
Grand Mosque in Guinea, one of the largest mosques in West Africa

The population of Guinea
Guinea
is approximately 85 percent Muslim, 8 percent Christian, with 7 percent adhering to indigenous religious beliefs.[102] Much of the population, both Muslim
Muslim
and Christian, also incorporate indigenous African beliefs into their outlook.[102] The vast majority of Guinean Muslims
Muslims
are adherent to the Sunni tradition of Islam, of Maliki
Maliki
school of jurisprudence, influenced with Sufism,[103] with many Ahmadiyya;[104] there are relatively few Shi'a in Guinea. Christian
Christian
groups include Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, and Evangelical groups. Jehovah's Witnesses are active in the country and recognized by the Government. There is a small Baha'i community. There are small numbers of Hindus, Buddhists, and traditional Chinese religious groups among the expatriate community.[105] There were three days of ethno-religious fighting in the city of Nzerekore
Nzerekore
in July 2013.[46][106] Fighting between ethnic Kpelle, who are Christian
Christian
or animist, and ethnic Konianke, who are Muslims
Muslims
and close to the larger Malinke ethnic group, left at least 54 dead.[106] The dead included people who were killed with machetes and burned alive.[106] The violence ended after the Guinea
Guinea
military imposed a curfew, and President Conde made a televised appeal for calm.[106] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Guinea

Schoolgirls in Conakry, Guinea

The literacy rate of Guinea
Guinea
is one of the lowest in the world: in 2010 it was estimated that only 41% of adults were literate (52% of males and 30% of females).[107] Primary education is compulsory for 6 years,[108] but most children do not attend for so long, and many do not go to school at all. In 1999, primary school attendance was 40 percent. Children, particularly girls, are kept out of school in order to assist their parents with domestic work or agriculture,[109] or to be married: Guinea
Guinea
has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world.[110] Health[edit] Further information: Health in Guinea Ebola[edit] Further information: Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa In 2014, there was an outbreak of the Ebola virus in Guinea. In response, the health ministry banned the sale and consumption of bats, thought to be carriers of the disease. Despite this measure, the virus eventually spread from rural areas to Conakry,[111] and by late June 2014 had spread to neighboring countries Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
and Liberia. In early August 2014 Guinea
Guinea
closed its borders to Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
and Liberia
Liberia
to help contain the spreading of the virus, as more new cases of the disease were being reported in those countries than in Guinea. The outbreak began in early December, in a village called Meliandou, southeastern Guinea, not far from the borders with both Liberia
Liberia
and Sierra Leone. The first known case was a two-year-old child who died, after fever and vomiting and passing black stool, on December 6. The child's mother died a week later, then a sister and a grandmother, all with symptoms that included fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Then, by way of caregiving visits or attendance at funerals, the outbreak spread to other villages. Unsafe burials remained one of the primary sources of the transmission of the disease. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) reported that the inability to engage with local communities hindered the ability of health workers to trace the origins and strains of the virus.[112] While WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 29 March 2016,[113] the Ebola Situation Report released on 30 March confirmed 5 more cases in the preceding two weeks, with viral sequencing relating one of the cases to the November 2014 outbreak.[114] The epidemic also affected the treatment of other diseases in Guinea. There was a decline in healthcare visits by the population due to fear of being infected and mistrust in the health care system, and a decrease in the system's ability to provide routine health care and HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
treatments due to the Ebola outbreak.[115] Maternal and child healthcare[edit] The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Guinea
Guinea
is 680. This is compared with 859.9 in 2008 and 964.7 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 146 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 29. In Guinea
Guinea
the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 1 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 26.[116] Guinea
Guinea
has the second highest prevalence of female genital mutilation in the world.[117][118] HIV/AIDS[edit] Main article: HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
in Guinea An estimated 170,000 adults and children were infected at the end of 2004.[119][120] Surveillance surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002 show higher rates of HIV in urban areas than in rural areas. Prevalence was highest in Conakry
Conakry
(5%) and in the cities of the Forest Guinea
Forest Guinea
region (7%) bordering Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.[121] HIV is spread primarily through multiple-partner heterosexual intercourse. Men and women are at nearly equal risk for HIV, with young people aged 15 to 24 most vulnerable. Surveillance figures from 2001–2002 show high rates among commercial sex workers (42%), active military personnel (6.6%), truck drivers and bush taxi drivers (7.3%), miners (4.7%), and adults with tuberculosis (8.6%).[121] Several factors are fueling the HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
epidemic in Guinea. They include unprotected sex, multiple sexual partners, illiteracy, endemic poverty, unstable borders, refugee migration, lack of civic responsibility, and scarce medical care and public services.[121] Malnutrition[edit] Malnutrition is a serious problem for Guinea. A 2012 study reported high chronic malnutrition rates, with levels ranging from 34% to 40% by region, as well as acute malnutrition rates above 10% in Upper Guinea’s mining zones. The survey showed that 139,200 children suffer from acute malnutrition, 609,696 from chronic malnutrition and further 1,592,892 suffer from anemia. Degradation of care practices, limited access to medical services, inadequate hygiene practices and a lack of food diversity explain these levels.[122] Malaria[edit] Malaria
Malaria
is prevalent in Guinea. It is transmitted year-round, with peak transmission from July through October.[123] Malaria
Malaria
is one of the top causes of disability in Guinea.[124] Culture[edit]

A market stall selling vegetables in Dinguiraye Prefecture, Guinea

Polygamy[edit] Further information: Polygamy in Guinea Polygamy is generally prohibited by law in Guinea, however, there are exceptions.[125] UNICEF
UNICEF
reports that 53.4% of Guinean women aged 15–49 are in polygamous marriages.[126] Music[edit] Further information: Music of Guinea Like other West African countries, Guinea
Guinea
has a rich musical tradition. The group Bembeya Jazz became popular in the 1960s after Guinean independence. Cuisine[edit] Further information: Cuisine of Guinea Guinean cuisine
Guinean cuisine
varies by region with rice as the most common staple. Cassava is also widely consumed.[127] Part of West African cuisine, the foods of Guinea
Guinea
include jollof rice, maafe, and tapalapa bread. In rural areas, food is eaten from a large serving dish and eaten by hand outside of homes.[128] See also[edit]

Guinea
Guinea
portal Africa
Africa
portal Geography portal

Outline of Guinea Index of Guinea-related articles Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative List of Guineans Agriculture in Guinea

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operations". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ "UK's SFO says opens investigation into Rio Tinto Group". Reuters. 24 July 2017. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ Danny Fortson, "Secret deal threatens big miners" ''The Sunday Times'' (3 June 2012)]. Scribd.com (3 June 2012).. ^ Agency, Ecofin. "French Justice investigating the lifestyle of the son of Guinean president". Ecofin Agency. Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ "Enquête sur le fils du président guinéen". leparisien.fr. 2017-02-19. Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ ISSAfrica.org. "Another president's son caught with his hand in the cookie jar? – ISS Africa". ISS Africa. Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ Stevenson, Alexandra (2016-08-16). " Bribery
Bribery
Arrest May Expose African Mining Rights Scandal Tied to Och-Ziff". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ a b "Gabonese National Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery
Bribery
Scheme". Justice.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ "U.S. Case Into Fixer for Och-Ziff Venture Gets Support in Guinea". Bloomberg.com. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ Witness, Global. "The Deceivers". Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ "Guinea: Sable Mining Bribery
Bribery
Under Probe". The NEWS (Monrovia). 2016-05-23. Retrieved 2017-02-19.  ^ " Guinea
Guinea
targets 3 firms in resource contract review – source". Creamer Media's Mining Weekly. Reuters. November 9, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death". The Washington Post. June 16, 2016.  ^ Van Rossem, R; Gage, AJ (2009). "The effects of female genital mutilation on the onset of sexual activity and marriage in Guinea". Arch Sex Behav. 38 (2): 178–85. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9237-5. PMID 17943434.  ^ Rossem, R. V.; Gage, A. J. (2009). "The effects of female genital mutilation on the onset of sexual activity and marriage in Guinea". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 38 (2): 178–185. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9237-5. PMID 17943434.  ^ Rossem, R. V.; Gage, A. J. (2009). "The effects of female genital mutilation on the onset of sexual activity and marriage in Guinea". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 38 (2): 178–185. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9237-5. PMID 17943434.  ^ Amadou Timbo Barry (14 May 2015). "Kankan : Le chemin de fer Conakry- Niger
Niger
à quand sa réhabilitation ?". Guinee News. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016.  ^ "GUINEA: SIMANDOU PROJECT GAINS MOMENTUM". Railways Africa. Retrieved 2010-11-09.  ^ " Joint venture for Simandou
Simandou
Guinea, Iron ore, Simandou
Simandou
project, Steel, Steel, BHP Billiton, Chinalco, Rio Tinto, World Bank, Agreement, Joint ventures, Port developments, Rail". Bulkmaterialsinternational.com. 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2017-07-23.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ a b c https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gv.html ^ "Guinea". State.gov. 2016-11-22. Retrieved 2017-07-23.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees. "2010 Report on International Religious Freedom – Sierra Leone". UNHCR.org. Retrieved 20 May 2012.  ^ "71% of Sierra Leoneans are Muslims
Muslims
OlusegunToday". Oluseguntoday.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2017-07-23.  ^ a b " Guinea
Guinea
2012 International Religious Freedom Report", US State Department, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. ^ Kenneth Harrow, "A Sufi Interpretation of 'Le Regard du Roi'", Research in African Literature v. 14 no. 2 (Summer, 1983) ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann (2010-09-21). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs. p. 1280. ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6. Retrieved 4 June 2014.  ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Guinea. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
(29 December 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ a b c d ""Guinean troops deployed after deadly ethnic clashes", BBC Africa, 17 July 2013". BBC News. Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015: Guinea". United States
United States
Department of State. Retrieved 19 November 2016.  ^ Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) – U.S. Department of Labor Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Dol.gov. Retrieved on 28 June 2011. ^ According to the WHO:"The 10 countries with the highest rates of child marriage are: Niger, 75%; Chad
Chad
and Central African Republic, 68%; India, 66%; Guinea, 63%; Mozambique, 56%; Mali, 55%; Burkina Faso and South Sudan, 52%; and Malawi, 50%."[2] ^ "Ebola: Guinea
Guinea
outbreak reaches capital Conakry". BBC. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  ^ "Ebola Situation Report – 4 March 2015 Ebola". apps.who.int. Retrieved 2017-02-14.  ^ "Ebola is no longer a public health emergency". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2017-02-14.  ^ "Ebola Situation Report – 30 March 2016 Ebola". apps.who.int. Retrieved 2017-02-14.  ^ [3][dead link] ^ "The State of the World's Midwifery". United Nations
United Nations
Population Fund. Retrieved August 25, 2011.  ^ "WHO – Female genital mutilation
Female genital mutilation
and other harmful practices". Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change - UNICEF
UNICEF
DATA" (PDF). Unicef.org. 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2017-07-23.  ^ "Status of HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
in Guinea, 2005" (PDF). World Health Organisation. 2005. Retrieved 30 September 2007.  ^ "Epidemiological Fact Sheets: HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
and Sexually Transmitted Infections, December 2006" (PDF). World Health Organisation. December 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2007.  ^ a b c "Health Profile: Guinea" Archived 13 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. USAID
USAID
(March 2005). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "Enquête nationale nutrition-santé, basée sur la méthodologie SMART, 2011–2012" (PDF). World Food Programme. 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2014.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ Articles 315-319, Civil Code of the Republic
Republic
of Guinea
Guinea
(Code Civil de la Republique de Guinee) ^ "Early Marriage A Harmful Traditional Practice – A Statistical Exploration" UNICEF, 2005, p. 38. ^ "Recipes & Cookbooks". Friends of Guinea. Retrieved 2017-07-23.  ^ "Eating In The Embassy: Guinean Embassy Brings West African Food To Washington". WAMU. Retrieved 2017-07-23. 

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1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130757276 LCCN: n79088885 ISNI: 0000 0004 0458 6379 GND: 4022520-3 SUDOC: 026629933 BNF: cb11884058m (data) HDS:

.