Guido Karl Anton List, better known as
Guido von List
Guido von List (5 October 1848
– 17 May 1919), was an Austrian occultist, journalist, playwright,
and novelist. He expounded a modern Pagan new religious movement known
as Wotanism, which he claimed was the revival of the religion of the
ancient German race, and which included an inner set of Ariosophical
teachings that he termed Armanism.
Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Vienna, List claimed that he
abandoned his family's Roman Catholic faith in childhood, instead
devoting himself to the pre-Christian god Wotan. Spending much time in
the Austrian countryside, he engaged in rowing, hiking, and sketching
the landscape. From 1877 he began a career as a journalist, primarily
authoring articles on the Austrian countryside for nationalist
newspapers and magazines. In these he placed a völkisch emphasis on
the folk culture and customs of rural people, believing that many of
them were survivals of pre-Christian, pagan religion. He published
Carnuntum (1888), Jung Diethers Heimkehr (1894), and
Pipara (1895), each set among the German tribes of the Iron Age, as
well as authoring several plays. During the 1890s he continued writing
völkisch articles, now largely for the nationalist Ostdeutsche
Rundschau newspaper, with his works taking on an anti-semitic
dimension halfway through that decade. In 1893, he co-founded the
Literarische Donaugesellschaft literary society, and involved himself
in Austria's Pan-German nationalist movement, a milieu which sought
the integration of Austria into the German Empire.
During an 11-month period of blindness in 1902, List became
increasingly interested in occultism, in particular coming under the
influence of the Theosophical Society, resulting in an expansion of
his Wotanic beliefs to incorporate
Runology and the Armanen Futharkh.
The popularity of his work among the völkisch and nationalist
communities resulted in the establishment of a List Society in 1908;
attracting significant middle and upper-class support, the Society
published List's writings and included an Ariosophist inner group, the
High Armanen Order, over whom List presided as Grand Master. Through
these ventures he promoted the millenarian view that modern society
was degenerate, but that it would be cleansed through an apocalyptic
event resulting in the establishment of a new Pan-
German Empire that
would embrace Wotanism. Having erroneously prophesied that this empire
would be established by victory for the
Central Powers in World War I,
List died on a visit to
Berlin in 1919.
During his lifetime, List became a well-known figure among the
nationalist and völkisch subcultures of Austria and Germany,
influencing the work of many others operating in this milieu. His
work, propagated through the List Society, influenced later völkisch
groups such as the
Reichshammerbund and Germanenorden, and through
those exerted an influence on both the burgeoning
Nazi Party and the
World War II
World War II his work continued to influence an array of
Ariosophic and Heathen practitioners in Europe, Australia, and North
1.1 Early life: 1848–77
1.2 Early literary endeavours: 1877–1902
1.3 Later life: 1902–19
Runes and the Armanenschaft
2.2 Millenarian views
3 Influence and legacy
6 External links
Early life: 1848–77
Guido Karl Anton List was born on 5 October 1848 in Vienna, then part
of the Austrian Empire. Born to a prosperous middle-class family,
he was the eldest son of Karl Anton List, a leather goods dealer who
was the son of Karl List, a publican and vintner. Guido's mother,
Marian List, was the daughter of builder's merchant Franz Anton
Killian. List was raised in the city's second bezirk, on the
eastern side of the
Danube canal. Like most
Austrians at the time,
his family were members of the Roman Catholic denomination of
Christianity, with List being christened into this faith at St Peter's
Church in Vienna. Reflecting the family's wealth and bourgeoisie
status, in 1851 a watercolour portrait of List was painted by the
artist Anton von Anreiter.
Heidentor, the Pagan Gate at
Carnuntum where List buried wine bottles
Accounts suggest that List had a happy childhood. Developing a
preference for rural areas rather than urban ones, he enjoyed
family visits to the countryside of
Lower Austria and Moravia, and –
encouraged by his father – he began to sketch and paint the castles,
prehistoric monuments, and natural scenery of these areas.
According to his later account, he developed an early interest in the
pre-Christian religions of Austria, coming to believe that the
catacombs beneath St. Stephen's Cathedral in
Vienna had once been a
shrine devoted to a pagan deity. He claimed that on an 1862 visit to
the catacombs with his father, he knelt before a ruined altar and
swore that when an adult he would construct a temple to the ancient
Although List wanted to become an artist and scholar, he reluctantly
agreed to his father's insistence that he enter the family's leather
goods business. During his leisure time he devoted himself to
writing and sketching as well as rambling, riding, or rowing in the
countryside, becoming both a member of the Viennese rowing club
Donauhort and the secretary of the Austrian Alpine Association
(Österreichischer Alpenverein). He was involved in both solitary
and group expeditions into the Austrian Alps, and it was on one of the
latter journeys that he left his mountaineering group to spend
Midsummer night alone atop the Geiselberg hillfort. On 24 June 1875
he and four friends rowed down the
Danube before camping for the night
at the site of the ancient Roman fortification of
commemorate the 1500th anniversary of the Battle of Carnuntum, in
which Germanic tribes defeated the Roman Army. List later claimed that
while his friends caroused, he celebrated the event with a fire and by
burying eight bottles of wine in the shape of a swastika beneath the
arch of the monument's Pagan Gate.
Early literary endeavours: 1877–1902
A photograph of List in 1878
In 1877, List's father died. List soon abandoned the leather goods
business that he inherited, intent on devoting himself to literary
endeavours as a journalist, even if this meant a significant reduction
in his income. On 26 September 1878 he married his first wife,
Helene Förster-Peters. From 1877 to 1887 he wrote for the
Neue Welt ("New World"),
Deutsche Zeitung ("German Newspaper"), and the Neue Deutsche
Alpenzeitung ("New German Alpine Newspaper"), with his articles being
devoted to the Austrian countryside and the folk customs of its
inhabitants. His interpretations emphasised what he believed were
the pagan origins of Austrian place-names, customs, and legends,
describing the landscape as being embodied by genius loci, and
expressing clear German nationalist and völkisch sentiment.
In 1888, he published his first novel, Carnuntum, in two volumes. Set
in the late fourth century CE, the narrative focused on a romance set
against the background of the conflict between Germanic tribes and the
Roman Empire around the area of the eponymous Roman fort. The novel
established List as a recognised figure within Austria's Pan-German
community, a movement of individuals unified in their belief that the
majority German-speaking areas of the multi-linguistic and
multi-ethnic Austro-Hungarian state should cede and join with the
newly established German Empire. The book also brought him to the
attention of Friedrich Wannieck, a wealthy industrialist who was the
chairman of both the Prague Iron Company and the First Brno
Engineering Company. Wannieck was also president of the Verein
'Deutsches Haus' ("'German House' Association"), a nationalist
organisation of linguistically German inhabitants of
Brno who felt
encircled by the largely Czech population of South Moravia. List
and Wannieck began corresponding, resulting in a lifelong friendship
between the two men. The Verein 'Deutsches Haus' subsequently
published three of List's works in its series on German nationalist
studies of history and literature.
List began regularly writing for a weekly newspaper, the Ostdeutsche
Rundschau ("East German Review"), which had been established in 1890
by the Austrian Pan-German parliamentary deputy Karl Wolf. In
1891, List anthologised many of the magazine articles that he had
written over the previous decades in his book Deutsch-Mythologische
Landschaftsbilder ("German Mythological Landscape Scenes"), extracts
of which were then published in the Ostdeutsche Rundschau. Further
völkisch articles on various topics pertaining to Austria's folk
culture and to its ancient Germanic tribes followed during the 1890s,
although midway through that decade his work took on an explicitly
anti-semitic nature with articles such as "Die Juden als Staat und
Nation". Other Austrian German nationalist newspapers which
published his articles during this period included the Bote aus dem
Waldviertel ("The Waldviertel Herald") and Kyffhäuser.
A scenic view of Höllental from List's Deutsch-Mythologische
List began lecturing on these subjects; for instance, in February 1893
he spoke to the nationalist Verein 'Deutsches Geschichte' ("'German
History' Association) on the ancient priesthood of Wotan. He also
worked as a playwright, and in December 1894 his play Der Wala
Erweckung ("The Wala's Awakening") was premiered at an event organised
by the Bund der Germanen (Germanic League) which was devoted to the
German nationalist cause, with Jews being explicitly banned from
attending the event. Alongside his affiliation with the Bund, List
was also a member of the Deutscher Turnverein (Germanic Gymnastic
League), a strongly nationalistic group to whom he contributed
literary works for their events.
In 1893, List and Fanny Wschiansky founded a belletristic society
devoted to encouraging German nationalist and neo-romantic literature
in Vienna, the
Literarische Donaugesellschaft ("Danubian Literary
Society"). The group was partly based upon the 15th-century
Litteraria Sodalita Danubiana created by the Viennese humanist Conrad
Celte, about whom List authored a brief biography in 1893. He also
authored two further novels during the 1890s, both of which were
historical romances set in
Iron Age Germany. The first appeared in
1894 as Jung Diethers Heimkehr ("Young Diether's Homecoming"), which
told the story of a young Teuton living in the fifth century who has
been forcefully converted to
Christianity but who returns to his
original solar cult. The second was Pipara, a two-volume story
published in 1895 which told the story of an eponymous
who escaped captivity from the Romans to become an empress. In
1898, he then authored a catechism exhibiting a form of pagan deism
titled Der Unbesiegbare ("The Invincible").
List's activities had made him a celebrity within the Austrian
Pan-German movement, with the editors of the Ostdeutsche Rundschau
convening a Guido List evening in April 1895 and South Vienna's Wieden
Singers' Club holding a List festival in April 1897. Having
divorced his previous wife, in August 1899 List married Anna Wittek,
who was from Stecky in Bohemia. Despite List's modern Pagan faith, the
wedding was held in an evangelical Protestant church, reflecting the
growing popularity of
Protestantism among Austria's Pan-German
community, who perceived it as a more authentically German form of
Christianity than the Catholicism that was popular among
Austria-Hungary's other ethnic and linguistic communities. Wittek
had previously appeared in a performance of List's Der Wala Erweckung
and had publicly recited some of his poetry. Following their
marriage, List devoted himself fully to drama, authoring the plays
König Vannius ("King Vannius") in 1899, Sommer-Sonnwend-Feuerzauber
("Summer Solstice Fire Magic") in 1901 and Das Goldstück ("The Gold
Coin") in 1903. He also authored a pamphlet titled Der
Carnuntum ("The Reconstruction of Carnuntum") in
1900, in which he called for the reconstruction of the ancient Roman
Carnuntum as an open-air stage through which Wotanism
could be promoted.
Later life: 1902–19
"List... belonged to an older generation than most of his pre-war
fellow ideologues and thus became a cult figure on the eastern edge of
the German world. He was regarded by his readers and followers as a
bearded old patriarch and a mystical nationalist guru whose
clairvoyant gaze had lifted the glorious Aryan and Germanic past of
Austria into full view from beneath the debris of foreign influences
and Christian culture. In his books and lectures List invited true
Germans to behold the clearly discernible remains of a wonderful
theocratic Ario-German state, wisely governed by priest-kings and
gnostic initiates, in the archaeology, folklore, and landscape of his
— Historian of esotericism Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke.
According to the historian Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, 1902 marked "a
fundamental change in the character of [List's] ideas: occult ideas
now entered his fantasy of the ancient Germanic faith." This began
when he received an operation to remove a cataract from his eye, after
which he was left blind for eleven months. During this period of rest
and recuperation, he contemplated questions surrounding the origins of
the German language and the use of runes. He subsequently produced
a manuscript detailing what he deemed to be a proto-language of the
Aryan race, in which he claimed that occult insight had enabled him to
interpret the letters and sounds of both runes and emblems and glyphs
found on ancient inscriptions. Terming it "a monumental
pseudo-science", Goodrick-Clarke also noted that it constituted "the
masterpiece of his occult-nationalist researches". List sent a
copy to the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna, but they declined
to publish it. In 1903 List published an article in Die Gnosis
magazine, which reflected a clear influence from the ideas of the
List had occasionally used the title of von in his name from 1903
onward, but began using it permanently in 1907. The term was used to
denote that an individual was a member of the nobility, and when the
nobility archive ordered an official enquiry into List's use of the
term, he was called before magistrates in October 1907. He defended
his usage of the term with the claim that he was the descendant of
Lower Austria and Styria, and that his
great-grandfather had abandoned the title to become an inn keeper.
Goodrick-Clarke noted that whatever the legitimacy of List's unproven
claims, claiming the title of von was "an integral part of [List's]
religious fantasy" because in his mind it connected him to the ancient
Wotanist priesthood, from whom he believed Austria's aristocrats were
descended. It is possible that List decided to adopt the usage of
the term after his friend, the fellow prominent Ariosophist Lanz von
Liebenfels, had done so in 1903.
An 'Armanist pilgrimage' to the Pagan Gate, June 1911. List is third
List's popularity among the Pan-Germanist movement resulted in
suggestions that a society devoted to the promotion of List's work be
established. This materialised as the Guido-von-List-Gesellschaft
in March 1908, which was largely funded by the Wannieck family but
which also included many prominent figures from middle and upper-class
Austrian and German society. At
Midsummer 1911, List founded the
High Armanen Order (Hoher Armanen-Ordem), or HAO, as an inner group of
Armanist practitioners within the List Society with whom he went on
pilgrimages to various places that he believed had been ancient cultic
sites associated with the worship of Wotan. He operated as leader
of this group, using the title of Grand Master. The List Society
also produced six booklets authored by List himself between 1908 and
1911. Titled "Ario-Germanic research reports", they covered List's
opinions on the meaning and magical power of runes, the ancient
Wotanic priesthood, Austrian folklore and place-names, and the secret
messages within heraldic devices. In 1914, the Society then
published List's work on runes and language that the Imperial Academy
had turned down. The first three of these publications furthered
List's reputation across both the völkisch and nationalist
subcultures within both Austria and Germany. Many other writers
were inspired by List, with a number of works being specifically
dedicated to him. The editor of Prana, Johannes Balzli, authored a
biography of List that was published in 1917.
During World War I, List erroneously proclaimed that there would be
victory for the
Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary,
claiming to have learned this information from a vision that he
experienced in 1917. By 1918, List was in declining health,
furthered by the food shortages experienced in
Vienna as a result of
the war. In the spring of 1919, at the age of 71, List and his
wife set off to recuperate and meet followers at the manor house of
Eberhard von Brockhusen, a List Society patron who lived at
Langen (de) in Brandenburg, Germany. On arrival at the
Anhalter Station at Berlin, List felt too exhausted to continue the
journey. After a doctor had diagnosed a lung inflammation his health
deteriorated quickly, and he died in a
Berlin guesthouse on the
morning of 17 May 1919. He was cremated in
Leipzig and his ashes
laid in an urn and then buried at the
Vienna Central Cemetery,
Zentralfriedhof. An obituary of List authored by
Philipp Stauff then appeared in the Münchener Beobachter.
Main article: Ariosophy
Odin the Wanderer (1896) by Georg von Rosen
List promoted a religion termed "Wotanism", which he saw as the
exoteric, outer form of pre-Christian Germanic religion, while
"Armanism" was the term he applied to what he believed were the
esoteric, secret teachings of this ancient belief system. He
believed that while Wotanism expounded polytheism for the wider
population, those who were members of the Armanist elite were aware of
the reality of monotheism. List's Armanism would later be
classified as a form of "Ariosophy", a term which was coined by Lanz
von Liebenfels in 1915. Goodrick-Clarke considered List's ideas to
be a "unique amalgam of nationalist mythology and esotericism".
Religious studies scholar
Olav Hammer noted that List's Wotanism
"increasingly came to consist of an original synthesis of his reading
of Germanic mythology with Theosophy". List's early Theosophical
influence came largely from the writings of German Theosophist Max
Ferdinand Sebaldt von Werth, who had combined Theosophical ideas with
his own interpretations of Germanic mythology and emphasis on racial
doctrines, thus anticipating Ariosophy. In later work, this
Theosophical influence over List's thinking grew, and he began
referencing works such as Helena Blavatsky's Die Geheimlehre and
William Scott Elliot's The Lost Lemuria in his publications. He
expressed the view that Norse mythology accorded with – and thus
proved – the cosmogonical teachings of Theosophy.
Much of List's understanding of the ancient past was based not on
empirical research into historical, archaeological, and folkloric
sources, but rather on ideas that he claimed to have received as a
result of clairvoyant illumination. Later writer Richard Rudgley
thus characterised List's understanding of the "pagan past" as an
"imaginative reconstruction". List's Wotanism was constructed
largely on the
Prose Edda and the Poetic Edda, two
Old Norse textual
sources which had been composed in Iceland during the late Middle
Ages; he nevertheless believed that they accurately reflected the
belief systems of Germany, having been authored by "Wotanist" refugees
fleeing Christianity. He believed that prior to the spread of
Christianity into Northern Europe, there had once been a culturally
unified German civilisation that had been spread across much of
Europe, which came to be degraded and divided under the impact of
Christianity. He believed that the Danubian region of modern
Austria had thus been part of this unified German civilisation before
the growth of the Roman Empire, an idea in contrast to the view
accepted by historians of the time that linguistically German
communities only settled in the area during the reign of the Frankish
Charlemagne in the ninth century CE, pushing out the pre-existing
linguistically Celtic groups.
Runes and the Armanenschaft
List believed that the basic teachings of Wotanism were found in the
runic alphabet, believing that they could be deciphered by linking
these letters with particular runic spells which appear in the Old
Norse Havamal. He claimed to have deciphered these secret meanings
himself, translating them as statements such as "Know yourself, then
you know everything", "Do not fear death, he cannot kill you",
"Marriage is the root of the Aryan race!", and "Man is one with
God!" List emphasised the importance of a mystical union between
humans and the universe, viewing divinity as being immanent in
nature, with all life being an emanation of it. Connected to this,
he believed in a close identification between the racial group – the
volk or folk – and the natural world. List believed that human
beings had an immortal soul, and that it would be reincarnated
according to the laws of karma until eventually uniting with
"Runic Circle of the Armanen Futharkh.
In the 1890s, List initially devised the idea that ancient German
society had been led by a hierarchical system of initiates, the
Armanenschaft, an idea which had developed into a key part of his
thinking by 1908. List's image of the Armanenschaft's structure
was based largely on his knowledge of Freemasonry. He claimed that the
ancient brotherhood had consisted of three degrees, each with their
own secret signs, grips, and passwords. He believed that the
Armanenschaft had societal control over the ancient German people,
acting as teachers, priests, and judges. In List's interpretation
of history, the Christian missionaries persecuted the Armanenschaft,
resulting in many fleeing northward into Scandinavia and Iceland.
He believed that they developed a secretive language for transmitting
their teachings, known as kala.
List claimed that after the Christianisation of Northern Europe, the
Armanist teachings were passed down in secret, thus resulting in their
transmission through later esoteric traditions such as
Rosicrucianism. He also claimed that the Medieval Knights Templar
had been keepers of these Armanist secrets, and that they had been
persecuted by the Christian establishment as a result of this; he
believed that the deity they were accused of worshiping, Baphomet, was
actually a sigil of the
Maltese Cross representing Armanist
teachings. According to List, a number of prominent Renaissance
humanists – including Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Giordano Bruno,
Johannes Trithemius, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, and Johann Reuchlin
– were also aware of this ancient Armanist teaching, with List
claiming that he was actually the reincarnation of Reuchlin. In
addition, List claimed that in the eighth century, Armanists had
imparted their secret teachings to the Jewish rabbis of
Cologne in the
hope of preserving them from Christian persecution; he believed that
these teachings became the Kabbalah, which he therefore reasoned was
an ancient German and not Jewish innovation, thus legitimising its
usage in his own teachings. Rudgley stated that this "tortuous
argument" was used to support List's anti-semitic agenda.
List generally saw the world in which he was living as one of
degeneration, comparing it with the societies of the Late Roman
and Byzantine Empires. He bemoaned the decline of the rural
peasantry through urbanisation, having witnessed how Vienna's
population tripled between 1870 and 1890, resulting in overcrowding, a
growth in diseases like tuberculosis, and a severe strain on the
city's resources. A staunch monarchist, he opposed all forms of
democracy, feminism, and modern trends in the arts, such as those of
Vienna Secessionists. Influenced by the Pan-Germanist
Georg Ritter von Schönerer
Georg Ritter von Schönerer and his Away from Rome!
movement, List decried the growing influence of linguistically Slavic
communities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was opposed to
laissez-faire capitalism and large-scale enterprise, instead favouring
an economic system based on small-scale artisans and craftsmen, being
particularly unhappy with the decline in tradesmen's guilds. He
was similarly opposed to the modern banking sector and financial
institutions, deeming it to be dominated by Jews; in criticising these
institutions, he expressed anti-semitic sentiments. Such views of
the country's economic situation were not uncommon in Austria at the
time, having become particularly widespread following the Panic of
1873. The later Heathen and runologist Edred Thorsson noted that
List's "theories were to some degree based on the anti-semitic dogmas
of the day", while Hammer stated that the Ariosophic tradition
promulgated by List and others was "unambiguously racist and
List believed that the degradation of modern Western society was as a
result of a conspiracy orchestrated by a secret organisation known as
the Great International Party, an idea influenced by anti-semitic
conspiracy theories. Adopting a millenarianist perspective, he
believed in the imminent defeat of this enemy and the establishment of
a better future for the Ario-German race. In April 1915 he
welcomed the start of
World War I
World War I as a conflict that would bring about
the defeat of Germany's enemies and the establishment of a golden age
for the new Ario-German Empire. Toward the war's end, he believed
that the German war dead would be reincarnated as a generation who
would push through with a national revolution and establish this new,
better society. For List, this better future would be intricately
connected to the ancient past, reflecting his belief in the cyclical
nature of time, something which he had adopted both from a reading of
Norse mythology and from Theosophy. Reflecting his monarchist
beliefs, he envisioned this future state as being governed by the
House of Habsburg, with a revived feudal system of land ownership
being introduced through which land would be inherited by a man's
eldest son. In List's opinion, this new empire would be highly
hierarchical, with non-Aryans being subjugated under the Aryan
population and opportunities for education and jobs in public service
being restricted to those deemed racially pure. He envisioned this
Empire following the Wotanic religion which he promoted.
Influence and legacy
"[It was] Guido von List, [a] Viennese mythomaniac who, more than
anyone else, laid the foundations for the romantic blend of ideas that
links these proto-Nazis uncannily with the Greens and New-Agers of
today: an interest in natural living, vegetarianism,
anti-industrialism, an appreciation of prehistoric monuments and the
wisdom of those who built them; a feeling for astrology, earth
energies, and natural cycles; a religious outlook vaguely resembling
that of Theosophy."
— Historian of esotericism Joscelyn Godwin, 1996.
Writing in 2003, the historian of religion
Mattias Gardell believed
that List had become the "revered guru of Ariosophic paganism".
Gardell considered the Austrian esotericist to have been "a legend in
his lifetime", with List's ideas being embraced by many völkisch
groups in Germany. German members of the List Society included
Philipp Stauff, Karl Hellwig, Georg Hauerstein, Bernhard Koerner, and
Eberhard von Brockhusen, who were founding members of the
Reichshammerbund and Germanenorden; through the Germanenorden's Munich
offshoot, the Thule Society, a lineage can be drawn between the List
Society and the early
Nazi Party as it was established after World War
I. Goodrick-Clarke opined that "this channel of influence
certainly carries most weight in any assessment of List's historical
importance." The scholar of Western esotericism Joscelyn Godwin
expressed the view that List was one of the "three godfathers of Nazi
Thule" alongside Liebenfels and Rudolf von Sebottendorff, while
Rudgley went further by claiming that List's vision of a future German
Empire constituted "a blueprint for the Nazi regime".
Other German völkisch figures promoted Listian ideas to the wider
public during and after the First World War. Further individuals
– notably Rudolf John Gorsleben, Werner von Bülow, Friedrich
Bernhard Marby, Herbert Reichstein, and Frodi Ingolfson Werhmann –
took List's Ariosophical ideas alongside those of Liebenfels and built
upon them further, resulting in a flourishing Ariosophical movement in
the late 1920s and 1930s, with some of these individuals being within
the coterie of prominent Nazi
Heinrich Himmler and influencing the
symbolism and rituals of the SS. His was also exerted an influence
on the Australian Odinist and Ariosophist Alexander Rud Mills.
Both Goodrick-Clarke and later the religious studies scholar Stefanie
von Schnurbein described List as "the pioneer of völkisch rune
occultism", with the latter adding that "the roots of modern
esoteric runology are found in Guido List's visions." In 1984,
Thorsson expressed the view that List's impact was such that he was
"able to shape the runic theories of German magicians (although not
necessarily their political ones) from that time to the present
day." In 1976, two longstanding activists in the völkisch and
far-right milieu, Adolf and Sigrun Schleipfer, established the
Armanen-Order in order to revive List's ideas, adopting a strong
anti-modernist stance and a desire to revive pre-Christian
religion. It was through the Armanen-Order that Thorsson, who
joined it, learned about List's work. Thorsson then spearheaded
"the post-war runic revival", founding an initiatory organisation
known as the Rune Gild in 1980. Thorsson was responsible for
translating a number of List's works into English, alongside those of
other völkisch mystics like Siegfried Adolf Kummer. These
publications brought awareness of List to an English-speaking
readership, with his 1988 translation of List's The Secret of the
Runes initiating a surge of interest in
Ariosophy among the Heathen
community of the United States. List's runology also made an
appearance in Stephan Grundy's 1990 book Teutonic Magic. List's
Armanist ideas have been cited as an inspiration for the American
Odinist militant David Lane, with Wotansvolk, a group that List
was involved in establishing, viewing their own activism as a
continuation of that begun by List. List was also of interest to
the Heathen Michael Moynihan, who spent time visiting the places in
Austria that are associated with List's life.
A bibliography of List's published books is provided in
Goodrick-Clarke's study The Occult Roots of Nazism.
Year of publication
Place of Publication
Carnuntum. Historischer Roman aus dem 4. Jahr-hundert (two volumes)
Tauf-, Hochzeits- und Bestattungs-Gebräuche und deren Ursprung
Litteraria sodalitas Danubiana
Jung Diether's Heimkehr. Eine Sonnwend-Geschichte aus dem Jahre 488 n.
Der Wala Erweckung
Walküren-Weihe. Epische Dichtung
Pipara. Die Germanin im Cäsarenpurpur (two volumes)
Der Unbesiegbare. Ein Grundzug germanischer Weltanschaaung
König Vannius. Ein deutsches Königsdrama
Der Wiederaufbau von Carnuntum
Sommer-Sonnwend-Feuerzauber. Skaldisches Weihespiel
Alraunen-Mären. Kulturhistorische Novellen und Dichtungen aus
Das Goldstück. Ein Liebesdrama in fünf Aufzügen
Das Geheimnis der Runen
Die Armanenschaft der Ario-Germanen
Leipzig and Vienna
Die Rita der Ario-Germanen
Leipzig and Vienna
Die Namen der Völkerstämme Germaniens und deren Deutung
Leipzig and Vienna
Die Religion der Ario-Germanen im ihrer Esoterik und Exoterik
Der Bilderschrift der Ario-Germanen (Ario-Germanische Hieroglyphik)
Leipzig and Vienna
Die Armanenschaft der Ario-Germanen. Zweiter Teil
Leipzig and Vienna
Der Übergang vom Wuotanstum zum Christensum
Die Armanenschaft der Ario-Germanen. Erster Teil (second edition)
Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder (second edition)
Die Ursprache der Ario-Germanen und ihre Mysteriensprache
Leipzig and Vienna
^ a b c Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 33.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 33–34; Rudgley 2006, p. 108.
^ a b c d e f Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 34.
^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 35.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 34; Rudgley 2006, p. 108.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 34–35; Rudgley 2006, p. 109.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 35; Rudgley 2006, p. 109.
^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 36.
^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 36; Rudgley 2006, p. 110.
^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 37.
^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 38.
^ a b c d e f g h Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 39.
^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 40.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 40–41.
^ a b c d e f Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 41.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 23; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 41; Rudgley
2006, pp. 111–112.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 41–42.
^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 42.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 42–43.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 25; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 43–44;
Rudgley 2006, p. 114.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 25; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 46–47;
Rudgley 2006, p. 114.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 64; Rudgley 2006, p. 114.
^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 44.
^ a b c d e f Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 45.
^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 47.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 47–48.
^ a b c Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 48.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 24; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 52; Rudgley
2006, p. 112.
^ Schnurbein 2016, p. 94.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 227; Rudgley 2006, p. 111.
^ a b Hammer 2015, p. 352.
^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 51.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 52.
^ a b Gardell 2003, p. 23.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 67.
^ Rudgley 2006, p. 109.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 49.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 77.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 66.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 50; Schnurbein 2016, p. 115.
^ a b c Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 50.
^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 50; Schnurbein 2016, p. 42.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 24; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 52.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 56.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 57; Rudgley 2006, p. 112.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 57.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 68–69.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 24; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 70.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 58; Schnurbein 2016, p. 115.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 61–62.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 62–63; Rudgley 2006, p. 114.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 63; Rudgley 2006, pp. 113–114.
^ Rudgley 2006, p. 113.
^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 82.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 83.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 82–83.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 81.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 81–82.
^ a b Thorsson 1984, p. 15.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 25; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 83.
^ a b Gardell 2003, p. 25.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 85.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 86.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 25; Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 88–89.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 78–79.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 65.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 64.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 63–64.
^ Godwin 1996, p. 49.
^ Godwin 1996, p. 48.
^ Rudgley 2006, p. 115.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 46.
^ Asbjørn Jøn 1999, p. 78.
^ Schnurbein 2016, p. 114.
^ Hammer 2015, p. 353; Schnurbein 2016, p. 55.
^ a b Schnurbein 2016, p. 81.
^ a b Schnurbein 2016, p. 116.
^ Gardell 2003, pp. 162, 322; Schnurbein 2016, p. 82.
^ Schnurbein 2016, p. 117.
^ Schnurbein 2016, p. 118.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 201.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 275; Gardell 2003, p. 208.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 300.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 274.
Asbjørn Jøn, A. (1999). "'Skeggøld, Skálmöld; Vindöld,
Alexander Rud Mills
Alexander Rud Mills and the Ásatrú Faith in the New Age".
Australian Religion Studies Review. 12 (1): 77–83.
Gardell, Matthias (2003). Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and
White Separatism. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Godwin, Joscelyn (1996). Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism,
and Nazi Survival. Kempton: Adventures Unlimited Press.
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric
Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University
Press. ISBN 978-0814731550.
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2004) . The Occult Roots of Nazism:
Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology. New York:
Tauris Parke. ISBN 978-1860649738.
Hammer, Olav (2015). "The Theosophical Current in the Twentieth
Century". The Occult World. Christopher Partridge (ed.). Abingdon:
Routledge. pp. 348–360. ISBN 978-0415695961.
Rudgley, Richard (2006). Pagan Resurrection: A Force for Evil or the
Future of Western Spirituality?. London: Century.
Schnurbein, Stefanie von (2016). Norse Revival: Transformations of
Germanic Neopaganism. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-1608467372.
Thorsson, Edred (1984). Futhark: A Handbook of Rune Magic. San
Francisco: Red Wheel/Weiser. ISBN 978-0-87728-548-9.
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