Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare
in which small groups of combatant
s, such as paramilitary
personnel, armed civilian
s, or irregulars
, use military tactics
, petty warfare
, hit-and-run tactics
, and mobility
, to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military
Although the term "guerrilla warfare" was coined in the context of the Peninsular War
in the 19th century, the tactical methods of guerrilla warfare have long been in use. In the 6th century BC, Sun Tzu
proposed the use of guerrilla-style tactics in ''The Art of War
''. The 3rd century BC Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus
is also credited with inventing many of the tactics of guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla warfare has been used by various factions throughout history and is particularly associated with revolutionary movements and popular resistance against invading or occupying armies.
focus on avoiding head-on confrontations with enemy armies, instead of engaging in limited skirmishes with the goal of exhausting adversaries and forcing them to withdraw. Guerrilla groups often depend on the logistical and political support of either the local population or foreign backers who do not engage in an armed struggle but sympathize with the guerrilla group's efforts.
The Spanish word is the diminutive form of ('war'). The term became popular during the early-19th century Peninsular War
, when, after the defeat of their regular armies, the Spanish and Portuguese people successfully rose
against the Napoleonic troops
and defeated a highly superior army using the guerrilla strategy. In correct Spanish
usage, a person who is a member of a unit is a () if male, or a (eriˈʎeɾa
The term ''guerrilla'' was used in English as early as 1809 to refer to the individual ''fighters'' (e.g., "The town was taken by the guerrillas"), and also (as in Spanish) to denote ''a group or band'' of such fighters. However, in most languages ''guerrilla'' still denotes the specific style of warfare. The use of the diminutive
evokes the differences in number, scale, and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional army of the state.
The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu
, in his ''The Art of War
'' (6th century BC), was one of the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare.
[Leonard, Thomas M., ''Encyclopedia of the developing world'', 1989, p. 728. "One of the earliest proponents of guerrilla war tactics is the Chinese master of warfare, Sun Tzu."]
This inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla tactics were presumably employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare
, on the other hand, did not emerge until 3100 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Since the Enlightenment
, ideologies such as nationalism
, and religious fundamentalism
have played an important role in shaping insurgencies and guerrilla warfare.
In the 3rd century BC, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus
, widely regarded as the "father of guerrilla warfare",
devised the Fabian strategy
which was used to great effect against Hannibal
's army. The strategy would further influence guerrilla tactics into the modern era.
In the 17th century, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
, founder of the Maratha Empire
pioneered ''Shiva sutra'' or ''Ganimi Kava'' (Guerrilla Tactics) to defeat the many times larger and more powerful armies of the Mughal Empire
Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja
used guerrilla techniques in his war against British East India Company between 1790 and 1805.
The term guerrilla war was coined in English in 1809 after the Pazhassi revolt against the British. Arthur Wellesley
was in charge to defeat his techniques but failed.
The Moroccan national hero Abd el-Krim
, along with his father, unified the Moroccan tribes under their control and took up arms against the Spanish and French invaders during the early 20th century. For the first time in history, tunnel warfare was used alongside modern guerrilla tactics, which caused considerable damage and annoyance to both invading armies in Morocco.
and Tom Barry
(early 20th century) both developed many tactical features of this combat system during the guerrilla phase of the Irish War of Independence
. Collins developed mainly Urban guerrilla warfare
tactics in Dublin city
the Irish capital, these tactics in which small IRA units (3 - 6 guerrillas) quickly attacked a target and then melted back into civilian crowds frustrated the British enemy who often killed Irish civilians in revenge for attacks on British Crown Forces, which just made more Irish people support the Irish Republican Army
guerrillas. The best example of this is Bloody Sunday on 21 November 1920
, when Collin's assassination unit known as The Squad
wiped out a group of British intelligence agents known as Cairo Gang
early on the morning (14 were killed, six were wounded), some regular officers were also killed in the purge. Later on in the afternoon, a British force of mixed units took revenge shooting at a crowd at football match in Croke Park
killing fourteen civilians and injuring 60 others.
In west County Cork
Tom Barry was the commander of the IRA West Cork brigade, fighting in west Cork was rural and the IRA fought in much larger units than their comrades in urban areas. These units were called Flying column
s That engaged British forces in large battles, usually between 10 - 30 minutes. The Kilmichael Ambush
in November 1920 and the Crossbarry Ambush
in March 1921 are the most famous examples of Barry's flying column casing large casualties to enemy force.
Strategy, tactics and methods
Guerrilla warfare is a type of asymmetric warfare
: competition between opponents of unequal strength. It is also a type of irregular warfare: that is, it aims not simply to defeat an enemy, but to win popular support and political influence, to the enemy's cost. Accordingly, guerrilla strategy
aims to magnify the impact of a small, mobile force on a larger, more-cumbersome one. If successful, guerrillas weaken their enemy by attrition
, eventually forcing them to withdraw.
Tactically, guerrillas usually avoid confrontation with large units and formations of enemy troops but seek and attack small groups of enemy personnel and resources to gradually deplete the opposing force while minimizing their own losses. The guerrilla prizes mobility, secrecy, and surprise, organizing in small units and taking advantage of terrain
that is difficult for larger units to use. For example, Mao Zedong
summarized basic guerrilla tactics at the beginning of the Chinese Civil War
"The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps, we harass; the enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue."
At least one author credits the ancient Chinese work ''The Art of War
'' with inspiring Mao's tactics.
In the 20th century, other communist leaders, including North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh
, often used and developed guerrilla warfare tactics, which provided a model for their use elsewhere, leading to the Cuban "foco
" theory and the jihadist Mujahadeen
[McNeilly, Mark. ''Sun Tzu and the Art of Modern Warfare'', 2003, p. 204. "American arming and support of the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen in Afghanistan is another example."]
In addition to traditional military methods, guerrilla groups may rely also on destroying infrastructure, using improvised explosive device
s, for example. They typically also rely on logistical
and political support from the local population and foreign backers, are often embedded within it (thereby using the population as a human shield
), and many guerrilla groups are adept at public persuasion through propaganda
and use of force.
The opposing army may come to suspect of all civilians as potential guerrilla backers.
Many guerrilla movements today also rely heavily on children as combatants, scouts, porters, spies, informants, and in other roles. It has drawn international condemnation. Many states also recruit children
into their armed forces.
Some guerrilla groups also use refugees as weapons
to solidify power or politically destabilize an adversary. The FARC
guerrilla war displaced millions of Colombians, and so did the tribal guerrilla warfare (against Soviets) in Afghanistan. The civilian population living in the area might be suspected of having collaborated with the enemy and find itself displaced, as the guerrillas fight for territory.
Growth during the 20th century
The growth of guerrilla warfare in the 20th century was inspired in part by theoretical works on guerrilla warfare, starting with the ''Manual de Guerra de Guerrillas'' by Matías Ramón Mella
written in the 19th century and, more recently, Mao Zedong's ''On Guerrilla Warfare
'', Che Guevara
all written after the successful revolutions carried by them in China, Cuba and Russia, respectively. Those texts characterized the tactic of guerrilla warfare as, according to Che Guevara
's text, being "used by the side which is supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression".
In the 1960s, the Marxist
revolutionary Che Guevara
developed the ''foco'' ( es|foquismo|link=no) theory of revolution
in his book ''Guerrilla Warfare
'', based on his experiences during the 1959 Cuban Revolution
. This theory was later formalised as "focal-ism" by Régis Debray
. Its central principle is that vanguardism
of small, fast-moving paramilitary
groups can provide a focus for popular discontent against a sitting regime, and thereby lead a general insurrection
. Although the original approach was to mobilize and launch attacks from rural areas, many ''foco'' ideas were adapted into urban guerrilla warfare
Comparison of guerrilla warfare and terrorism
There is no commonly accepted definition of "terrorism"
, and the term is frequently used as a political tactic by belligerent
s (most often by governments in power) to denounce opponents whose status as terrorists
Contrary to some terrorist groups, guerrillas usually work in open positions as armed units, try to hold and seize land, do not refrain from fighting enemy military force in battle and usually apply pressure to control or dominate territory and population. While the primary concern of guerrillas is the enemy's active military units, terrorists largely are concerned with non-military agents and target mostly civilians. Guerrilla forces principally fight in accordance with the law of war (''jus in bello''). In this sense, they respect the rights of innocent civilians by refraining from targeting them.
* Fabian strategy
* Free War
* Freedom Fighters (disambiguation)
* History of guerrilla warfare
* "Yank" Levy
* List of guerrilla movements
* List of guerrillas
* List of revolutions and rebellions
* Partisan (military)
* Resistance during World War II
* Special forces
* Unconventional warfare
* Violent non-state actor
* Asprey, Robert. ''War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History''
* Derradji Abder-Rahmane, The Algerian Guerrilla Campaign Strategy & Tactics, the Edwin Mellen Press, New York, USA, 1997.
* Hinckle, Warren
(with Steven Chain and David Goldstein): ''Guerrilla-Krieg in USA'' (''Guerrilla war in the USA''), Stuttgart
(Deutsche Verlagsanstalt) 1971.
* Keats, John (1990). ''They Fought Alone''. Time Life.
* MacDonald, Peter. ''Giap: The Victor in Vietnam''
* Oller, John. ''The Swamp Fox: How Francis Marion Saved the American Revolution''. Boston: Da Capo Press, 2016. .
* Peers, William R.
; Brelis, Dean
. ''Behind the Burma Road: The Story of America's Most Successful Guerrilla Force
''. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1963.
* Polack, Peter. ''Guerrilla Warfare; Kings of Revolution'' Casemate,.
* Thomas Powers
, "The War without End" (review of Steve Coll
, ''Directorate S: The CIA and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan'', Penguin, 2018, 757 pp.), ''The New York Review of Books
'', vol. LXV, no. 7 (19 April 2018), pp. 42–43. "Forty-plus years after our failure in Vietnam
, the United States is again fighting an endless war in a faraway place against a culture and a people we don't understand for political reasons that make sense in Washington
, but nowhere else." (p. 43.)
* Schmidt, LS. 1982"American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance on Mindanao During the Japanese Occupation, 1942-1945"
M.S. Thesis. U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. 274 pp.
* Sutherland, Daniel E. "Sideshow No Longer: A Historiographical Review of the Guerrilla War." ''Civil War History'' 46.1 (2000): 5-23; American Civil War, 1861–65
* Sutherland, Daniel E. ''A Savage Conflict: The Decisive Role of Guerrillas in the American Civil War'' (U of North Carolina Press, 2009)online
* Weber, Olivier
, ''Afghan Eternity'', 2002
* – Pakistani militants conduct raids in Iran
abcNEWS Exclusive: The Secret War
– Deadly guerrilla raids in Iran
Insurgency Research Group
– Multi-expert blog dedicated to the study of insurgency and the development of counter-insurgency policy.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Guerrilla warfareMao on guerrilla warfareCasebook on Insurgency and Revolutionary WarfareUnited States Army Special Operations Command
Counter Insurgency Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS)India
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