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The GUELOWAR (many variations: Gelwaar, Guelwaar, Guelwar, Gelwar etc.) was the maternal dynasty in the Serer pre-colonial kingdoms of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
(in the Senegambia , but mainly in the western area of present-day Senegal
Senegal
). They were from the Mandinka ethnic group. The offsprings of Mandinka women and Serer men became the kings of Sine and Saloum. The dynasty lasted from the mid-14th century to 1969, in which year both kings died.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origin

* 2 Migration to Serer regions

* 3 Senegambian kings from the Guelowar
Guelowar
maternal clan

* 3.1 Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
* 3.2 Kingdom of Saloum * 3.3 Kingdom of Cayor
Cayor
and Baol
Baol
* 3.4 Kingdom of Jolof * 3.5 Rest of Senegambia

* 4 In popular culture * 5 See also * 6 Notes

HISTORY

ORIGIN

The Guelowar
Guelowar
family originated from Kaabu
Kaabu
(now modern day Guinea Bissau ) in the 14th century. Their oral tradition says that they were descended from Mansa Tiramakan Traore (13th century cousin and general of Mansa Sundiata Keita
Sundiata Keita
of Mali
Mali
. Mansa Tiramakan Traore (many variations: Tiramakan Trawally, Tiramakhan Traore, etc.) who had conquered the Bainuk people and killed the last Great Bainuk King (King Kikikor), then renamed the country Kaabu
Kaabu
in the 13th century before his death in 1265 was the founder and Mansa (king of kings) Kaabu. Their oral tradition also says that they were the descendants of Mansa Bala Diakha and Maisata Yembe Kame Guélaware (king and queen of a province of Kaabu). Others say they are descended from the royal branch of Princess Tenemba. The Mandinkas who conquered the Kaabu married into the noble Bainuk families. The Mandinka also changed their own name and adopted Bainuk surnames.

Kaabu
Kaabu
was governed by the noble paternal clans of "Sanneh" and "Manneh" (variations : Sane and Mane - both Bainuk and Jola surnames in origin, not Mandinka), with the noble maternal clans of Ñaanco and Guelowar. However, almost all the kings of Kaabu
Kaabu
came from the Ñaanco maternal clan. The Guelowars were extended maternal relatives of the Ñaanco and one of their greatest threat to the throne.

MIGRATION TO SERER REGIONS

Henry Gravrand reported an oral tradition describing what he called the "Battle of Troubang", a dynastic war between the two maternal royal houses of Ñaanco and the Guelowar,an off-shot and relatives of the Ñaanco (Nyanthio or Nyanco) maternal dynasty of Kaabu
Kaabu
, in modern-day Guinea Bissau .

Here Gravrand has not noticed that this is actually a description of the 1867 (or 1865) Battle of Kansala although the departure of the Guelowar
Guelowar
can probably be explained by a war or a conflict of succession.

Whatever the reason, they left Kaabu
Kaabu
c 1335. According to oral tradition they were a mixture of Mandinka , descendants of Mansa Tiramang Trawally (many variations: Tiramakhan Traore , Tira Makhang Trawally, Tiramanghan Trawally or Tiramang Traore) of Mali
Mali
and the Bainuk nobility, from the patrilineages of Sanneh and Manneh (Sané or Mané). The Guelowars migrated to the Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
and were granted asylum by The Great Council of Lamanes (the Serer nobility). The marriages between the Serer paternal clans such as Faye and Joof to the Guelwar women created the Serer paternal dynasties and a Guelowar
Guelowar
maternal dynasty which replaced the old Wagadou maternal dynasty. Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
(many variations in spelling: Maissa Wali, Maissa Wally also known as Maysa Wali Jon or Maysa Wali Dione) - (reigned 1350) was the first Guelowar
Guelowar
king of Sine post Troubang (1335). Having served for several years as legal advisor to The Great Council of Lamans and assimilated into Serer culture, he was elected and crowned the first Guelowar
Guelowar
king of Sine in (1350). His sisters and nieces were married off to the Serer nobility and the offspring of these unions where the kings of Sine and later Saloum
Saloum
( Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
and Maad Saloum respectively).

The mainstream view has been that Mandinka Guelowars of Kaabu conquered and subjugated the Serer people . Serer oral tradition speaks of no military conquest, but a union based on marriage. A marriage between the noble Guelowar
Guelowar
maternal clan and the noble Serer paternal clans, the descendants of the old Serer Lamanic class . Almost all the kings of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
bore Serer surnames not Mandinka. Maysa Wali's paternal descendants did not rule in Sine neither did they rule in Saloum. It was the paternal descendants of the ancient Serer Lamanic class who ruled. Serer language, culture, religion and tradition also prevailed in Sine and Saloum
Saloum
not Mandinka. The Guelowars were incorporated into Serer society and they saw themselves as Serers.

Although the Wolof culture is also very strong in Saloum, just as the Serer culture, Wolof people
Wolof people
were migrants to the Serer Kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
. The Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
was ethnically Serer. The Kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
was mixed, but the non-Serer population were migrants.

SENEGAMBIAN KINGS FROM THE GUELOWAR MATERNAL CLAN

Some of the Senegambian kings belonging to the Guelowar
Guelowar
maternal clan can be found below. Maad means king in Serer-Sine language . Maad a Sinig and Maad Saloum means "king of Sine" and "king of Saloum" respectively. There are many variations in the spelling of Maad. Sometimes it is spelled Mad, Maat, etc. Maad is also sometimes used interchangeably to refer to the ancient Serer kings – the Lamanes – who were the kings and landed gentry .

KINGDOM OF SINE

* Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Waagaan Tenin Jom Faye * Waagaan Kumbasaanjaan Faye * Laasuk Fanaan Faye * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Sanmoon Faye * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Niokhobaye Mane Nyan Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Guejopal Mane Nyan Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof , king of Sine (Reigned: 1853 - 1871) * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof , king of Sine (Reigned: 1898 - 1924) * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Mbackeh Kodu Njie (M'Backé Mak), king of Sine (Reigned: 1884 - 1885) * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Mahecor Joof , king of Sine (Reigned: 1924- 1969)

KINGDOM OF SALOUM

* Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour , king of Saloum
Saloum
(Reigned: 1493) * Maad Saloum Malaotan Joof, king of Saloum
Saloum
(Reigned: 1567) * Maad Saloum Balleh Njugou Ndaw (Ballé Khordia Ndao), king of Saloum
Saloum
(Reigned: 1825 - 1853) * Maad Saloum Bala Adam Njie, king of Saloum
Saloum
(Reigned: 1853 - 1856) * Maad Saloum Kumba N'Dama Mbodj, king of Saloum
Saloum
(Reigned: 1856 - 1859) * Maad Saloum Samba Laobeh Latsouka Faal, king of Saloum
Saloum
(Reigned: 1859 - 1864)

KINGDOM OF CAYOR AND BAOL

* Damel Makodu Yandeh Mbarou Joof Faal, king of Baol
Baol
(Teign ) and of Cayor
Cayor
( Damel ). Reigned: 1832 in Baol, 1860 - 1861 in Cayor
Cayor
. Died in June 1863 at Saloum
Saloum
(the ancestral land of his mother).

KINGDOM OF JOLOF

* Bourba Mbagne Pateh Penda Kumba Ngouille Joof Njie - (Mbagne Paaté Coumba N'Gouye Diouf Ndiaye), king of Jolof (Reigned: 1846). Killed at the Battle of Diakhabour (1846). * Bourba Biram Penda Kumba Ngouille Joof Njie - (Birame Penda Coumba N'Gouye Diouf Ndiaye), king of Jolof (Reigned: 1846). Assassinated in 1846.

REST OF SENEGAMBIA

* Mama Tamba Jammeh, king of Yilliyassa (in the Gambia
Gambia
), descendant of Lingeer Kaasa Mengeh (Kaasa Menge) of Saloum.

Around the 17th century, there were three main branches of the Guelowar
Guelowar
maternal clan in the Serer kingdoms. They were founded by three sisters. They were Lingeers (queens or princesses) whose names are used to refer to their maternal descendants. They include: 1. The Keway Begay clan (English spelling in Gambia
Gambia
or Keve Bigui - French spelling in Senegal
Senegal
) 2. The Horaja Begay clan (Khoredia Bigui in Senegal) 3. The Jogop Begay clan (Diogop Bigui in Senegal)

The princes who belonged to these three maternal clans were engaged in several wars in Senegambia, in order to ensure the succession of their maternal clan. The Serer princes belonging to the clans Keway Begay and Jogop Begay were engaged in constant battles.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

* Guelwaar , a film by Ousmane Sembène (1992) which borrows the name.

SEE ALSO

* Senegal
Senegal
portal * Gambia
Gambia
portal * Guinea-Bissau portal * Serer people portal * Monarchy portal

* Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
* Kingdom of Saloum * Serer people * Serer history (medieval era to present)
Serer history (medieval era to present)
* Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history
* History of Senegal
Senegal
* History of the Gambia
Gambia

NOTES

* ^ Sarr, Alioune , "Histoire du Sine-Saloum
Sine-Saloum
(Sénégal)." Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87. p21 * ^ Guy Thilmans, Cyr Descamps, Abdoulaye Camara, Senegalia, études sur le patrimoine ouest-africain : hommage à Guy Thilmans, Sépia (2006). ISBN 2-84280-122-9 . pp 220-221 * ^ Martin A. Klein. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914, Edinburgh University Press (1968). p XV * ^ Michael J. Sheridan, Celia Nyamweru. African sacred groves: ecological dynamics Suso, Bamba; Kanute, Banna; Kanute, Dembo, "Sunjata: three Mandinka versions", p 128, Psychology Press, 1974. ISBN 0-7286-0003-X * ^ A B C Ngom, Biram,(Babacar Sédikh Diouf). "La question Gelwaar et l’histoire du Siin", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1987, 69 p. * ^ For the old Serer paternal dynasties such as the Joof family etc., and the Wagadou maternal dynasty, including the Kingdom of Baol - an old Serer Kingdom, See : (Ning ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Serer topics

PEOPLES

SERER PEOPLES

* * Laalaa * Ndut * Niominka * Noon * Palor * Saafi * Seex

RELIGION

KEY TOPICS

* * Ciiɗ * Classical Ndut teachings * Creation myth * Criticism * Festivals * Jaaniiw * Junjung
Junjung
* Lamane
Lamane
* Sadax * Saltigue
Saltigue
* Symbolism * Women

SUPREME DEITIES

* * Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
* Koox
Koox
* Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
* Roog
Roog
(main)

OTHER DEITIES

* * Kumba Njaay * Takhar
Takhar
* Tiurakh
Tiurakh

Saints and ancestral spirits

* * Ginaaru * Julang Joof * Laga Ndong * Lunguñ Joof * Mindiss * Moussa Sarr * Njemeh (of Languème ) * Njoxona * Ngojil Joof * Ngolum Joof

* Pangool
Pangool

* list

SACRED SITES

* * Fatick
Fatick
* Sine River
Sine River
* Sine-Saloum
Sine-Saloum
* Somb
Somb
* Point of Sangomar
Point of Sangomar
* Tattaguine * Tukar
Tukar
* Yaboyabo
Yaboyabo

* History * Philosophy * Science * Law * Geography * Politics

HISTORY

* Cekeen Tumulus * Khasso * Kingdom of Baol * Kingdom of Biffeche * kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
* Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
* Serer ancient history
Serer ancient history
* Serer history (medieval era to present)
Serer history (medieval era to present)
* States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes * The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune
The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune
* The Battle of Logandème * Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history
* Western Sahara
Western Sahara

Philosophy

* Science * Law

* Medicine

* medicinal plants

* CEMETRA

* Loup (healer)

* Saltigues and Loup practitioners

* MALANGO * Philosophy of beauty * Jom principle * Cosmology * Customary law

Geography Politics

* Farba Kaba * Jaraff * Serer countries

* Demographics * Culture

DEMOGRAPHICS

BY REGION

* * Gambia
Gambia
* Mauritania * Senegal
Senegal

LANGUAGE

* * Cangin * Lehar * Ndut * Noon * Palor * Safen * Serer

CULTURE

* Birth * Chere * Death * Inheritance * Marriage * Mbalax * Njuup * Sabar
Sabar
* Tama * Tassu * Njom

ROYALTY

Kings and lamanes

* Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Mahecor Joof * Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
* Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof * Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof * Maad Semou Njekeh Joof
Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

* Lingeer Fatim Beye * Lingeer Ndoye Demba * Serer maternal clans
Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

* Faye family
Faye family
* Guelowar * Joof family
Joof family
* Joos Maternal Dynasty
Joos Maternal Dynasty
* The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof * The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof * The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof
The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof

Families and royal titles

* Buumi
Buumi
* Faye family
Faye family
* Joof family
Joof family
* Lamane
Lamane
*