Gucci (/ˈɡuːtʃi/, GOO-chee;
Italian pronunciation: [ˈɡutt͡ʃi]) is an Italian luxury
brand of fashion and leather goods, part of the
Gucci Group, which is
owned by the French holding company Kering.
Gucci was founded
Guccio Gucci in
Florence in 1921.
Gucci generated about
€4.2 billion in revenue worldwide in 2008 according to
BusinessWeek and climbed to 41st position in the magazine's annual
2009 "Top Global 100 Brands" chart created by Interbrand; it
retained that rank in Interbrand's 2014 index.
Gucci is also the
highest-selling Italian brand.
Gucci operates about 278 directly operated stores worldwide as of
September 2009, and it wholesales its products through franchisees and
upscale department stores. In the year 2013, the brand was valued
at US$12.1 billion, with sales of US$4.7 billion. In the Forbes
World's Most Valuable Brands list,
Gucci is ranked the 38th most
valuable brand, with a brand value of $12.4 billion as of May 2015.
As of January 2015, the creative director is Alessandro Michele.
3 Digital Marketing
3.1.2 Social Media
5 Automobile collaborations
7 Chime for Change
9 See also
11 External links
The founder Guccio Gucci
With beginnings at the end of the 19th century, the Gucci
 company became one of the world’s most successful
manufacturers of high-end leather goods, clothing, and other fashion
products. As an immigrant hotel worker in
Paris and later London,
Guccio Gucci (1881–1953) was impressed with the luxurious
luggage he saw urbane guests bring with them. Before leaving, he
visited the manufacturer, H.J. Cave & Sons. Upon returning to his
birthplace of Florence, a city distinguished for high-quality
materials and skilled artisans, he established a shop in 1920 that
sold fine leather goods with classic styling. Although
his workrooms for industrial methods of production, he maintained
traditional aspects of fabrication. Initially,
Gucci employed skilled
workers in basic Florentine leather crafts, attentive to finishing.
With expansion, machine stitching was a production method that
Together with three of his sons,
Aldo Gucci (1905-1990), Vasco Gucci
(1907–1975), and Rodolfo
Gucci expanded the
company to include stores in
Rome as well as additional
shops in Florence. Gucci's stores featured such finely crafted leather
accessories as handbags, shoes, and his iconic ornamented loafer as
well as silks and knitwear in a signature pattern.
The company made handbags of cotton canvas rather than leather during
World War II
World War II as a result of material shortages. The canvas, however,
was distinguished by a signature double-G symbol combined with
prominent red and green bands. After the war, the
Gucci crest, which
showed a shield and armored knight surrounded by a ribbon inscribed
with the family name, became synonymous with the city of Florence.
Aldo and Rodolfo
Gucci further expanded the company's horizons in 1953
by establishing offices in New York City. Film stars and jet-set
travelers to Italy during the 1950s and 1960s brought their glamour to
Florence, turning Gucci's merchandise into international status
symbols. Movie stars posed in Gucci's clothing, accessories, and
footwear for lifestyle magazines around the world, contributing to the
company’s growing reputation.
Gucci Shop on
Strøget in Copenhagen, Denmark
Gucci Store on
Fifth Avenue in New York City
Gucci Store on the
Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas
Gucci Store in Toronto, Canada
Gucci's distinctive lines made its products among the most frequently
copied in the world in the early 2000s. Pigskin, calf, and imported
exotic animal skins were subjected to various methods of fabrication.
Waterproof canvas and satin were used for evening bags.
first used to make handbag handles by a process of heating and molding
in 1947, and purses made with a shoulder strap and snaffle-bit
decoration were introduced in 1960. In 1964 Gucci’s lush butterfly
pattern was custom-created for silk foulards, followed by equally
luxuriant floral patterns. The original
Gucci loafer was updated by a
distinctive snaffle-bit ornament in 1966, while the "Rolls-Royce"
luggage set was introduced in 1970. Watches, jewelry, ties, and
eyewear were then added to the company's product lines. A particularly
iconic touch, introduced in 1964, was the use of the double-G logo for
belt buckles and other accessory decorations.
The company prospered through the 1970s, but the 1980s were marked by
internal family disputes that brought
Gucci to the brink of disaster.
Maurizio Gucci took over the company’s direction
after his father’s death in 1983 and dismissed his uncle Aldo—who
eventually served a prison term for tax evasion. Maurizio proved to be
an unsuccessful president; he was compelled to sell the family-owned
company to Investcorp, a Bahrain-based company, in 1988. Maurizio
disposed of his remaining stock in 1993. Maurizio was murdered by a
Milan in 1995, and his former wife, Patrizia Reggiani, was
convicted of hiring his killer. Meanwhile, the new investors promoted
Domenico De Sole from the position of family
attorney to president of
Gucci America in 1994 and chief executive in
The company had previously brought in
Dawn Mello in 1989 as editor and
ready-to-wear designer in order to reestablish its reputation. Well
aware of Gucci’s tarnished image and the value of its name brand,
Tom Ford in 1990 to design a ready-to-wear line. He was
promoted to the position of creative director in 1994. Before Mello
returned to her post as president of the American retailer Bergdorf
Goodman, she initiated the return of Gucci’s headquarters from the
business center of
Milan to Florence, where its craft traditions were
rooted. There she and Ford reduced the number of
Gucci products from
20,000 to 5,000.
Steinunn Sigurdardóttir was the Director and Senior Designer for
Gucci from 1995 to 2000.
There were seventy-six
Gucci stores around the world in 1997, along
with numerous licensing agreements. Ford was instrumental in the
process of decision-making with De Sole when the
Gucci Group acquired
Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche, Bottega Veneta, Boucheron, Sergio
Rossi, and, in part-ownership with Stella McCartney, Alexander McQueen
and Balenciaga. By 2001 Ford and De Sole shared the responsibility for
major business decisions, while Ford concurrently directed design at
Yves Saint Laurent as well as at Gucci.
The French conglomerate Pinault-Printemps-Redoute, however, gained
ownership of 60 percent of the
Gucci Group’s stock in 2003.
Women’s Wear Daily
Women’s Wear Daily then announced the departure of both Domenico De
Tom Ford from the
Gucci Group when their contracts expired in
April 2004. The last spring collection under the direction of Ford and
De Sole was a critical and commercial success. Amid widespread
speculation in the fashion press about Ford’s heir, the company
announced in March 2004 that he would be replaced by a team of younger
designers promoted from the ranks of the company’s staff.
Frida Giannini was appointed as the creative director for
women’s ready-to-wear and accessories, previously joining
2002. In 2006, she also became the creative director for men's
ready-to-wear and the entire
As announced in December 12, 2014,
Creative Director Frida Giannini
and CEO Patrizio di Marco were to step down from Gucci. Marco Bizzarri
was appointed CEO of the brand.
In 2017, Bizzarri said, "Being socially responsible is one of Gucci's
core values, and we will continue to strive to do better for the
environment and animals," and therefore fur would be banned from Gucci
collections as of 2018.
Gucci Store in Buenos Aires, Argentina
A turnaround of the company devised in the late 1980s made
global contender and a notable fashion label. In October 1995, Gucci
went public and had its first initial public offering on the AMEX and
NYSE for $22 per share. November 1997 also proved to be a successful
Gucci acquired a watch license, Severin-Montres, and renamed
The firm was named "European Company of the Year 1998" by the European
Business Press Federation for its economic and financial performance,
strategic vision as well as management quality.
Gucci headquarters are in Florence, other world offices are in Milan,
Paris, London, Hong Kong, Japan, and New York.
Kering headquarters are
In 1989, Maurizio managed to persuade Dawn Mello, whose revival of New
Bergdorf Goodman in the 1970s made her a star in the retail
business, to join the newly formed
Gucci Group as Executive Vice
Creative Director Worldwide. At the helm of Gucci
America was Domenico De Sole, a former lawyer who helped oversee
Maurizio's takeover of ten 1987 and 1989. The last addition to the
creative team, which already included designers from Geoffrey Beene
and Calvin Klein, was a young designer named Tom Ford. Raised in Texas
and New Mexico, he had been interested in fashion since his early
teens but only decided to pursue a career as a designer after dropping
Parsons School of Design
Parsons School of Design in 1986 as an architecture major. Dawn
Mello hired Ford in 1990 at the urging of his partner, writer and
editor Richard Buckley.
In the early 1990s,
Gucci underwent what is now recognized as the
poorest time in the company's history. Maurizio riled distributors,
Investcorp shareholders, and executives at
Gucci America by
drastically reining in on the sales of the
Collection, which in the United States alone generated
$110 million in revenue every year. The company’s new
accessories failed to pick up the slack, and for the next three years
the company experienced heavy losses and teetered on the edge of
bankruptcy. Maurizio was a charming man who passionately loved his
family's business, but after four years most of the company's senior
managers agreed that he was incapable of running the company. His
management had had an adverse effect on the desirability of the brand,
product quality, and distribution control. He was forced to sell his
shares in the company to
Investcorp in August 1993. Dawn Mello
returned to her job at
Bergdorf Goodman less than a year after
Maurizio’s departure, and the position of creative director went to
Tom Ford, then just 32 years old. Ford had worked for years under the
direction of Maurizio and Mello and wanted to take the company’s
image in a new direction. De Sole, who had been elevated to President
and Chief Executive Officer of
Gucci Group NV, realized that if Gucci
were to become a profitable company, it would require a new image, and
so he agreed to pursue Ford’s vision.
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records cited the
Gucci "Genius Jeans" as the
most expensive pair of jeans in existence. These jeans were
distressed, ripped and covered with African beads and were offered for
sale for US$3,134 in Milan. (This record was surpassed in June
2005 by Levi Strauss & Co.'s 115-year-old 501 jeans that sold to
an anonymous Japanese collector for $60,000.)
In early 1999, the luxury goods conglomerate LVMH, headed by Bernard
Arnault, increased its shareholdings in
Gucci with a view to a
Domenico De Sole was incensed by the news and declined
Arnault's request for a spot on the board of directors, where he would
have access to Gucci’s confidential earnings reports, strategy
meetings, and design concepts. De Sole reacted by issuing new shares
of stock in an effort to dilute the value of Arnault’s holdings. He
also approached French holding company Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR)
about the possibility of forming a strategic alliance. François
Pinault, the company’s founder, agreed to the idea and purchased 37
million shares in the company, or a 40% stake. Arnault’s share was
diluted to a paltry 20%, and a legal battle ensued to challenge the
legitimacy of the new Gucci-PPR partnership, with the law firm of
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom representing Gucci. Courts in
the Netherlands ultimately upheld the PPR deal, as it did not violate
that country's business laws. The second largest shareholder is
Crédit Lyonnais with 11%. As of September 2001[update], a
settlement agreement was put into place between
Gucci Group, LVMH, and
Following Ford's departure,
Gucci Group retained three designers to
continue the success of the company's flagship label: John Ray,
Alessandra Facchinetti and Frida Giannini, all of whom had worked
under Ford's creative direction. Facchinetti was elevated to Creative
Director of Women's wear in 2004 and designed for two seasons before
leaving the company. Ray served as
Creative Director of
three years. 32-year-old Giannini, who had been responsible for
designing men's and women's accessories, served as Creative Director
for the entire brand.
In 2006, Frida Giannini, formerly
Creative Director of accessories,
was named sole Creative Director. In 2009, Patrizio di Marco replaced
Mark Lee as CEO of Gucci.
Marco Bizzarri was appointed CEO of the brand as announced on December
12, 2014, and
Alessandro Michele became Gucci's Creative Director
on January 21, 2015.
In April 2016, Susan Chokachi was promoted to the role of President
and Chief Executive Officer of
Gucci America, having previously held
the role of Senior Vice President of Marketing and Communications.
From 2016, Gucci's Internet presence has grown with more people
searching for the brand online. In 2017, the brand saw a 115%
increase in growth, with over $61,798,514 earned in media value.
Furthermore, the fashion house saw a 44.5% increase in revenues in the
nine months ending 30th September 2017. This growth can be linked to
the success of their digital marketing strategies, which has allowed
the brand to integrate the digital world to the in-store experience,
and communicate to a larger target audience.
Gucci has focused on the online shopping experience, creating a sense
of digital inspiration by including visually rich large images and
videos, with information on current fashion collections in the
editorial section "The Agenda". The company has actively
frequently uploaded posts of behind the scenes, with information on
the patterns and styles, which highlight the craftsmanship of each
product design. This has allowed consumers to gain a stronger
emotional relationship with the brand.
Gucci has a strong digital presence online, and is heavily active
across various social media channels with the brand name: Gucci. These
include Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Google+, Pinterest, and
Snapchat. In 2017, the brand was seen to be the most-discussed
brand on social media within the high-end luxury market. The brand
has integrated itself into the modern digital world with campaigns
such as the 'collaborative art project'. This campaign was to market a
new line of watches, in which the brand collaborated with artists and
Instagram meme accounts. Memes can be defined as a joke, fad
or memorable piece of content that spreads across the web and is
usually accompanied by a witty caption. For Gucci, the brand focused
Instagram ads, where they reimagined popular memes with their watch
collection, prompting users to share and tag their friends. Despite
the conversation and shares, the campaign was not wildly successful,
with many viewers reacting negatively to the content.
Gucci has created strong partnerships with Hollywood celebrities and
social media influencers, working closely with these individuals to
reach more demographics and re-establish its identity as a new, modern
brand; despite the fact that it has been around for a while. The
brand has changed directions in working with the type of celebrities,
Gucci now dressing contemporary style icons like Rihanna, Blake
Lively, Brad Pitt, and Rachel McAdams, who can be easily resonated
Along with this,
Gucci has worked closely with internet stars and has
transformed many up and coming
Instagram users into luxury-brand
stars. These collaborations have been proven to be successful due to
the associations with opinion leaders who try to influence the
purchasing behaviours of opinion seekers, who are actively searching
for information to assist with their purchasing behaviours and
decisions. As research has found that consumers make purchases
based on what they mean and see items as a sense of their extended
self, this form of word-of-mouth marketing can be used to influence
the brand's meaning and thus, influence the probability of
In June 2012,
Gucci won a trademark lawsuit against Guess with an
award of $4.7 million in damages. On 16 October 2013,
Gucci won a
trademark counterfeiting and cybersquatting lawsuit, in US federal
district court in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, against several online
Gucci won permanent injunction, the "immediate surrender
Gucci of 155 domain names used in the counterfeiting operation",
and an award of USD $144.2 million, which includes interest. On 5
November 2013, the UK's Intellectual Property Office issued a ruling
Gucci has lost the rights to its GG trademark in the UK "to a
version of the GG logo in four categories, which encompassed garments
such as bracelets, shoulder bags, scarves and coats". German
Gerry Weber applied to revoke "the trademark on account
of its 'nonuse' in the periods from 2003 through 2008 and 2007 through
2012". However, "according to Gucci, the ruling does not affect
the use of its GG logo in the region" because “
Gucci is the owner of
several other valid registrations for this mark, including a Community
Trade Mark (covering the European Union) for its iconic GG logo and
those rights are directly enforceable in the U.K." On 6 November
Gucci won a trademark infringement and unfair competition
activities lawsuit against Guess in Nanjing Intermediate People’s
Court of the People's Republic of China.
Gucci claimed that Guess
was " imitating its collections and image." In December 2014, a
Gucci subcontractor in Italy told Investigative Journalists that Gucci
was aware it irregularly employed Chinese workers who worked as long
as 14 hours a day.
Gucci produced controversial advertisements that many believe
sexualizes and objectifies women.
Erving Goffman conducted research on
advertisements and how they are consistently reinforcing common
stereotypes of women. He outlined different characteristics
commonly found in media that tend to favor men over women. These
stereotypes, which can all be found in Gucci’s advertisements,
include relative size, ritualization of subordination, feminine touch,
and function ranking.
Almost all of Gucci’s advertisements include a woman who is being
dismembered to show off a certain part of her body, positioned in a
way, that some would consider, sexualizes her body, or made much
smaller in size to appear submissive to the counterpart (usually a
male) in the ad. Jean Kilbourne describes how often advertisements are
working to undermine women and place women in positions of
passivity. Many people find these advertisements offensive and in
turn many organizations have publicly criticized Gucci. The Fashion
Law, a fashion legal and business website, argues that the infamous
line “sex sells” is proven through Gucci’s continual use of
scandalous advertisements and correlating sales.
In early 2003
Gucci produced a highly popular advertisement which
pictured a supermodel with her pants pulled down and her pubic hair
shaved into a “G”. The Advertising Standards Authority (United
Kingdom) received countless complaints from people and organizations,
including the director of mediawatchuk demanding the ad be banned due
to his belief it was “harmful to society”. Many believed that
the outcry regarding the ad just fed the idea that
Gucci was using sex
to successfully sell their products. Although this was a point of
Gucci and the Advertising Standards Authority,
scholars have shown that
Gucci continues to walk the thin line between
offensive and acceptable advertisements.
The Italian luxury brand still continues to publish controversial ads.
Gucci used a short film and images with reference to a cult film about
drug addiction. This advertisement received a lot of backlash
primarily because one of their young models was unhealthily thin
according to the Advertising Standards Authority. This
advertisement may sound shocking to some, but to the advertisement
industry it is a prime example of what they are supposed to do.
William O'Barr argues that advertisements' main priority is to break
through and draw the consumer's attention, regardless of what is
deemed appropriate in society's eyes.
Interior of the
AMC Hornet Sportabout with the
Exterior of the
Fiat 500 with the
Aldo Gucci expanded into new markets including an agreement with
American Motors Corporation (AMC). The automaker merged the worlds of
couture and automobiles with the
Gucci AMC Hornet. Starting in
October 1971, the 1972 and 1973 model year Hornet compact
"Sportabout" station wagons became one of the first American cars to
offer a special luxury trim package created by a famous fashion
designer. Although coming from Italy where sleek sports cars are
Gucci put his special touch efforts on the Hornet
station wagon with a rear lift gate and 60.8 cubic feet (1,722 l)
of cargo space inside. In contrast to ordinary boxy-looking
station wagons, the Sportabout's design featured a low sloping
roofline in the rear and tight overall dimensions. The Gucci
versions came with the designer's signature red and green trim colors
on well-padded beige-upholstered seating and on the interior door
Gucci crest appeared on the inside front door panels and
on the front fenders, while the "GG" trademark was on the headliner.
Exterior color selections were limited to Snow White, Hunter Green,
Grasshopper Green, and Yuca Tan.
Gucci trim option package was selected on a total of 2,584
Sportabouts produced during 1972 and on 2,251 more during the 1973
model year. Additionally, a Sportabout was commissioned by Gucci
for his personal use and to showcase some of his other automotive
ideas. The exterior grille featured a
Gucci motif, transparent
covers over the front lights wrapped around the sides, and the rear
trim panel had horizontal red and green stripes on a gray cloth
insert. The interior was finished in black leather and a
tight-weave Italian fabric incorporating the double-G pattern in black
against a light gray background and gray carpeting with black piping.
Front bucket seats featured center armrest with vanity case and the
dashboard had pullout writing desk with folding lamp, notepad, pen and
vanity mirror on a flexible holder. Rear seat passengers had a
center fold-down armrest with a set of games in a removable box and
the right seat back included a foldout table for snacking or playing
with the game set and the left seatback opened to a compartment
housing four tumblers and two beverage bottles.
Starting in 1978 and producing a decreasing number each year through
the 1984 model year, a Miami-based coachbuilder marketed a Gucci
edition of the
Cadillac Seville sedan. The exterior included a
"facing double G"
Gucci logo, an emblem actually featuring Guccio
Gucci’s initials, as a hood ornament and the c-pillar covered
vinyl roof. The interior had a headliner of the logo and headrests
adorned with the logo as well. The dashboard carried the "Gucci
script" logo in bold lettering. Inside the trunk was a full set of
Fiat unveiled special versions of the
featuring characteristic stripes inside on the seat belts, seat
upholstery, shifter, floor mats, and key fob. The exterior
includes green and red stripes below the window line and wrapping
around the back as well as 16-inch wheels with Gucci’s
interlocking-G logo on the center caps. Available in white with
matte-finish chrome trim or in black with glossy chrome accents, the
small car includes leather trim and other designs "to make it feel
Gucci handbag." The hatchbacks were joined by the 500C by
Gucci featuring a sliding cloth roof with a green-red-green Gucci
Gucci versions of both the regular 500 and the
cloth-top 500C were again available in 2013.
Gucci has had a partnership with
UNICEF since 2005.
worldwide donate a percentage of the sales for special collections
made specifically for
UNICEF to go toward the United Nations
Children's Fund. The annual
Gucci Campaign to Benefit
education, healthcare, protection and clean water programs for orphans
and children affected by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. For the
campaign in 2009, Michael Roberts promoted a children's book, "Snowman
in Africa" with proceeds going to UNICEF. In five years,
over $7 million to UNICEF.
Gucci is the largest corporate donor
to UNICEF's "Schools for Africa" that was established in 2004 by
UNICEF, the Nelson Mandela Foundation, and the Hamburg Society. Its
goal is to increase access to basic schooling for all, with a special
emphasis on children orphaned by HIV/AIDS and children living in
Chime for Change
Launched in February 2013, the "Chime for Change" campaign works
to further the global campaign for girls' and women's empowerment.
Gucci has funded over 210 projects in 81 countries through this
In 2013, it was announced that
Beyoncé Knowles would work with Salma
Frida Giannini on the campaign that aims to spread female
empowerment. The campaign, which aired on February 28, was set to new
music by Knowles. A concert for the cause took place on June 1,
2013 in London and included other acts like Ellie Goulding, Laura
Florence and the Machine,
Iggy Azalea and Rita Ora. The
concert raised over $130,000.
In July 2013, activist
Lydia Emily was commissioned to paint a mural
Skid Row, Los Angeles
Skid Row, Los Angeles of a woman named Jessica, who is a survivor
of human trafficking. She currently works for the Mary Magdalene
Project – an organization which has been helping women leave the sex
industry since 1980.
Gucci opened a 1,715 square metre museum charting its 90-year history;
Gucci Museo is located in Florence, within the Palazzo della Mercanzia
and overlooking the Piazza della Signoria.
List of Italian companies
Made in Italy
Gucci Annual Report 2016
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