Guarda Cathedral
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The Cathedral of Guarda ( pt, Catedral da Guarda, Sé da Guarda) is a
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic
church located in the northeastern city of Guarda,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, ...

Portugal
. Its construction took from 1390 until the mid 16th century, combining
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
and
Manueline The Manueline ( pt, estilo manuelino, ), occasionally known as Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese architectural style originating in the 16th century, during the Portuguese Renaissance The Portuguese Renaissance refe ...
architectural styles.


History

The History of Guarda Cathedral begins in 1199, when King Sancho I obtained permission from the Pope to transfer the seat of the bishopric from nearby ''Egitania'' (
Idanha-a-Velha Idanha-a-Velha (Idanha "the old") is a village in the civil parish (''freguesia'') of Monsanto e Idanha-a-Velha, in the concelho, municipality of Idanha-a-Nova (Idanha "the new"), central eastern Portugal, and the site of ancient Egitânia, a forme ...
) to Guarda. The first cathedral building, in
Romanesque Romanesque may refer to: In art and architecture *First Romanesque, or Lombard Romanesque architectural style *Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, a term used for the early phase of the style *Romanesque architecture, architecture of Europe wh ...
style, was soon substituted by another church built in the site occupied today by the Misericórdia Church in Guarda. This second cathedral, of modest proportions and built in the 13th century, was demolished in the second half of the 14th century when the city walls of Guarda were reinforced by
King Ferdinand I Ferdinand I ( es, Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary, Hungary, and List of rulers of Croatia, Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 15 ...
during the wars with
Castile
Castile
. The third and definitive Guarda Cathedral started being built in 1390 under bishop Vasco de Lamego, during the reign of King John I. In the early 15th century the
apse In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archite ...

apse
was built and the
nave The nave () is the central part of a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities ...

nave
was begun in
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
style. In this first stage the works were influenced by the
Monastery of Batalha The Monastery of Batalha ( pt, Mosteiro da Batalha) is a Dominican order, Dominican convent in the municipality of Batalha, Portugal, Batalha, in the district of Leiria (district), Leiria, in the Centro Region, Portugal, Centro Region of Portugal. ...
, which was being built at the same time. Construction on the Cathedral proceeded slowly during the second half of the century. In the period from 1504 to 1517, under bishop Pedro Gavião, the pace of the works increased and the cathedral was almost completed. The architects of this phase were 'Pedro and Felipe Henriques. The
Manueline The Manueline ( pt, estilo manuelino, ), occasionally known as Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese architectural style originating in the 16th century, during the Portuguese Renaissance The Portuguese Renaissance refe ...
style - a Portuguese mix of Gothic and early
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
- was the dominant influence in this second building stage, as attested by the decoration of the windows of the
nave The nave () is the central part of a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities ...

nave
and
transept . Image:Kilcooly Abbey South Transept 1997 08 30.jpg">South transept at Kilcooly Abbey, County Tipperary, Ireland A transept (with two semitransepts) is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice."Transept ...

transept
, the decorated
rib vault A rib vault or ribbed vault is an architectural feature for covering a wide space, such as a church nave, composed of a framework of crossed or diagonal arched ribs. Variations were used in Roman architecture, Byzantine architecture, Islamic arc ...
ing of the transept, some spiralling columns of the nave as well as the main portal, similar to the Manueline portal of Saint Michael's Chapel of
Coimbra University
Coimbra University
. Most building activity in Guarda Cathedral was finished around 1540. Around this time, the Renaissance-style ''Pina Chapel'' was built as burial site for João de Pina, treasurer of the cathedral. It has a Renaissance portal and a tomb with the recumbent figure of the sponsor of the chapel. Another important addition was the altarpiece of the main chapel, installed in the 1550s. This important Renaissance work was carved in stone by
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French
sculptor João de Ruão, one of the main sculptors from
Coimbra Coimbra (, also , , or ) is a city and a concelho, municipality in Portugal. The population of the municipality at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of . The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto and Braga), it is the ...

Coimbra
. During the following centuries the cathedral was enriched with other elements. Despite the artistic value of some of these additions - like the
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a of , , , , and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including the Iberian Peninsula it continued, together with new s ...

Baroque
organ - all were removed during a renovation carried out in 1898 by architect Rosendo Carvalheira, which aimed at restoring the cathedral to its primitive, Gothic/Manueline appearance.


Burials

*Pedro Vaz Gaviao, Archbishop (1496–1516) *Joao De Pina, Treasurer of the Cathedral


References


General Bureau for National Buildings and Monuments (Portugal)
{{coord, 40, 32, 18.01, N, 7, 16, 09.45, W, source:ptwiki_region:PT_type:landmark, display=title Buildings and structures in Guarda, Portugal Roman Catholic cathedrals in Portugal, Guarda Gothic architecture in Portugal National monuments in Guarda District Buildings and structures in Guarda District