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Coordinates: 23°36′N 108°18′E / 23.6°N 108.3°E / 23.6; 108.3

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Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region 广西壮族自治区

Autonomous region

Name transcription(s)

 • Chinese 广西壮族自治区

 • Abbreviation GX / 桂 (pinyin: Guì, Zhuang: Gvei)

 • Zhuang Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih

 •  Cantonese
Cantonese
Jyutping Gwong2 sai1 Zong3 zuk6 Zi6 zi6 keoi1

 •  Cantonese
Cantonese
Yale Gwóngsaì Jongjuhk Jihjihkeuī

Map showing the location of the Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region

Capital (and largest city) Nanning

Divisions 14 prefectures, 109 counties, 1396 townships

Government

 • Secretary Lu Xinshe

 • Governor Chen Wu

Area[1]

 • Total 236,700 km2 (91,400 sq mi)

Area rank 9th

Population (1 November 2010)[2]

 • Total 46,026,600

 • Estimate (31 December 2014)[3] 47,540,000

 • Rank 11th

 • Density 207/km2 (540/sq mi)

 • Density rank 20th

Demographics

 • Ethnic composition Han Chinese
Han Chinese
– 62% Zhuang – 32% Yao – 3% Miao – 1% Dong – 0.7% Vietnamese – 0.6% Gelao – 0.4%

 • Languages Zhuang, Yue languages (mainly Cantonese), Southwestern Mandarin, Pinghua

ISO 3166 code CN-45

GDP (2016) CNY 1.82 trillion USD 274.68 billion (18th)

 - per capita CNY 37,712 USD 5,679 (27th)

HDI (2014) 0.713[4] (high) (28th)

Website Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese)

Guangxi

Guǎngxī in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese

Chinese name

Simplified Chinese 广西

Traditional Chinese 廣西

Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngxī

Postal Kwangsi

Literal meaning "Western Expanse"

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngxī

Bopomofo ㄍㄨㄤˇ   ㄒㄧ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Goangshi

Wade–Giles Kuang3-hsi1

Yale Romanization Gwǎngsyī

IPA [kwàŋ.ɕí]

Wu

Romanization kuaon上si平

Hakka

Romanization Kóng-sî

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Gwóng-sāi

IPA [kʷɔ̌ːŋsɐ́i]

Jyutping Gwong2-sai1

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Kńg-sai

Teochew Peng'im Kuáng-sai

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Guōng-să̤

Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region

Simplified Chinese 广西壮族自治区

Traditional Chinese 廣西壯族自治區 or 廣西僮族自治區[6]

Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū

Postal Kwangsi Chuang Autonomous Region

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū

Bopomofo ㄍㄨㄤˇ   ㄒㄧ ㄓㄨㄤˋ   ㄗㄨˊ ㄗˋ   ㄓˋ   ㄑㄩ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Goangshi Juanqtzwu Tzyhjyhchiu

Wade–Giles Kuang3-hsi1 Chuang4-⁠tsu2 Tzŭ4-⁠chih4-⁠chʻü1

Yale Romanization Gwǎngsyī Jwàngdzú Dz̀jr̀chyū

IPA [kwàŋ.ɕí ʈʂwâŋ.tsǔ tsɹ̩̂.ʈʂɻ̩̂.tɕʰý]

Wu

Romanization kuaon上si平 tsaon去zoh入 zy去zy去chiu平

Hakka

Romanization Kóng-sî Tsong-tshu̍k Tshṳ-tshṳ-khî

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Gwóngsaì Jongjuhk Jihjihkeuī

IPA [kʷɔ̌ːŋsɐ́i tsɔ̀ːŋtsʊ̀k tsìːtsìːkɵ́y]

Jyutping gwong2sai1 zong3zuk6 zi6zi6keoi1

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Kńg-sai Chàng-cho̍k Chū-tī-khu

Teochew Peng'im Kuáng-sai Tsàng-tsôk Tsĕu-tī-khu

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Guōng-să̤ Cáung-cŭk Cê̤ṳ-dê-kṳ̆

Zhuang name

Zhuang Gvangjsih long: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih

1957 orthography Gvaŋзsiƅ long: Gvaŋзsiƅ Bouчcueŋƅ Sɯcigiƅ

Sawndip long: 广西佈僮自治区

Guangxi
Guangxi
(/ˈɡwɑːŋˈsiː/;[7] Chinese: 广西, pronounced [kwàŋ.ɕí]; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam. Formerly a province, Guangxi
Guangxi
became an autonomous region in 1958. Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of China's history. The current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in 226 AD. It was given provincial level status during the Yuan dynasty, but even into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory. The abbreviation of the region is "桂" (Pinyin: Guì; Zhuang: Gvei), which comes from the name of the city of Guilin, the provincial capital during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The current capital is Nanning.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Image gallery

3 Administrative divisions 4 Demographics

4.1 Religion

5 Politics 6 Economy

6.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones 6.2 Investment 6.3 Power 6.4 Beibu Gulf
Beibu Gulf
Economic Zone 6.5 Bauxite
Bauxite
reserves

7 Transport

7.1 Rail 7.2 Roads 7.3 Aviation

8 Culture 9 Tourism 10 Education 11 Sister regions 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

History[edit] Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue
Baiyue
("Hundred Yue", Vietnamese: Bách Việt), the region first became part of China
China
during the Qin dynasty. In 214 BC, the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
general Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
(Vietnamese: Triệu Đà) claimed most of southern China
China
for Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
before the emperor's death. The ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establish a separate kingdom at Panyu known as Nanyue
Nanyue
"Southern Yue". Alternatively submissive to and independent of Han dynasty
Han dynasty
control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and sinicization under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" (和集百越) until its collapse in 111 BC during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty.[citation needed] The name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province (廣州) of the Eastern Wu, who controlled south-eastern China
China
during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. Guilin
Guilin
formed one of its commanderies.[citation needed] Under the Tang dynasty, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's Yi-ruled kingdom of Nanzhao
Nanzhao
in Yunnan, which successfully repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi
Guangxi
was then divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning
Nanning
and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning.[citation needed] After the collapse of the Southern Zhao, Liu Yan established the Southern Han
Southern Han
(Nanhan) in Xingwangfu (modern Guangdong). Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in 971. The name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi ("West Southern Expanse") Circuit. Harassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi
in modern Vietnam, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao
Nong Zhigao
led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people. His independent kingdom was short-lived, however, and the tattooed Song general Di Qing
Di Qing
returned Guangxi
Guangxi
to China.[citation needed] The Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
established control over Yunnan
Yunnan
during its conquest of the Dali Kingdom
Dali Kingdom
in 1253 and eliminated the Southern Song
Southern Song
following the Battle of Yamen
Battle of Yamen
in 1279. Rather than ruling Lingnan
Lingnan
as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians then established Guangxi
Guangxi
("Western Expanse") as a proper province. The area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
to employ the different local groups against one another. At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the Yao in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported.[citation needed] The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed by the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
in 1850 and the Jintian Uprising on 11 January 1851. The execution of St. Auguste Chapdelaine by local officials in Guangxi
Guangxi
provoked the Second Opium War in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although Louis Brière de l'Isle
Louis Brière de l'Isle
was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the Guangxi
Guangxi
Army saw a great deal of action in the 1884 Sino-French War. Largely ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China
China
itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass (modern Friendship Pass) on 23 March 1885.[citation needed] Following the Wuchang Uprising, Guangxi
Guangxi
seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911. The Qing governor, Shen Bingdan, initially remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General Lu Rongting. General Lu's Old Guangxi clique overran Hunan and Guangdong
Guangdong
as well and helped lead the National Protection War against Yuan Shikai's attempt to re-establish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with Sun Yat-sen led to defeat in the 1920 and 1921 Guangdong– Guangxi
Guangxi
War. After a brief occupation by Chen Jiongming's Cantonese
Cantonese
forces, Guangxi
Guangxi
fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years[8] until Li Zongren's Guangxi
Guangxi
Pacification Army established the New Guangxi
Guangxi
clique dominated by Li, Huang Shaohong, and Bai Chongxi.[citation needed] Successful action in Hunan
Hunan
against Wu Peifu
Wu Peifu
led to the Zhuang GPA becoming known as the "Flying Army" and the "Army of Steel." After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Li also repulsed Tang Jiyao's revolt and joined the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
establishing control over other warlords by the Republic of China
China
(1912–49). His was one of the few Kuomintang units free from serious Communist influence and was therefore employed by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
for the Shanghai
Shanghai
massacre of 1927. Within the People's Republic of China, Guangxi
Guangxi
is also noted for the Baise Uprising, a failed Communist revolt led by Chen Zhaoli and Deng Xiaoping in 1929.[citation needed] After his own falling out with Chiang, Li joined Yan Xishan's revolt in the Central Plains War. His defeat did not remove him from control of Guangxi
Guangxi
and the Mukden Incident
Mukden Incident
and Japanese invasion kept Chiang and the Communists from removing his influence until 1949. The 1944 Operation Ichi-Go
Operation Ichi-Go
successfully expanded Japanese control along the rail lines through Guangxi
Guangxi
into French Indochina, although the line remained harassed by American bombers and Zhuang guerrillas under Bai Chongxi.[citation needed] Being in the far south, Guangxi
Guangxi
did not fall during the Chinese Civil War, but joined the People's Republic in December 1949, two months after its founding. In 1958, Guangxi
Guangxi
was converted into an autonomous region for the Zhuang at the recommendation of Premier Zhou Enlai. This decision was made because the Zhuang are the largest minority group in China
China
and are mostly concentrated in the province.[citation needed] For most of its history, Guangxi
Guangxi
was landlocked. In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, then restored in 1965.[citation needed] While some development of heavy industry occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, the province remained largely a scenic tourist destination.[citation needed] Even the economic growth of the 1990s seemed to leave Guangxi
Guangxi
behind. However, in recent years, there has been a growing amount of industrialization and increasing concentration on cash crops. Per capita GDP
Per capita GDP
has risen as industries in Guangdong
Guangdong
transfer production to comparatively lower-wage areas in Guangxi. Geography[edit]

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Located in the southern part of the country, Guangxi
Guangxi
is bordered by Yunnan
Yunnan
to the west, Guizhou
Guizhou
to the north, Hunan
Hunan
to the northeast, and Guangdong
Guangdong
to the east and southeast. It is also bordered by Vietnam
Vietnam
in the southwest and the Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
in the south. Guangxi
Guangxi
is partly a mountainous region. The Nanling Mountains
Nanling Mountains
form the north-east border, with the Yuecheng and Haiyang Mountains branching from them. Also in the north are the Duyao and Fenghuang Mountains. Near the center of the region are the Da Yao and Da Ming Mountains. On the southeastern border are the Yunkai Mountains. The highest point is Kitten Mountain, in the Yuecheng Mountains, at 2,141 metres (7,024 ft). Many rivers cut valleys through the mountains. Most of these rivers form the tributary basin of the West River:

Xi River
Xi River
system schematic (italics indicates rivers outside Guangxi)

He River
He River
(贺江) Xi River

Li River Gui River
Gui River
(桂江)

Beipan River Hongshui River Qian River Xun River

Nanpan River

Rong River Liu River

Long River

You River Yong River Yu River

Zuo River

Guangxi
Guangxi
has a short coastline on the Gulf of Tonkin. Important seaports include Beihai, Qinzhou
Qinzhou
and Fangchenggang. Along the border with Vietnam
Vietnam
there is the Ban Gioc–Detian waterfall (pinyin: Dé Tiān Pùbù), which separates the two countries. Guangxi
Guangxi
has a subtropical climate. Summers are generally long and hot. Average annual temperature is 17 to 23°C, while average annual precipitation is 1250 to 1750 mm. Major cities include: Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin, Beihai. Notable towns include: Longmen, Sanjiang, Yangshuo. Image gallery[edit]

Li River, Guangxi

Longsheng Rice
Rice
Terrace

Yulong River

Ban Gioc–Detian Falls

Kitten Mountain

Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Guangxi and List of township-level divisions of Guangxi Guangxi
Guangxi
is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Guangxi

№ Division code[9] English name Zhuang Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[10] Population 2010[11] Seat Divisions[12]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities

  450000 Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region Gvangjish Bouxcuengh Swcigih 广西壮族自治区 Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū 236700.00 46,026,629 Nanning 40 52 12 7

7 450100 Nanning Nanzningz Si 南宁市 Nánníng Shì 22111.98 6,661,600 Qingxiu District 7 5

3 450200 Liuzhou Liujcouh Si 柳州市 Liǔzhōu Shì 18616.54 3,758,700 Liubei District 5 3 2

4 450300 Guilin Gveilinz Si 桂林市 Guìlín Shì 27622.89 4,748,000 Lingui District 6 9 2

10 450400 Wuzhou Vuzcouh Si 梧州市 Wúzhōu Shì 12554.94 2,882,200 Changzhou District 3 3

1

13 450500 Beihai Bwzhaij Si 北海市 Běihǎi Shì 4016.07 1,539,300 Haicheng District 3 1

11 450600 Fangchenggang Fangzcwngzgangj Si 防城港市 Fángchénggǎng Shì 6181.19 866,900 Gangkou District 2 1

1

12 450700 Qinzhou Ginhcouh Si 钦州市 Qīnzhōu Shì 10820.85 3,079,700 Qinnan District 2 2

9 450800 Guigang Gveigangj Si 贵港市 Guìgǎng Shì 10605.44 4,118,800 Gangbei District 3 1

1

14 450900 Yulin Yilinz Si 玉林市 Yùlín Shì 12828.11 5,487,400 Yuzhou District 2 4

1

1 451000 Baise Bwzswz Si 百色市 Bǎisè Shì 36203.85 3,466,800 Youjiang District 1 9 1 1

5 451100 Hezhou Hocouh Si 贺州市 Hèzhōu Shì 11771.54 1,954,100 Babu District 2 2 1

2 451200 Hechi Hozciz Si 河池市 Héchí Shì 33487.65 3,369,200 Yizhou District 2 4 5

8 451300 Laibin Laizbinh Si 来宾市 Láibīn Shì 13391.59 2,099,700 Xingbin District 1 3 1 1

6 451400 Chongzuo Cungzcoj Si 崇左市 Chóngzuǒ Shì 17345.47 1,994,300 Jiangzhou District 1 5

1

The fourteen prefecture-level divisions of Guangxi
Guangxi
are subdivided into 110 county-level divisions (37 districts, 8 county-level cities, 53 counties, and 12 autonomous counties). Demographics[edit]

Zhuang people
Zhuang people
in Longzhou

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1912[13] 7,879,000 —    

1928[14] 13,648,000 +73.2%

1936-37[15] 13,385,000 −1.9%

1947[16] 14,636,000 +9.3%

1954[17] 19,560,822 +33.6%

1964[18] 20,845,017 +6.6%

1982[19] 36,420,960 +74.7%

1990[20] 42,245,765 +16.0%

2000[21] 43,854,538 +3.8%

2010[22] 46,026,629 +5.0%

The Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are the largest ethnic group. Of these, the main subgroups are those that speak Yue and Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
varieties of Chinese. The region has over 14 million Zhuangs, the largest minority ethnicity of China. Over 90 percent of Zhuang in China
China
live in Guangxi, especially in the central and western regions. There is also a significant number of both Dong and Miao minority peoples. Other ethnic groups include Yao, Hui, Yi (Lolo), Shui, and Gin (Vietnamese).

Religion[edit]

Religion in Guangxi[23][note 1]    Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(40.48%)    Christianity
Christianity
(0.26%)   Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (59.26%)

The predominant religions in Guangxi
Guangxi
among the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. The large Zhuang population mostly practices the Zhuang folk religion
Zhuang folk religion
centered around the worship of their ancestral god Buluotuo (布洛陀). According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 40.48% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.26% of the population identifies as Christian.[23] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 59.26% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects. The Yao, another numerous ethnic group inhabiting the province, mostly practices a form of indigenised and conservative Taoism.

Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture, Confucius) in Gongcheng.

Shrine of Zhou Wei in Gongcheng.

Wumiao (Temple of the God of War, Guandi) in Gongcheng.

Politics[edit] Further information: List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China Secretaries of the CPC Guangxi
Guangxi
Committee:

Zhang Yunyi: 1949–1953 Chen Manyuan (陈漫远): 1953–1957 Liu Jianxun (刘建勋): 1957–1961 Wei Guoqing: 1960–1966 Qiao Xiaoguang (乔晓光): 1966–-1967 Wei Guoqing: 1970–1975 An Pingsheng (安平生): 1975–1977. Qiao Xiaoguang (乔晓光): 1977–1985 Chen Huiguang (陈辉光): 1985–1990 Zhao Fulin (赵富林): 1990–1997 Cao Bochun: 1997–2006 Liu Qibao: 2006–2007 Guo Shengkun: 2007–2012 Peng Qinghua: 2012–2018 Lu Xinshe: 2018–incumbent

Chairmen of Government:

Zhang Yunyi: 1949–1953 Chen Manyuan: 1953–1958 Wei Guoqing: 1958–1975 An Pingsheng (安平生): 1975–1977 Qiao Xiaoguang: 1977–1979 Tan Yingji (覃应机): 1979–1983 Wei Chunshu (韦纯束): 1983–1990 Cheng Kejie: 1990–1998 Li Zhaozhuo: 1998–2003 Lu Bing: 2003–December 2007 Ma Biao: December 2007 – 2013 Chen Wu: March 2013-incumbent

Economy[edit]

View of Nanning, the capital and economic center of Guangxi.

Important crops in Guangxi
Guangxi
include rice, maize and sweet potatoes. Cash crops include sugar cane, peanuts, tobacco, and kenaf. 85 percent of the world's star anise is grown in Guangxi. It is a major ingredient in the antiviral Tamiflu.[24] Guangxi
Guangxi
is one of China's key production centers for nonferrous metals. The province holds approximately 1/3 of all tin and manganese deposits in China.[25] Liuzhou
Liuzhou
is the main industrial center and is a major motor vehicle manufacturing center. General Motors
General Motors
have a manufacturing base here in a joint venture as SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. The city also has a large steel factory and several related industries. The local government of Guangxi
Guangxi
hopes to expand the province's manufacturing sector, and during the drafting of China's Five Year Plan in 2011, earmarked 2.6 trillion RMB for investment in the province's Beibu Gulf Economic Zone(See Below).[25] In recent years Guangxi's economy has languished behind that of its wealthy neighbor and twin, Guangdong. Guangxi's 2011 nominal GDP was about 1171.4 billion yuan (US$185.9 billion) and ranked 18th in China. Its per capita GDP was 15,800 yuan (US$2,300). Due to its lack of a major manufacturing industry in comparison to other provinces, Guangxi
Guangxi
is the fourth most energy efficient province in China, helping to further boost its green image.[26] Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Beihai
Beihai
Silver Beach National Tourist Holiday Resort Beihai
Beihai
Export Processing Zone

Approved by the State Council, Beihai
Beihai
Export Processing Zone (BHEPZ) was established in March 2003. Total planned area is 1.454 square kilometres (0.561 sq mi). The first phase of developed area is 1.135 square kilometres (0.438 sq mi). It was verified and accepted by Customs General Administration and eight ministries of the state, on December 26, 2003. It is the Export Processing Zone nearest to ASEAN
ASEAN
in China
China
and also the only one bordering the sea in western China. It is situated next to Beihai
Beihai
Port.[27]

Dongxing Border Economic Cooperation Area Guilin
Guilin
National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Guilin
Guilin
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in May 1988. In 1991, it was approved as a national-level industrial zone. It has an area of 12.07 square kilometres (4.66 sq mi). Encouraged industries include electronic information, biomedical, new materials and environmental protection.[28]

Nanning
Nanning
Economic & Technological Development Area

Established in 1992, Nanning
Nanning
Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved to be a national level zone in May 2001. Its total planned area of 10.796 square kilometres (4.168 sq mi). It is located in the south of Nanning. It has become the new developing zone with fine chemical engineering, auto parts, aluminum processing, biological medicine and other industries.[29]

Nanning
Nanning
National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Nanning
Nanning
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1988 and was approved as a national-level industrial zone in 1992. The zone has a planned area of 43.7 square kilometres (16.9 sq mi), and it encourages industries that do electronic information, bioengineering and pharmaceutical, mechanical and electrical integration and new materials industry.[30]

Pingxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone

In 1992, Pinxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone was established. It has a total area of 7.2 square kilometres (2.8 sq mi). It focuses on development of hardware mechanical and electrical products, daily-use chemical processing, the services, and international logistics-based storage and information industry.[31]

Yongning Economic Development Zone

Investment[edit] Seventy-one Taiwanese ventures started up in Guangxi
Guangxi
in 2007, with contracts bringing up to US$149 million of investment, while gross exports surpassed US$1 billion. There are a total of 1182 Taiwan ventures in Guangxi, and by the end of 2006, they have brought a total of US$4.27 billion of investment into the autonomous region. During the first half of 2007, 43 projects worthy of RMB2.6 billion (US$342 million) have already been contracted between Guangxi
Guangxi
and Taiwan investors. Cooperation between Guangxi
Guangxi
and Taiwan
Taiwan
companies mainly relates to manufacturing, high-tech electronic industries, agriculture, energy resources and tourism.[citation needed] Power[edit] Guangxi
Guangxi
Power Grid invested 180 million yuan in 2007 in projects to bring power to areas that still lacked access to electricity. The areas affected include Nanning, Hechi, Bose and Guigang. Around 125,000 people have gained access to electricity. The money has been used to build or alter 738 10-kilovolt distribution units with a total length of wire reaching 1,831.8 kilometers.[citation needed] Due to lack of investment in construction in the power grid net in rural areas, more than 400 villages in Guangxi
Guangxi
Province were not included in the projects. Around 500,000 cannot participate in the policy known as "The Same Grid, the Same Price." Guangxi
Guangxi
Power Grid will invest 4.6 billion yuan in improving the power grid during the 11th Five Year Plan.[citation needed] Guangxi
Guangxi
Power Grid has invested 2.5 billion yuan in building electric power system in the first half of 2007. Of the total investment, 2.3 billion yuan has been put into the project of the main power grid. So far, four new transformer substations in Guangxi
Guangxi
are in various stages of completion. Wenfu substation went into operation in the city of Hechi
Hechi
on January 2007, and since then it has become a major hub of the electrical power system of the surrounding three counties. When Cangwu substation was completed, it doubled the local transformer capacity. In June 2007, the new substation in Chongzuo
Chongzuo
passed its operation tests. And in the same month, Qiulong
Qiulong
commenced production too. This shall support the power supply system of Qiulong
Qiulong
City, as well as the northern part of Guangxi
Guangxi
province, and facilitate the nationwide project to transmit power from west to east.[citation needed] Beibu Gulf
Beibu Gulf
Economic Zone[edit] See also: Beibu Gulf
Beibu Gulf
Economic Rim In late February 2008, the central government approved China's first international and regional economic cooperation zone in Guangxi. The construction of the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone
Beibu Gulf Economic Zone
began in 2006. With the approval, the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone
Beibu Gulf Economic Zone
will be formally incorporated into national development strategies.[citation needed] The Beibu Gulf Economic Zone
Beibu Gulf Economic Zone
covers six coastal cities along the Beibu Gulf. It integrates the cities of Nanning, the region's capital, Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Chongzuo
Chongzuo
and Yulin. The state will adopt policies and measures to support mechanism innovation, rational industry layout and infrastructure construction in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone.[citation needed] Guangxi
Guangxi
has pledged a 100 billion yuan (US$14 billion) investment over the next five years[when?] for building and repairing 2,500 km (1,600 mi) railways to form a network hub in the area. Beibu Gulf Zone will serve as the logistics base, business base, processing and manufacturing base and information exchange center for China-ASEAN cooperation. Beibu Gulf
Beibu Gulf
Zone promises broad prospects for further development and its growth potential is rapidly released. But the shortage of talent and professionals in petrochemicals, iron and steel, electricity, finance, tourism, port planning, logistics and marine industries are bottlenecks.[citation needed] The regional government is also working on speeding up key cooperation projects including transportation, the marine industry, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy development, cross-border tourism, and environmental protection. Beibu Gulf
Beibu Gulf
has already attracted a number of major projects such as Qinzhou
Qinzhou
oil refinery projects and Stora Enso, a Fortune 500
Fortune 500
forest products company based in Finland. In January 2008 trade import and export in the Beibu Gulf
Beibu Gulf
zone exceeded US$1.3 billion, a record high.[citation needed] Bauxite
Bauxite
reserves[edit] In September 2007, China's Ministry of Commerce said that it has found 120 million tons of new bauxite reserves in Guangxi. The ministry said that the new reserves, which are located in Chongzhou
Chongzhou
in the southern region of Youjiang, have a very high-quality of bauxite, a raw material for making aluminum. Currently, the proven reserves of bauxite in Guangxi
Guangxi
are about 1 billion tons, making the province one of the country's biggest bauxite sources. Transport[edit]

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Rail[edit]

The Guizhou–Guangxi Railway
Guizhou–Guangxi Railway
near the Layi Station in Nandan County, Hechi.

The Hunan–Guangxi Railway
Hunan–Guangxi Railway
(Xianggui Line), which bisects the autonomous region diagonally from Quanzhou in the northeast on the border with Hunan
Hunan
to Pingxiang in the southwest on the border with Vietnam, passes through Guangxi's three principal cities, Nanning, Liuzhou
Liuzhou
and Guilin. Most other railways in Guangxi
Guangxi
are connected to the Xianggui Line. From Nanning, the Nanning–Kunming Railway
Nanning–Kunming Railway
heads west through Baise to Kunming, Yunnan
Yunnan
and the Nanning– Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang
Railway runs south to Qinzhou, Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang
and Beihai
Beihai
on the coast. From Liuzhou, the Guizhou–Guangxi Railway
Guizhou–Guangxi Railway
extends northwestward through Hechi
Hechi
to Guizhou
Guizhou
and the Jiaozuo– Liuzhou
Liuzhou
Railway runs due north to Hunan, and eventually Hubei
Hubei
and Henan
Henan
in central China. From Litang Township on the Xianggui Line between Nanning
Nanning
and Liuzhou, the Litang–Qinzhou Railway runs south to Qinzhou
Qinzhou
on the coast and the Litang–Zhanjiang Railway (Lizhan Line) extends southeastward through Guigang
Guigang
and Yulin to Zhanjiang, Guangdong. The Luoyang– Zhanjiang
Zhanjiang
Railway (Luozhan Line), which intersects with the Xianggui Line on the Hunan
Hunan
side of the border at Yongzhou, runs south through Hezhou
Hezhou
and Wuzhou
Wuzhou
in eastern Guangxi
Guangxi
and joins the Lizhan Line at Yulin. At Cenxi, a branch of the Luozhan Line heads east to Maoming, Guangdong, forming a second rail outlet from Guangxi to Guangdong. Roads[edit]

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Aviation[edit] Guangxi
Guangxi
has 7 airports in different cities: Nanning, Guilin, Beihai, Liuzhou, Wuzhou, Baise, Hechi. Culture[edit] Main articles: Lingnan
Lingnan
culture and Zhuang customs and culture "Guangxi" and neighbouring Guangdong
Guangdong
literally mean "Western Expanse" and "Eastern Expanse". Together, Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi
Guangxi
are called the "Two Expanses" (simplified Chinese: 两广; traditional Chinese: 兩廣; pinyin: Liǎngguǎng). Its culture and language are reflected in this. Though now associated with the Zhuang ethnic minority, Guangxi's culture traditionally has had a close connection with the Cantonese. Cantonese
Cantonese
culture and language followed the Xi River
Xi River
valley from Guangdong
Guangdong
and is still predominate in the eastern half of Guangxi
Guangxi
today. Outside of this area there is a huge variety of ethnicities and language groups represented. Guangxi
Guangxi
is known for its ethno-linguistic diversity. In the capital of Nanning, for example, three varieties of Chinese are spoken locally: Southwestern Mandarin, Yue (specifically Cantonese), and Pinghua, in addition to various Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
and others.[citation needed] Tourism[edit]

Pagodas in Guilin.

The major tourist attraction of Guangxi
Guangxi
is Guilin, a city famed across China
China
and the world for its spectacular setting by the Li Jiang (Li River) among karst peaks. It also used to be the capital of Guangxi and Jingjiang Princes' City, the old princes' residence, is open to the public. South of Guilin
Guilin
down the river is the town of Yangshuo, which has become a favourite destination for foreign tourists. Ethnic minorities in Guangxi, such as the Zhuang and Dong, are also interesting for tourists. The northern part of the province, bordering Guizhou, is home to the Longsheng Rice
Rice
Terraces, some of the steepest in the world. Nearby is Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County. Many Chinese tourists visiting Nanning
Nanning
also visit Ban Gioc–Detian Falls on the China
China
Vietnam
Vietnam
border. Education[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Guangxi

Guilin
Guilin
University of Technology Guangxi
Guangxi
Arts University Guangxi
Guangxi
University Guangxi
Guangxi
Medical University Guangxi
Guangxi
Normal University Guilin
Guilin
University of Electronic Technology Guangxi University
Guangxi University
for Nationalities Guangxi
Guangxi
Chinese Medical University

Sister regions[edit]

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Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan (1982) Carinthia, Austria (1987) Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil (1995) Voronezh Oblast, Russia (1997) Montana, United States (1999) Poitou-Charentes, France (2002) Surat Thani Province, Thailand (2004) Podkarpackie, Poland (2015)

See also[edit]

Major national historical and cultural sites in Guangxi List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Notes[edit]

^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[23] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. ^ This may include:

Buddhists; Confucians; Deity worshippers; Taoists; Members of folk religious sects; Indigenous religions of the ethnic minorities; Small minorities of Muslims; And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

References[edit]

^ "Doing Business in China
China
– Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "广西2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报" (in Chinese). Guangxi
Guangxi
Statistical Bureau. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2015.  ^ "National Data". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Retrieved 19 December 2015.  ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-14.  ^ "7–1. Natural Resources (2014)". Guangxi
Guangxi
Statistical Yearbook 2015. Guangxi
Guangxi
Statistical Bureau. Retrieved 19 December 2015.  ^ http://stroke-order.learningweb.moe.edu.tw/advExplain1.do?big5=B9AD ^ "Guangxi". Collins English Dictionary. ^ Bonavia, David. China's Warlords. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. ISBN 0-19-586179-5. ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.  ^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.  ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.  ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.  ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.  ^ a b c China
China
General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://epaper.gxnews.com.cn/ngjb/html/2009–05/07/node_303.htm ^ a b http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region/ ^ The China
China
Perspective Guangxi
Guangxi
Economic and Industry Profile/ ^ RightSite.asia Beihai
Beihai
Export Processing Zone ^ RightSite.asia | Guilin
Guilin
National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone ^ RightSite.asia Nanning
Nanning
Economic & Technological Development Area ^ RightSite.asia Nanning
Nanning
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone ^ RightSite.asia Pingxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone

Economic profile for Guangxi
Guangxi
at HKTDC

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guangxi.

Guangxi
Guangxi
Government website Guangxi
Guangxi
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Places adjacent to Guangxi

Guizhou

Hunan

Yunnan

Guangxi

Guangdong

Hà Giang, Cao Bằng, Lạng Sơn, and Quảng Ninh Provinces,  Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin

v t e

Guangxi
Guangxi
topics

Nanning
Nanning
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Nan Mountains Gulf of Tonkin Kitten Mountain

Education

Guangxi
Guangxi
University Guangxi
Guangxi
Normal University Guangxi
Guangxi
Medical University

Culture

Lingnan
Lingnan
culture Cantonese
Cantonese
people Zhuang customs and culture Zhuang people Varieties of Chinese
Varieties of Chinese
(Cantonese, Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
and Pinghua) Zhuang languages Mienic languages

Cuisine

Luosifen Tuotuorou

Visitor attractions

Longsheng Rice
Rice
Terrace Li River Jingjiang Princes' City Yangshuo
Yangshuo
County Ban Gioc–Detian Falls Weizhou Island

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region

Nanning
Nanning
(capital)

Prefecture-level cities

Nanning

Qingxiu District Xingning District Xixiangtang District Liangqing District Jiangnan District Yongning District Wuming District Long'an County Mashan County Shanglin County Binyang County Heng County

Liuzhou

Chengzhong District Yufeng District Liubei District Liunan District Liujiang District Liucheng County Luzhai County Rong'an County Rongshui Autonomous County Sanjiang Autonomous County

Guilin

Xiangshan District Xiufeng District Diecai District Qixing District Yanshan District Lingui District Yangshuo
Yangshuo
County Lingchuan County Quanzhou County Pingle County Xing'an County Guanyang County Lipu County Ziyuan County Yongfu County Longsheng Autonomous County Gongcheng Autonomous County

Wuzhou

Wanxiu District Changzhou District Longxu District Cenxi City Cangwu County Teng County Mengshan County

Beihai

Haicheng District Yinhai District Tieshangang District Hepu County

Fangchenggang

Gangkou District Fangcheng District Dongxing City Shangsi County

Qinzhou

Qinnan District Qinbei District Lingshan County Pubei County

Guigang

Gangbei District Gangnan District Qintang District Guiping
Guiping
City Pingnan County

Yulin

Yuzhou District Fumian District Beiliu City Rong County Luchuan County Bobai County Xingye County

Baise

Youjiang District Jingxi City Lingyun County Pingguo County Xilin County Leye County Debao County Tianlin County Tianyang County Tiandong County Napo County Longlin Autonomous County

Hezhou

Babu District Pinggui District Zhongshan County Zhaoping County Fuchuan Autonomous County

Hechi

Jinchengjiang District Yizhou District Tian'e County Fengshan County Nandan County Donglan County Du'an Autonomous County Luocheng Autonomous County Bama Autonomous County Huanjiang Autonomous County Dahua Autonomous County

Laibin

Xingbin District Heshan City Xiangzhou County Wuxuan County Xincheng County Jinxiu Autonomous County

Chongzuo

Jiangzhou District Pingxiang City Ningming County Fusui County Longzhou
Longzhou
County Daxin County Tiandeng County

v t e

Zhuang-designated autonomous areas in China

Regions

Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang A.R.

Baise Hechi Liuzhou Guilin Hezhou Chongzuo Nanning Laibin Guigang Wuzhou Fangchenggang Qinzhou Beihai Yulin

Prefectures and counties

in Yunnan

Wenshan (Zhuang and Miao)

in Guangdong

Lianshan (Zhuang and Yao)

Ethnic minority autonomous areas Dong Hui Korean Manchu Miao Mongol Tibetan Tujia Uyghur Yao Yi Zhuang Other

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

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