The GRUNDRISSE DER KRITIK DER POLITISCHEN ÖKONOMIE (Fundamentals of
Political Economy Criticism) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by
the German philosopher
Karl Marx . The series of seven notebooks were
rough-drafted by Marx, chiefly for purposes of self-clarification,
during the winter of 1857-8. Left aside by Marx in 1858, it remained
unpublished until 1939.
* 1 Contents
* 2 Dissemination
* 3 The Grundrisse\'s influence
* 4 Footnotes
* 5 Further reading
* 6 External links
Grundrisse is very wide-ranging in subject matter and covers all
six sections of Marx's economics (of which only one, the first volume
Das Kapital , ever reached a final form). It is often described as
the rough draft of Das Kapital, although there is considerable
disagreement about the exact relationship between the two texts,
particularly around the issue of methodology .
Due to its breadth and its incorporation of themes from Marx's
earlier writings, the
Grundrisse is central to Marx's body of work.
Its subject matter includes production , relations of production ,
distribution , exchange , alienation , value , labor , capitalism ,
the rise of technology and automation , pre-capitalist forms of social
organization, and the preconditions for a communist revolution.
Scholars have noted major differences between Marx's earlier writings,
The German Ideology and
The Communist Manifesto , and the late
Das Kapital and Grundrisse, suggesting that Marx's views
evolved, though the main themes remained the same.
As Martin Nicolaus and others have argued, the
Grundrisse is crucial
for understanding Marx’s mature analysis of capitalism, even though,
historically, it has been far less influential in the development of
the various strands of
Marxist theory than earlier texts such as the
Communist Manifesto, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
, and The German Ideology. Towards the end of his life, Marx,
according to Nicolaus, viewed the latter “with a scepticism
bordering on rejection.” The Grundrisse, on the other hand, was one
of the few texts which Marx spoke of “with a tone of achievement and
a sense of accomplishment.” If this is true, possibly the main
reason is that the more substantive first part of The German Ideology
was largely written by
Friedrich Engels while the subsequent parts,
satirizing the linguistic apostasies and word-mongering of
Hegelian philosophers, were written by Marx himself.
Louis Althusser believed that Marx's thought had
been misunderstood and underestimated. He condemned various
interpretations of Marx—such as historicism, idealism,
economism—on the grounds that they fail to realise that Marx's
"science of history", historical materialism , represents a
revolutionary view of social change. Althusser believed these errors
to result from the notion (mistaken in his view) that Marx's entire
body of work forms a coherent whole. Althusser proffered a radical
"epistemological break " in Marx's thought, which can be seen by
comparing the unpublished
Grundrisse and Das Kapital.
Grundrisse became available in different languages over a period
* 1939–41 First German edition
Marx–Engels Institute ,
* 1953 Second German edition Dietz-Verlag ,
* 1958–65 Japanese translation
* 1962–78 Chinese translation
* 1967–8 French translation
Roger Dangeville (International
Communist Party )
* 1968–9 Russian translation
* 1968–70 Italian translation
* 1970–1 Spanish translation
* 1971 Swedish translation
* 1971–7 Czech translation
* 1972 Hungarian translation
* 1972–4 Romanian translation
* 1973 English translation
* 1974–5 Slovak translation
* 1974–8 Danish translation
* 1979 Serbian/Serbo-Croatian translation
* 1979 Turkish translation
* 1985 Slovenian translation
* 1985–7 Persian translation
* 1986 Polish translation
* 1986 Finnish translation
* 1989–92 Greek translation
* 2000 Korean translation
* 2008 Portuguese translation.
THE GRUNDRISSE\'S INFLUENCE
The translation of the
Grundrisse into English in 1973 had a profound
effect on the then-emerging field of cultural studies . Stuart Hall,
at that time the director of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural
Studies at the University of Birmingham, led several seminars on
Marx's introduction to the Grundrisse, particularly "The method of
political economy." These seminars culminated in the publication of a
working paper titled “Marx’s Notes on Method: A ‘Reading’ of
the ‘1857 Introduction.’” According to Greg Wise, in that
working paper, Hall lays the groundwork for theories of
overdetermination and articulation, both of which would be used in a
study of mugging in the United Kingdom, Policing the Crisis.
* ^ Wood, Ellen Meiksins (2002) The Origins of Capitalism: A Longer
View London: Verso p.35
* ^ Nicolaus, Martin. "The Unknown Marx," New Left Review I/48,
* ^ Althusser, Louis; Balibar, Etienne (2009). Reading Capital.
London and New York: Verso.
* ^ Musto, Marcello. "Karl Marx\'s Grundrisse" (PDF). Routledge.
* ^ A B Wise, Greg (2003). "Reading Hall Reading Marx". Cultural
Studies. 17 (2): 105–112. doi :10.1080/0950238032000071668 .
* ^ Hall, Stuart (2003). "Marx’s Notes on Method: A ‘Reading’
of the ‘1857 Introduction.’". Cultural Studies. 17 (2): 113–149.
doi :10.1080/0950238032000114868 .
* Bottomore, Tom, ed. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Oxford:
* Harvey, David . The Limits of Capital. London: Verso, 2006.
* Lallier, Adalbert G. The Economics of Marx’s Grundrisse: an
Annotated Summary. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
* Mandel, Ernest . The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl
Marx: 1843 to Capital. London: Verso, 2015.
* Mandel, Ernest. Marxist Economic Theory. New York: Monthly Review
* Negri, Antonio . Marx Beyond Marx: Lessons on the Grundrisse.
Brooklyn: Autonomedia, 1989.
Postone, Moishe . Time, Labor, and Social Domination: A
Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory. Cambridge : Cambridge
University Press, 1993.
* Uchida, Hiroshi. Marx's
Grundrisse and Hegel's Logic. Terrell
Carber, ed. London: Routledge, 2015.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: GRUNDRISSE