The _GRUNDRISSE DER KRITIK DER POLITISCHEN ÖKONOMIE_ (_Fundamentals of Political Economy Criticism_) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by the German philosopher Karl Marx . The series of seven notebooks were rough-drafted by Marx, chiefly for purposes of self-clarification, during the winter of 1857-8. Left aside by Marx in 1858, it remained unpublished until 1939.
* 1 Contents * 2 Dissemination * 3 The _Grundrisse\'_s influence * 4 Footnotes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links
The _Grundrisse_ is very wide-ranging in subject matter and covers all six sections of Marx's economics (of which only one, the first volume of _ Das Kapital _, ever reached a final form). It is often described as the rough draft of _Das Kapital_, although there is considerable disagreement about the exact relationship between the two texts, particularly around the issue of methodology .
Due to its breadth and its incorporation of themes from Marx's earlier writings, the _Grundrisse_ is central to Marx's body of work. Its subject matter includes production , relations of production , distribution , exchange , alienation , value , labor , capitalism , the rise of technology and automation , pre-capitalist forms of social organization, and the preconditions for a communist revolution. Scholars have noted major differences between Marx's earlier writings, such as _ The German Ideology _ and _ The Communist Manifesto _, and the late ones, _Das Kapital_ and _Grundrisse_, suggesting that Marx's views evolved, though the main themes remained the same.
As Martin Nicolaus and others have argued, the _Grundrisse_ is crucial for understanding Marx’s mature analysis of capitalism, even though, historically, it has been far less influential in the development of the various strands of Marxist theory than earlier texts such as the _Communist Manifesto_, the _Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 _, and _The German Ideology_. Towards the end of his life, Marx, according to Nicolaus, viewed the latter “with a scepticism bordering on rejection.” The _Grundrisse_, on the other hand, was one of the few texts which Marx spoke of “with a tone of achievement and a sense of accomplishment.” If this is true, possibly the main reason is that the more substantive first part of _The German Ideology_ was largely written by Friedrich Engels while the subsequent parts, satirizing the linguistic apostasies and word-mongering of Left- Hegelian philosophers, were written by Marx himself.
French philosopher Louis Althusser believed that Marx's thought had been misunderstood and underestimated. He condemned various interpretations of Marx—such as historicism, idealism, economism—on the grounds that they fail to realise that Marx's "science of history", historical materialism , represents a revolutionary view of social change. Althusser believed these errors to result from the notion (mistaken in his view) that Marx's entire body of work forms a coherent whole. Althusser proffered a radical "epistemological break " in Marx's thought, which can be seen by comparing the unpublished _Grundrisse_ and _Das Kapital_.
The _Grundrisse_ became available in different languages over a period of time.
* 1939–41 First German edition Marx–Engels Institute , Moscow * 1953 Second German edition Dietz-Verlag , East Berlin * 1958–65 Japanese translation * 1962–78 Chinese translation * 1967–8 French translation Roger Dangeville (International Communist Party ) * 1968–9 Russian translation * 1968–70 Italian translation * 1970–1 Spanish translation * 1971 Swedish translation * 1971–7 Czech translation * 1972 Hungarian translation * 1972–4 Romanian translation * 1973 English translation * 1974–5 Slovak translation * 1974–8 Danish translation * 1979 Serbian/Serbo-Croatian translation * 1979 Turkish translation * 1985 Slovenian translation * 1985–7 Persian translation * 1986 Polish translation * 1986 Finnish translation * 1989–92 Greek translation * 2000 Korean translation * 2008 Portuguese translation.
THE _GRUNDRISSE\'_S INFLUENCE
The translation of the _Grundrisse_ into English in 1973 had a profound effect on the then-emerging field of cultural studies . Stuart Hall, at that time the director of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham, led several seminars on Marx's introduction to the _Grundrisse_, particularly "The method of political economy." These seminars culminated in the publication of a working paper titled “Marx’s Notes on Method: A ‘Reading’ of the ‘1857 Introduction.’” According to Greg Wise, in that working paper, Hall lays the groundwork for theories of overdetermination and articulation, both of which would be used in a study of mugging in the United Kingdom, Policing the Crisis.
* ^ Wood, Ellen Meiksins (2002) _The Origins of Capitalism: A Longer View_ London: Verso p.35 * ^ Nicolaus, Martin. "The Unknown Marx," _New Left Review_ I/48, March–April 1968 * ^ Althusser, Louis; Balibar, Etienne (2009). _Reading Capital_. London and New York: Verso. * ^ Musto, Marcello. "Karl Marx\'s Grundrisse" (PDF). Routledge. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wise, Greg (2003). "Reading Hall Reading Marx". _Cultural Studies_. 17 (2): 105–112. doi :10.1080/0950238032000071668 . * ^ Hall, Stuart (2003). "Marx’s Notes on Method: A ‘Reading’ of the ‘1857 Introduction.’". _Cultural Studies_. 17 (2): 113–149. doi :10.1080/0950238032000114868 .
* Bottomore, Tom, ed. _A Dictionary of Marxist Thought_. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. * Harvey, David . _The Limits of Capital_. London: Verso, 2006. * Lallier, Adalbert G. _The Economics of Marx’s Grundrisse: an Annotated Summary_. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989. * Mandel, Ernest . _The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx: 1843 to Capital._ London: Verso, 2015. * Mandel, Ernest. _Marxist Economic Theory_. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970. * Negri, Antonio . _Marx Beyond Marx: Lessons on the Grundrisse_. Brooklyn: Autonomedia, 1989. * Postone, Moishe . _Time, Labor, and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory._ Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1993. * Uchida, Hiroshi. _Marx's_ Grundrisse _and Hegel's_ Logic. Terrell Carber, ed. London: Routledge, 2015.
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