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The GRUMMAN F6F HELLCAT is an American carrier -based fighter aircraft of World War II
World War II
. Designed to replace the earlier F4F Wildcat and to counter the Japanese Mitsubishi A6M Zero , it was the United States Navy 's dominant fighter in the second half of the Pacific War . The Hellcat competed with the faster Vought F4U Corsair for that role and prevailed, as the Corsair had significant issues with carrier landings. The Corsair instead was primarily deployed to great effect in land-based use by the U.S. Marine Corps .

Powered by a 2,000 hp Pratt "> The unpainted XF6F-1 prior to its first flight An F6F-3 aboard USS Yorktown has its Sto-Wing folding wings deployed for takeoff

Grumman
Grumman
had been working on a successor to the F4F Wildcat since 1938 and the contract for the prototype XF6F-1 was signed on 30 June 1941. The aircraft was originally designed to use the Wright R-2600 Twin Cyclone two-row, 14-cylinder radial engine of 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) driving a three-bladed Curtiss Electric propeller. Instead of the Wildcat's narrow-track, hand-cranked main landing gear retracting into the fuselage that it had inherited, little changed in design from the 1931-debuted Grumman
Grumman
FF -1 fighter biplane, the Hellcat had wide-set, hydraulically actuated landing gear struts which rotated through 90° while retracting backwards into the wings, much like that of the earlier Chance Vought
Vought
F4U Corsair, but with full wheel doors fitted to the struts that covered the entire strut and the upper half of the main wheel when retracted, and twisted with the main gear struts during retraction. The wing was mounted lower on the fuselage and was able to be hydraulically or manually folded, with each panel outboard of the undercarriage bay folding backwards from pivoting on a specially oriented, Grumman-patented Sto-Wing diagonal axis pivoting system much like the earlier F4F, with a folded stowage position parallel to the fuselage with the leading edges pointing diagonally down.

Throughout early 1942 Leroy Grumman
Grumman
, along with his chief designers Jake Swirbul and Bill Schwendler, worked closely with the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) and experienced F4F pilots, to develop the new fighter in such a way that it could counter the Zero's strengths and help gain air command in the Pacific Theater of Operations . On 22 April 1942, Lieutenant Commander Butch O'Hare toured the Grumman
Grumman
Aircraft company and spoke with Grumman
Grumman
engineers, analyzing the performance of the F4F Wildcat against the Mitsubishi A6M Zero in aerial combat. BuAer's LT CDR A. M. Jackson directed Grumman's designers to mount the cockpit higher in the fuselage. In addition, the forward fuselage sloped down slightly to the engine cowling, affording the Hellcat's pilot good visibility.

Based on combat accounts of encounters between the F4F Wildcat and A6M Zero, on 26 April 1942, BuAer directed Grumman
Grumman
to install the more powerful 18-cylinder Pratt "> An early F6F-3 in Blue-Gray over Light Gull-Gray

The F6F series were designed to take damage and get the pilot safely back to base. A bullet-resistant windshield and a total of 212 lb (96 kg) of cockpit armor was fitted, along with armor around the oil tank and oil cooler. A 250 gal (946 l) self-sealing fuel tank was fitted in the fuselage. Standard armament on the F6F-3 consisted of six .50 in (12.7 mm) M2/AN Browning air-cooled machine guns with 400 rounds per gun. A center-section hardpoint under the fuselage could carry a single 150 gal (568 l) disposable drop tank , while later aircraft had single bomb racks installed under each wing, inboard of the undercarriage bays; with these and the center-section hard point late model F6F-3s could carry a total bomb-load in excess of 2,000 lb (900 kg). Six 5 in (127 mm) HVARs (High Velocity Aircraft Rocket) could be carried; three under each wing on "zero-length" launchers.

Two night fighter sub-variants of the F6F-3 were developed: the 18 F6F-3E\'S were converted from standard-3s and featured the AN/APS-4 radar in a pod mounted on a rack beneath the right wing, with a small radar-scope fitted in the middle of the main instrument panel and radar operating controls installed on the port side of the cockpit. The later F6F-3N, first flown in July 1943, was fitted with the AN/APS-6 radar in the fuselage, with the antenna dish in a bulbous fairing mounted on the leading-edge of the outer right wing; approximately 200 F6F-3Ns were built. Hellcat night fighters claimed their first victories in November 1943. A total of 4,402 F6F-3s were built through until April 1944, when production was changed to the F6F-5. An early production F6F-5 being tested with eight 5 in. HVAR
HVAR
rockets

The F6F-5 featured several improvements including a more powerful R-2800-10W engine employing a water-injection system and housed in a slightly more streamlined engine cowling, spring-loaded control tabs on the ailerons , and an improved, clear view windscreen, with a flat armored-glass front panel replacing the F6F-3's curved plexiglass panel and internal armor glass screen. In addition, the rear fuselage and tail units were strengthened, and, apart from some early production aircraft, the majority of the F6F-5's built were painted in an overall gloss sea blue finish. After the first few F6F-5s were built, the small windows behind the main canopy were deleted. The F6F-5N night fighter variant was fitted with an AN/APS-6 radar in a fairing on the outer-starboard wing. A small number of standard F6F-5s were also fitted with camera equipment for reconnaissance duties as the F6F-5P. While all F6F-5s were capable of carrying an armament mix of one 20 mm (.79 in) M2 cannon in each of the inboard gun bays (220 rounds per gun), along with two pairs of .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns (each with 400 rounds per gun), this configuration was only used on later F6F-5N night fighters. The F6F-5 was the most common F6F variant, with 7,870 being built.

Other prototypes in the F6F series included the XF6F-4 (02981, a conversion of the XF6F-1 powered by an R-2800-27 and armed with four 20mm M2 cannon) which first flew on 3 October 1942 as the prototype for the projected F6F-4. This version never entered production and 02981 was converted to an F6F-3 production aircraft. Another experimental prototype was the XF6F-2 (66244), an F6F-3 converted to use a Wright R-2600-15, fitted with a Birman manufactured mixed-flow turbocharger , which was later replaced by a Pratt "> VF-82 Grumman F6F-5 ready for launch from USS Bennington off Okinawa in May 1945. The majority of the F6F-5s built were painted overall Glossy Sea Blue.

The Hellcat first saw action against the Japanese on 1 September 1943 when fighters off the USS Independence shot down a Kawanishi H8K "Emily" flying boat . Soon after, on 23 and 24 November, Hellcats engaged Japanese aircraft over Tarawa
Tarawa
, shooting down a claimed 30 Mitsubishi Zeros for the loss of one F6F. Over Rabaul, New Britain , on 11 November 1943, Hellcats and F4U Corsairs were engaged in day-long fights with many Japanese aircraft including A6M Zeros, claiming nearly 50 aircraft.

When trials were flown against a captured A6M5 model Zero, they showed that the Hellcat was faster at all altitudes. The F6F out-climbed the Zero marginally above 14,000 ft and rolled faster at speeds above 235 mph. The Japanese fighter could out-turn its American opponent with ease at low speed and enjoyed a slightly better rate of climb below 14,000 ft. The trials report concluded:

Do not dogfight with a Zero 52. Do not try to follow a loop or half-roll with a pull-through. When attacking, use your superior power and high speed performance to engage at the most favourable moment. To evade a Zero 52 on your tail, roll and dive away into a high speed turn.

Hellcats were the major U.S. Navy fighter type involved in the Battle of the Philippine Sea , where so many Japanese aircraft were shot down that Navy aircrews nicknamed the battle "the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot" . The F6F accounted for 75 percent of all aerial victories recorded by the U.S. Navy in the Pacific. Radar
Radar
-equipped Hellcat night fighter squadrons appeared in early 1944.

A formidable opponent for the Hellcat was the Kawanishi N1K , but it was produced too late and in insufficient numbers to affect the outcome of the war.

Sortie, Kill And Loss Figures

U.S. Navy and Marine F6F pilots flew 66,530 combat sorties and claimed 5,163 kills (56% of all U.S. Navy/Marine air victories of the war) at a recorded cost of 270 Hellcats in aerial combat (an overall kill-to-loss ratio of 19:1 based on claimed but not confirmed kills). Claimed victories were often highly exaggerated during the war. Even so, the aircraft performed well against the best Japanese opponents with a claimed 13:1 kill ratio against the A6M Zero, 9.5:1 against the Nakajima Ki-84 , and 3.7:1 against the Mitsubishi J2M during the last year of the war. The F6F became the prime ace-maker aircraft in the American inventory, with 305 Hellcat aces. The U.S. successes were not only attributed to superior aircraft, but also from 1942 onwards, they faced increasingly inexperienced Japanese aviators as well as having the advantage of increasing numerical superiority. In the ground attack role, Hellcats dropped 6,503 tons (5,899 tonnes) of bombs.

The U.S. Navy's all-time leading ace, Captain David McCampbell USN (Ret), scored all his 34 victories in the Hellcat. He once described the F6F as "... an outstanding fighter plane. It performed well, was easy to fly and was a stable gun platform. But what I really remember most was that it was rugged and easy to maintain."

During the course of World War II, 2,462 F6F Hellcats were lost to all causes; 270 in aerial combat, 553 lost to anti-aircraft ground and shipboard fire, and 341 were lost to operational causes. Of the total figure 1,298 were destroyed in training and ferry operations, normally outside of the combat zones.

BRITISH USE

A section of Fleet Air Arm Hellcat F Mk.Is of 1840 Squadron in June 1944

The British Fleet Air Arm (FAA) received 1,263 F6Fs under the Lend-Lease Act ; initially it was known as the GRUMMAN GANNET MARK I. The name Hellcat replaced it in early 1943 for the sake of simplicity, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
at that time adopting the use of the existing American naval names for all the U.S.-made aircraft supplied to it, with the F6F-3 being designated HELLCAT F MK.I, the F6F-5, the HELLCAT F MK.II and the F6F-5N, the HELLCAT NF MK.II. They saw action off Norway, in the Mediterranean and in the Far East. A number were fitted with photographic reconnaissance equipment similar to the F6F-5P, receiving the designation HELLCAT FR MK.II. The Pacific War
Pacific War
being a naval war, the FAA Hellcats primarily faced land based aircraft in the European and Mediterranean Theaters, and as a consequence experienced far fewer opportunities for air-to-air combat than their USN/Marines counterparts; they claimed a total of 52 enemy aircraft kills during 18 aerial combats from May 1944 to July 1945. 1844 Naval Air Squadron , on board HMS Indomitable of the British Pacific Fleet was the highest scoring unit, with 32.5 kills.

FAA Hellcats, as with other Lend-Lease aircraft, were rapidly replaced by British aircraft after the end of the war, with only two of the 12 squadrons equipped with the Hellcat at VJ-Day still retaining Hellcats by the end of 1945. These two squadrons were disbanded in 1946. Postwar service: A bright orange F6F-3K target drone

POSTWAR

Postwar, the Hellcat was succeeded by the F8F Bearcat , which was smaller, more powerful (powered by uprated Double Wasp radials) and more maneuverable, but entered service too late to see combat in World War II. The Hellcat was used for second-line USN duties, including training. In late 1952, Guided Missile Unit 90 used F6F-5K drones, each carrying a 2000 lb bomb, to attack bridges in Korea; flying from USS Boxer , radio controlled from an escorting AD Skyraider . The French Aéronavale was equipped with F6F-5 Hellcats and used them in Indochina
Indochina
. The Uruguayan Navy also used them until the early 1960s.

The F6F-5 subtype also gained fame as the first aircraft used by the U.S. Navy's Blue Angels official flight demonstration team at its formation in 1946.

VARIANTS

XF6F PROTOTYPES

XF6F-1 First prototype, powered by a two-stage 1,600 hp (1,500 kW) Wright R-2600 -10 Cyclone 14 radial piston engine. XF6F-2 The first XF6F-1 prototype revised and fitted with a turbocharged Wright R-2600-16 Cyclone radial piston engine. R-2600 replaced by turbo-charged R-2800-21. XF6F-2 showing the later R-2800-21 installation with Birman turbo-charger. XF6F-3 Second prototype fitted with a two-stage supercharged 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-10 Double Wasp radial piston engine. XF6F-4 One F6F-3 fitted with a two-speed turbocharged 2,100 hp (1,567 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-27 Double Wasp radial piston engine. XF6F-6 Two F6F-5s that were fitted with the 2,100 hp (1,566 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-18W radial piston engine, and four-bladed propellers.

SERIES PRODUCTION

F6F-3 (British designations Gannet Mk. I then Hellcat Mk. I) Single-seat fighter, fighter-bomber aircraft, powered by a 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) Pratt powered by a 2,200 hp (1,640 kW) Pratt "> F6F-5N night fighter with AN/APS-6 radar and 2 20mm M2 cannon. F6F-5N Hellcat (British Hellcat N.F. Mk II) Night fighter version, fitted with an AN/APS-6 radar. Some were armed with two 20 mm (0.79 in) AN/M2 cannon in the inner wing bays and four 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns in the outer. F6F-5P Hellcat Small numbers of F6F-5s were converted into photo-reconnaissance aircraft, with the camera equipment being fitted in the rear fuselage. Hellcat FR Mk II This designation was given to British Hellcats fitted with camera equipment. FV-1 Proposed designation for Hellcats to be built by Canadian Vickers
Canadian Vickers
; cancelled before any built.

OPERATORS

France
France

* French Navy
French Navy

United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* Royal Navy
Royal Navy

United States
United States

* United States Navy
United States Navy
* United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps

Uruguay
Uruguay

* Uruguayan Navy

SURVIVING AIRCRAFT

A relatively large number of Grumman
Grumman
F6Fs survive to this day, either in museums or in flyable condition. In order of Bu.No. they are:

UNITED KINGDOM

Airworthy F6F-5

* 80141 – The Fighter Collection in Duxford .

On display F6F-5

* 79779 – Fleet Air Arm Museum in RNAS Yeovilton .

UNITED STATES

Chino Warbirds' F6F-3 painted as a Fleet Air Arm Hellcat Mk. I. Airworthy F6F-3

* 41930 – Comanche Warbirds Inc. in Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas
.

F6F-5

* 70222 – Commemorative Air Force (Southern California Wing) at Camarillo Airport (former Oxnard AFB) in Camarillo, California . * 78645 – Yanks Air Museum in Chino, California . * 79863 – Flying Heritage Collection in Everett, Washington
Everett, Washington
. * 94204 – Lone Star Flight Museum in Galveston, Texas . * 94473 – Palm Springs Air Museum in Palm Springs, California
Palm Springs, California
.

On display F6F-3

* 25910 – National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola in Pensacola, Florida
Pensacola, Florida
. * 41834 – Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum in Chantilly, Virginia . * 42874 – San Diego Aerospace Museum in San Diego, California
San Diego, California
. * 66237 – National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola in Pensacola, Florida
Pensacola, Florida
.

F6F-5

* 70185 – Quonset Air Museum at Quonset State Airport (former NAS Quonset Point ) in Quonset Point, Rhode Island . * 77722 – Naval Air Facility Washington at Joint Base Andrews (former Andrews AFB ) in Maryland
Maryland
. * 79192 – New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut . * 79593 – USS Yorktown / Patriots Point Naval "> An F6F-5 flown by Air Group Commander (CAG), Cdr. Louis H. Bauer of Carrier Air Group 3 (CVG-3) , leads a formation of CVG-3 aircraft in 1946.

Data from WWII Aircraft Performance Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II
World War II
Standard Aircraft Characteristics

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

* CREW: 1 * LENGTH: 33 ft 7 in (10.24 m) * WINGSPAN : 42 ft 10 in (13.06 m) * HEIGHT: 13 ft 1 in (3.99 m) * WING AREA: 334 ft² (31 m²) * AIRFOIL : NACA 23015.6 mod root; NACA 23009 tip * EMPTY WEIGHT : 9,238 lb (4,190 kg) * LOADED WEIGHT: 12,598 lb (5,714 kg) * MAX. TAKEOFF WEIGHT : 15,415 lb (6,990 kg) * *FUEL CAPACITY: 250 gal (946 L) internal; up to 3 × 150 gal (568 L) external drop tanks * ZERO-LIFT DRAG COEFFICIENT : 0.0211 * DRAG AREA: 7.05 ft² (0.65 m²) * ASPECT RATIO : 5.5 * POWERPLANT : 1 × Pratt ">PERFORMANCE

* MAXIMUM SPEED : 330 kn (391 mph, 629 km/h) * STALL SPEED : 73 kn (84 mph, 135 km/h) * COMBAT RADIUS : 820 nmi (945 mi, 1,520 km) * FERRY RANGE : 1,330 nmi (1,530 mi, 2,460 km) * SERVICE CEILING : 37,300 ft (11,370 m) * RATE OF CLIMB : 3,500 ft/min (17.8 m/s) * WING LOADING : 37.7 lb/ft² (184 kg/m²) * POWER/MASS : 0.16 hp/lb (260 W/kg) * TIME-TO-ALTITUDE: 7.7 min to 20,000 ft (6,100 m) * LIFT-TO-DRAG RATIO : 12.2 * TAKEOFF ROLL: 799 ft (244 m)

ARMAMENT

* GUNS:

* 6× 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns , with 400 rounds per gun, (All F6F-3, and most F6F-5) or * 2 × 0.79 in (20 mm) AN/M2 cannon, with 225 rounds per gun and 4 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) Browning machine guns with 400 rounds per gun

* ROCKETS:

* 6 × 5 in (127 mm) HVARs or * 2 × 11¾ in (298 mm) Tiny Tim unguided rockets

* BOMBS: up to 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) full load, including:

* BOMBS OR TORPEDOES: (Fuselage mounted on centreline rack)

* 1 × 2,000 lb (907 kg) bomb or * 1 × Mk.13-3 torpedo;

* UNDERWING BOMBS: (F6F-5 had two additional weapons racks either side of fuselage on wing centre-section)

* 2 × 1,000 lb (450 kg) or * 4 × 500 lb (227 kg) * 8 × 250 lb (110 kg)

SEE ALSO

* Alexander Vraciu , who had 19 victories on Hellcats flying with VF-6 (9) and VF-16 (10) during World War II. * David McCampbell , the top U.S. Navy ace of World War II
World War II
with all of his 34 victories in the Hellcat, commander of Air Group 15 during World War II
World War II
and recipient of the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
. * Eugene A. Valencia, Jr. , top scoring ace of VF-9 during World War II with 23 victories while flying Hellcats.

Related development

* Grumman
Grumman
F4F Wildcat * Grumman
Grumman
F8F Bearcat

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

* Focke-Wulf Fw-190D * Kawanishi N1K * Kawasaki Ki-100 * Lavochkin La-7
Lavochkin La-7
* Mitsubishi A7M * Nakajima Ki-84 * North American P-51D Mustang * Republic P-47 Thunderbolt * Vought F4U Corsair

Related lists

* List of aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm * List of aircraft of the United States
United States
during World War II
World War II
* List of aircraft of World War II
World War II
* List of fighter aircraft

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ The insignia red outline around the national markings indicate that this picture was taken circa June–September 1943. * ^ This can be broken down as 5,163 in the Pacific and eight more during the invasion of Southern France, plus 52 with the FAA during World War II. * ^ On the previous day, while receiving the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
from President Franklin D. Roosevelt , O'Hare was asked by the President what was needed in a new naval fighter; O'Hare's response was "something that would go upstairs faster." * ^ Jackson emphasized to Grumman, "you can't hit 'em if you can't see 'em" * ^ Late production F6F-3s were powered by the same water-injected R-2800 used by the F6F-5. * ^ Quote: "... flown by 305 aces, most of any U.S. fighter in World War II." * ^ meaning Fighter Mark I, Fighter Mark II and Night Fighter Mark II respectively

CITATIONS

* ^ "U.S. Naval Aircraft Marking." U.S. Naval Historical Center. Retrieved: 11 March 2008. * ^ "Uruguayan Navy." aeroflight. Retrieved: 27 May 2012. * ^ Ferguson 2005, pp. 149–175. * ^ Thruelsen 1976, p. 135. * ^ A B Sullivan 1979, p. 4. * ^ Kinzey 1996, p. 4. * ^ Tillman 1996, p. 81. * ^ Tillman 1996, pp. 78–79. * ^ Murray, Williamson (2002). War In The Air 1914–45 (2002 Paperback ed.). Wellington House, London: Cassell. p. 202. ISBN 0-304-36210-7 . * ^ Kinzey 1996, p. 16. * ^ A B C Taylor 1969, p. 503. * ^ Kinzey 1987, p. 14. * ^ Thruelsen 1976, p. 166. * ^ Ewing 2004, p. 182. * ^ Ewing 2004, p. 86. * ^ Ewing and Lundstrom 2004, pp. 155–156. * ^ Tillman 1979, p. 6. * ^ Francillon 1989, p. 200. * ^ A B C D Kinzey 1996, p. 6. * ^ Ewing and Lundstrom 2004, pp. 155, 156. * ^ A B Kinzey 1987, p. 6. * ^ Sullivan 1979, pp. 24, 30, 33. * ^ Parsch, Andreas. "5 inch FFAR/HVAR." designation-systems.net, 2010. Retrieved: 28 October 2012. * ^ Kinzey 1996, pp. 30–31. * ^ Kinzey 1996, pp. 28–29. * ^ Green 1975, p. 91. * ^ Kinzey 1996, pp. 6–7. * ^ Kinzey 1996, p. 7. * ^ Green 1975, pp. 93–94. * ^ Kinzey 1987, p. 27. * ^ Kinzey 1996, p. 32. * ^ White 2001, pp. 260, 508. * ^ Kinzey 1996, pp. 17–18. * ^ Kinzey 1996, pp. 50–51. * ^ Sullivan 1979, p. 46. * ^ Winchester 2004, p. 110. * ^ Styling 1995, p. 67. * ^ Tillman 1996, p. 6. * ^ A B C Dean 1997, p. 559. * ^ Spick 1983, p. 118. * ^ Tillman 1979, p. 9. * ^ "Fact Sheets: Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai." National Museum of the US Air Force. Retrieved: 23 November 2015. * ^ A B Barber 1946, Table 2. * ^ Barber 1946, Table 28. * ^ "Airpower Classics." Air Force Magazine, April 2006, p. 98. * ^ Kinzey 1987, p. 58. * ^ OPNAV-P-23V No. A129, 17 June 1946, p. 15. * ^ Green 1975, p. 93. * ^ Thruelsen 1976, p. 181. * ^ Tillman 1996, p. 96. * ^ Tillman 1996, p. 78. * ^ A B Thetford 1994, p. 217. * ^ O'Leary 1980, pp. 147–148. * ^ Jackson 1998, p. 126. * ^ Donald, 1995, p. 145. * ^ "Historical aircraft of the Blue Angels." Archived 19 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. Blue Angels. Retrieved" 31 March 2015. * ^ Norton 2008, p. 38. * ^ Krist 2006, pp. 91–92. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 80141." The Fighter Collection. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 79779." Fleet Air Arm Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ "FAA Registry: N30FG" Federal Aviation Administration Retrieved: 16 May 2011. * ^ "FAA Registry: N1078Z" Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: 16 May 2011. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 70222." CAF Southern California Wing. Retrieved 23 February 2014. * ^ "FAA Registry: N9265A" Federal Aviation Administration Retrieved: 16 May 2011. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 78645." Yanks Air Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014. * ^ "FAA Registry: N79863" Federal Aviation Administration Retrieved: 16 May 2011. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 79863." Flying Heritage Collection. Retrieved: 23 February 2014. * ^ "FAA Registry: N4998V" Federal Aviation Administration Retrieved: 16 May 2011. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 94204." Archived 5 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. Lone Star Flight Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014. * ^ "FAA Registry: N4964W" Federal Aviation Administration Retrieved: 2 June 2011. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 94473." Palm Springs Air Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 25910." National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 11 March 2014. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 41834." National Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 13 December 2010. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 42874." San Diego Aerospace Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 66237." National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 70185." Archived 29 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. Quonset Air Museum. Retrieved: 03 September 2013. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 77722." aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved: 25 February 2015. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 79192." New England Air Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 79593." Patriots Point Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 79683." AirZoo. Retrieved: 04 September 2013. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 94203." National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 94263." Cradle of Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 40467." Yanks Air Museum. Retrieved: 12 May 2017. * ^ "FAA Registry: N467RL" Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: 12 May 2017. * ^ "FAA Registry: N41476" Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: 21 July 2014. * ^ " Grumman
Grumman
F6F Hellcat/Bu. 41476." Collings Foundation. Retrieved: 25 February 2015. * ^ "FAA Registry: N7537U." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: 16 May 2011. * ^ "FAA Registry: N7861C" Federal Aviation Administration Retrieved: 26 August 2014. * ^ "F6F Performance". wwiiaircraftperformance.org. WWII Aircraft Performance. Retrieved 23 November 2015. * ^ Bridgman 1946, pp. 233–234. * ^ Standard Aircraft Characteristics: F6F-5 Hellcat. NAVAER 1335A. * ^ Mondey 2006, p. 145.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Anderton, David A. Hellcat. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1981. ISBN 0-7106-0036-4 . * Barber, S.B. Naval Aviation Combat Statistics: World War II, OPNAV-P-23V No. A129. Washington, D.C.: Air Branch, Office of Naval Intelligence, 1946. * Bridgman, Leonard, ed. “The Grumman
Grumman
Hellcat.” Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1-85170-493-0 . * Brown, Eric, CBE, DCS, AFC, RN., William Green and Gordon Swanborough. " Grumman
Grumman
Hellcat". Wings of the Navy, Flying Allied Carrier Aircraft of World War Two. London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1980, pp. 167–176. ISBN 0-7106-0002-X . * Dann, Lcdr. Richard S., USNR. F6F Hellcat Walk Around. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1996. ISBN 0-89747-362-0 . * Dean, Francis H. America's Hundred Thousand. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1997. ISBN 0-7643-0072-5 . * Donald, David, ed. American Warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace Publishing, 1995. ISBN 1-874023-72-7 . * Drendel, Lou. " Grumman
Grumman
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Story. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1976. ISBN 0-275-54260-2 . * Tillman, Barrett. Hellcat Aces of World War 2. London: Osprey Aerospace, 1996. ISBN 1-85532-596-9 . * Tillman, Barrett. Hellcat: The F6F in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979. ISBN 0-87021-265-6 . * White, Graham. R-2800: Pratt & Whitney's Dependable Masterpiece. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 2001. ISBN 978-0-76800-272-0 . * Winchester, Jim, ed. " Grumman
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* "Meet the Hellcat

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