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The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing countries, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization headquartered in Geneva, but it has since expanded to 134 member countries according to the organization. China does not consider itself to be a member, nor did it when it was generally regarded as a developing country. However, the country supports and financially contributes to G77, and official statements are made with China. Guyana holds the chairmanship as of 2020. The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by 77 non-aligned nations in the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the ''Charter of Algiers'' was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun under the leadership of Raul Prebisch who had previously worked at ECLA. There are ''Chapters of the Group of 77'' in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).

Policies

The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament. It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order. It has been subject to criticism for its lacklustre support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.


Members


As of 2020, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the U.N. observer State of Palestine), excluding the following countries: # Members of the Council of Europe, except for Azerbaijan. # Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for Chile and Colombia. # Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan. # Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.

Current founding members




Other current members





China


The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members. The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member. As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China or G77+China.


Former members


# signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973). # was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24. # was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996. # was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003. It had presided over the group from 1985 to 1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in the G77. # was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004. # was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004. # joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States. # was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2007.


Presiding countries


The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:

Group of 24

The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77.


See also


* Non-Aligned Movement * Third World * Global South * North–South divide * South–South cooperation * G20 developing nations * Politics of global warming * List of country groupings * List of multilateral free-trade agreements * Nozipho Mxakato-Diseko

References



External links

*
Adam Sneyd, "Group of 77", in Globalization and Autonomy Online Compendium, edited by William D. Coleman and Nancy Johnson

Official website of the Group of 24
{{DEFAULTSORT:Group Of 77 Category:Group of Eight Category:United Nations coalitions and unofficial groups Category:China and the United Nations Category:Organizations established in 1964 Category:Economic country classifications