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The Info List - Group C





Group C
Group C
was a category of motorsport, introduced by the FIA
FIA
in 1982 for sports car racing, along with Group A
Group A
for touring cars and Group B for GTs. It was designed to replace both Group 5 Special
Special
Production Cars (closed top touring prototypes like Porsche
Porsche
935) and Group 6 Two Seater Racing Cars (open-top sportscar prototypes like Porsche
Porsche
936). Group C
Group C
was used in the FIA's World Endurance Championship (1982–1985), World Sports-Prototype Championship (1986–1990), World Sportscar Championship
World Sportscar Championship
(1991–1992) and in the European Endurance Championship (1983 only). It was also used for other sports car racing series around the globe (All Japan Sports Prototype Championship, Supercup, Interserie). The final year for the class came in 1993. Broadly similar rules were used in the North American IMSA Grand Touring Prototype
Grand Touring Prototype
series (GTP).

Contents

1 History 2 Rise and fall 3 Group C
Group C
series 4 List of Group C
Group C
Sports Cars 5 References

History[edit]

Porsche 956
Porsche 956
was a dominant car in its many factory and customer built forms in the early 1980s.

The roots of the Group C
Group C
category lie in both FIA
FIA
Group 6 and particularly in the GTP category introduced by the ACO at Le Mans in the mid-1970s. GTP was a class for roofed prototypes with certain dimensional restrictions, but instead of the more usual limits on engine capacity, it placed limits on fuel consumption. The FIA
FIA
applied the same concept in its Group C
Group C
rules. It limited cars to a minimum weight of 800 kg and a maximum fuel capacity of 100 litres. With competitors restricted to five refueling stops within a 1000 kilometer distance, the cars were effectively allowed 600 litres per 1000 kilometers. The FIA
FIA
hoped this would prevent manufacturers from concentrating solely on engine development; in the late 1970s, a few manufacturers (especially Porsche
Porsche
and Lancia) had dominated sports car racing by simply increasing turbocharger boost pressure, especially in qualifying trim — the 3.2 L Porsche 935
Porsche 935
was capable of more than 800 hp. Engines had to be from a recognized manufacturer which had cars homologated in the FIA's Group A
Group A
Touring Car or Group B GT Car categories. While the consumption requirement meant that cars needed to conserve fuel early in the race, manufacturer support for the new regulations grew steadily with each make adding to the diversity of the series. With the new rules, it was theoretically possible for large naturally aspirated engines to compete with small forced induction engines. In addition, all races were to be contested over at least 1000 km — usually lasting more than six hours — so it was possible to emphasize the "endurance" aspect of the competition as well. Ford (with the C100) and Porsche
Porsche
(with the 956) were the first constructors to join the series. The traditional turbocharged boxer engine in the 956 was already tested in the 1981 version of the Group 6 936. Eventually, several other makes joined the series, including Lancia, Jaguar, Mercedes, Nissan, Toyota, Mazda
Mazda
and Aston Martin. Many of these also took part in the IMSA championship, as its GTP class had similar regulations. With costs increasing, the FIA
FIA
introduced a new Group C
Group C
Junior class for 1983. This was intended for privateer teams and small manufacturers and it limited cars to a minimum weight of 700 kg and a maximum fuel capacity of 55 liters. With competitors limited to five refueling stops within a 1000 kilometer distance, the cars were effectively allowed 330 liters per 1000 kilometers. As in Group C, engines had to be from a recognized manufacturer which had cars homologated in Group A
Group A
or Group B. Although it was originally expected that C Junior cars would use two-litre normally aspirated engines, in practice most cars used either the 3.5l BMW M1
BMW M1
engine or the new 3.3l Cosworth DFL, but, like in the main class, a variety of solutions was employed by each individual manufacturer. Alba with a small, lightweight turbo, Tiga, Spice and Ecurie Ecosse
Ecurie Ecosse
with Austin-Rover
Austin-Rover
and later Cosworth-powered cars were among the most competitive in this class. The low cost of these cars even lead to the notion of their use in national championships, such as the short-lived British BRDC C2 Championship. Group C
Group C
Junior was formally renamed Group C2 for 1984. Rise and fall[edit]

Jaguar XJR-8/9 at the Goodwood Festival of Speed, 2008.

By 1989, the Group C
Group C
series popularity was nearly as great as Formula One.[citation needed] When C1 cars were found to be breaking over the 400 kilometres per hour mark at Le Mans' Mulsanne Straight
Mulsanne Straight
— the WM- Peugeot
Peugeot
recorded the highest 407 km/h (253 mph) during qualifying for the 1988 event[1] — the FIA
FIA
revolutionized the class by attempting to turn it into a formula series to replace the C2 category (after they proved to be unreliable at endurance races). The new formula restricted the performance of cars built to the original rules (such as the Porsche
Porsche
962 used by many privateers) and benefited teams using F1-sourced 3.5 L engines — these latter teams being effectively the large manufacturers alone, as the new formula cars were more expensive than the C1 cars. What followed was the quick downfall of Group C, as the new engines were unaffordable for privateer teams like Spice and ADA. A lack of entries meant the 1993 Championship was canceled before the start of the first race. However, the ACO still allowed the Group C
Group C
cars to compete (albeit with restrictions) at 24 Hours of Le Mans. Nevertheless, the race still witnessed protests against the new state of affairs, as spectators placed cloth banners in fences expressing their feelings. The 1994 24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans
was the last one in which Group C
Group C
cars were permitted. A new category formed especially by race organizers also saw modified Group C
Group C
cars without roofs. In fact, a former C1 car disguised as a road-legal GT car which was entered in the GT1 category, the Dauer 962 Le Mans, and won the race after transmission problems by a leading Toyota
Toyota
94C-V. The 962 was subsequently banned; the Toyota
Toyota
was later given a special dispensation to race in the Suzuka 1000km, and a few C1 racers were allowed to compete in the newly formed Japanese GT Championship
Japanese GT Championship
— this would be its final year of competition. Many of the modified open top Group C
Group C
cars continued to compete until they wrecked, broke, or retired out of competitiveness; notable among these was the Porsche
Porsche
WSC-95 which won the 1996 and 1997 Le Mans races, using the monocoque of the Jaguar XJR-14 and Porsche
Porsche
962 mechanicals (engine, transmission, etc.). Group C
Group C
series[edit] The FIA's Group C
Group C
formula was designed primarily for the World Endurance Championship which included the 24 Hours of Le Mans. However, several smaller series also adapted the Group C
Group C
regulations. The Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft
Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft
allowed Group C
Group C
cars to compete alongside various other types of cars from the 1982 season until 1985, when the series was reformed as the Supercup. Under the new Supercup series, only Group C
Group C
cars would be allowed to compete. This series lasted until 1989. In Great Britain, the Thundersports championship combined a variety of cars with the C Junior (later C2) class of cars. This too was later replaced with a C2 only series known as the BRDC C2 Championship, and lasted until 1990. The European Interserie championship also allowed Group C
Group C
cars to compete, although they did not use the same class structure. In Japan, the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship
All Japan Sports Prototype Championship
was created in 1983, while the Fuji Long Distance Series also began allowing Group C cars for the first time. It was not until 1989 however that the series concentrated solely on the Group C
Group C
formula. Both championships lasted until 1992, when they were cancelled along with the World Sportscar Championship. List of Group C
Group C
Sports Cars[edit] Main article: List of Group C
Group C
sports cars References[edit]

^ http://www.mulsannescorner.com/maxspeed.htm

v t e

FIA
FIA
categories and groups

Category I

Group N Group A Group R Group T1 Group T2

Category II

Group R-GT Group GT3 Group CN Group D Group E Group T3

Category III

Group F Group T4

Former categories and groups

Category I

Group B
Group B
(1983–86) Group ST (1996–2002) Group CL1 (1996–2002)

Category II

Group C
Group C
(1983–93) Group GT1 (1997–2012) Group GT2 (1997–2012) Group GT (1993–?) Group NGT
Group NGT
(2000–2004)

Category A

Group 1 (1966–82) Group 2 (1966–82) Group 3 (1966–81) Group 4 (1966–82)

Category B

Group 5 (1966–82) Group 6 (1966–82)

Category C

Group 7 (1966–82) Group 8 (1966–82) Group 9 (1966–82)

FIA
FIA
categories and groups defined in Appendix J to the International Sporting Code

v t e

Classes of auto racing

Formula racing

F1 F2 F3 F4 F500 Formula 1000 Formula Atlantic Formula Car Challenge Formula Continental Formula E Formula Ford FF1600 Formula Libre Formula Vee IndyCar Super Formula Supermodified BOSS GP Monoposto Racing Club

Defunct Formula racing

F3000 F5000 Formula A (SCCA) Formula B (SCCA) Formula C (SCCA) FCJ Formula Dream Formula Holden Formula Junior Formula Mondial Formula Pacific Formula Super Vee Australian National Formula Grand Prix Masters Tasman Formula

One-make formulae

CFGP Formula Abarth Formula Car Challenge Formula LGB

Swift Hyundai

Formula Maruti Formula Masters China Formula Mazda Formula Renault Formula Toyota GP3 Indy Lights SRF USF2000 FIA
FIA
Formula 2 Championship

Defunct one-make formulae

A1GP ADAC Formel Masters Auto GP Barber Pro FA1 Formula Alfa Formula Asia Formula BMW FC Euro Series Formula König Formula Lightning Formula Nissan Formula Opel/Vauxhall Formula Palmer Audi Formula RUS Formula Rolon Formula SCCA Grand Prix Masters GP2 International Formula Master Superleague Formula World Series Formula V8 3.5

Karting

KF1 KF2 KF3 KZ1 KZ2 Superkart

Touring car racing

DTM WTCR BTCC Group F Group G Group H Super 2000 Diesel 2000 NGTC (TCN-1) TCR (TCN-2) Supercars TC2000

Defunct touring car racing

Appendix J BTC-T Group 1 Group 2 Group 5 Group A Group C
Group C
(Australia) Group E Group N Group N
Group N
(Australia) Group S Class 1 Super Touring
Super Touring
(Class 2) Superstars V8Star WTCC

Stock car racing

ARCA Allison Legacy Series AUSCAR IMCA Sport Compact Late model Legends Modifieds NASCAR

Monster Energy NASCAR
NASCAR
Cup Xfinity Truck Pinty's Whelen Euro Series PEAK Mexico

Super Stock Street Stock Brasil Turismo Carretera

Oval racing

BriSCA F1 BriSCA F2 V8 Hotstox Hot Rods Superstocks Sprint car racing Midget car racing Quarter Midget racing

Rallying

Group R Group R-GT Super 2000 Super 1600 World Rally Car

Defunct rallying

Group 1 Group 2 Group 4 Group A Group B Group N Group S

Sports prototypes

Clubmans DP Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group A
Group A
Sports Cars Group C GC GC-21 Group CN IMSA GTP LMP LMPC S2000

Grand touring

LM GTE (GT2) GT3 GT4 GT500 GT300 Trans-Am Appendix K Group D GT Cars

Defunct grand touring

Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group B Group D Production Sports Cars GT1 (1993–99) GT2 (1993–99) FIA
FIA
GT1 (2000-12) IMSA AAGT IMSA GTO/GTS IMSA GTU IMSA GTX

Drag racing

Top Fuel
Top Fuel
Dragster (TF/D) Top Alcohol
Top Alcohol
Dragster (TA/D) Top Fuel
Top Fuel
Funny Car
Funny Car
(TF/FC) Pro Stock
Pro Stock
(PS) Pro Modified (Pro Mod) Pro FWD Super Comp/Quick Rod Top Doorslammer

Defunct drag racing

Top Gas Modified Altered Competition Super Stock

Off-road racing

Baja Bug Dune buggy Rallycross Trophy Truck Group T4 Truggy Side b

.