Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French
: ''Gwenad'') is an island country in the West Indies
in the Caribbean Sea
at the southern end of the Grenadines
island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself, two smaller islands, Carriacou
and Petite Martinique
, and several small islands which lie to the north of the main island and are a part of the Grenadines
. It is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago
, northeast of Venezuela
and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
. Its size is , and it had an estimated population of 112,523 in July 2020.
Its capital is St. George's
Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg
Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas
, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks
and later by the Island Caribs
sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage
to the Americas.
Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French
settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British
under the Treaty of Paris
. British rule continued until 1974 (except for a period of French rule
between 1779 and 1783). From 1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies
, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies
. On 3 March 1967, it was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an associated state
Independence was granted on 7 February 1974 under the leadership of Eric Gairy
, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada
of the sovereign state
. The new country became a member of the Commonwealth, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State.
In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement
overthrew Gairy's government in a bloodless ''coup d'état''
and established the People's Revolutionary Government
(PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop
as Prime Minister. Bishop was later arrested and executed by members of the People's Revolutionary Army, prompting a U.S.-led invasion
in October 1983. Since then, the island has remained politically stable without any further seizures of power.
The origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is likely that Spanish sailors named the island for the Andalusia
n city of Granada
It carried at least two other names during the Age of Discovery
On his third voyage
to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus
sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary
. It is said that he may have actually named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, it became accepted that he named Tobago "Assumpción" and Grenada "La Concepción".
In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci
traveled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda
and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa
. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", although this is the only map where the name appears.
However, by the 1520s, Spanish maps used the name "Granada", and referred to the islands to the north as ''Los Granadillos'' ("Little Granadas"). Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain
, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever attempted to settle Grenada.
The French maintained the name ("La Grenade" in French) after settlement and colonisation in 1649. On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris
. The British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place-name anglicisation
s they made there.
Approximately 2 million years ago in the Cenozoic
era, the area of what is nowadays Grenada emerged from a shallow sea
as a submarine volcano. In recent times, volcanic activit
y has been non-existent, except for some of its hot spring
and under water volcano Kick 'em Jenny
Grenada was first populated by peoples from South America, possibly during the Caribbean Archaic Age
, although definitive evidence is lacking. The earliest potential human presence comes from proxy
evidence of lake cores, beginning ~3600 BC. Less ephemeral, permanent villages began around ~AD 300.
The population peaked between AD 750-1250, with major changes in population afterwards, potentially the result of regional droughts and/or the "Carib Invasion"
although the latter rests on highly circumstantial evidence.
It is thought that Christopher Columbus
was the first European to see Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage
, naming it 'Concepción'.
The Spanish did not follow up on this and it was the English who were the first to attempt to colonise the island in 1609; however they were driven away by the native Carib peoples.
[Steele, pp. 35–36]
French colony (1649–1763)
In 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique
led by Jacques Dyel du Parquet
founded a permanent settlement on Grenada.
They signed a peace treaty with the Carib chief Kairouane
, but within months conflict broke out between the two communities. This lasted until 1654 when the island was completely subjugated by the French. The indigenous peoples who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada, where they ultimately disappeared during the 1700s. Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day Dominica
and St. Vincent and the Grenadines
The French named their new colony
La Grenade, and the economy was initially based on sugar cane
, worked by African slaves. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal
(later St. George's). To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would often take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby French islands had a natural harbour to compare with that of Fort Royal. The British captured Grenada during the Seven Years' War
British colonial period
Early colonial period
Grenada was formally ceded to Britain
by the Treaty of Paris
The French re-captured the island
during the American Revolutionary War
, after Comte d'Estaing
won the bloody land and naval Battle of Grenada
in July 1779.
However the island was restored to Britain with the Treaty of Versailles
A decade later dissatisfaction with British rule led to a pro-French revolt
in 1795–96 led by Julien Fédon
, which was successfully defeated by the British.
''The Fédons of Grenada, 1763–1814''
. University of the West Indies. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
As Grenada's economy grew, more and more African slaves were forcibly transported to the island. Britain eventually outlawed the slave trade within the British Empire in 1807, and slavery was outlawed completely in 1834.
In an effort to ameliorate the subsequent labour shortage, migrants from India were brought to Grenada in 1857.
was introduced to Grenada in 1843 when a merchant ship called in on its way to England from the East Indies.
The ship had a small quantity of nutmeg trees on board which they left in Grenada, and this was the beginning of Grenada's nutmeg industry that now supplies nearly 40% of the world's annual crop.
Later colonial period
In 1877 Grenada was made a Crown colony
. Theophilus A. Marryshow
founded the Representative Government Association (RGA) in 1917 to agitate for a new and participative constitutional dispensation for the Grenadian people. Partly as a result of Marryshow's lobbying, the Wood Commission of 1921–22 concluded that Grenada was ready for constitutional reform in the form of a modified Crown colony government. This modification granted Grenadians the right to elect five of the 15 members of the Legislative Council, on a restricted property franchise enabling the wealthiest 4% of adult Grenadians to vote. Marryshow was named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1943
In 1950 Eric Gairy
founded the Grenada United Labour Party
(GULP), initially as a trade union, which led the 1951 general strike
for better working conditions.
This sparked great unrest—so many buildings were set ablaze that the disturbances became known as the "red sky" days—and the British authorities decided to call in military reinforcements to help regain control of the situation. On 10 October 1951, Grenada held its first general elections
on the basis of universal adult suffrage,
with Gairy's party winning six of the eight seats contested.
From 1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies
After the federation's collapse Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State on 3 March 1967.
of the Grenada National Party
(GNP) was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier
from August 1967 until February 1974.
Independence was granted on 7 February 1974, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada
Grenada opted to remain within the British Commonwealth
, retaining Queen Elizabeth as Monarch
, represented locally by a Governor-General
. Civil conflict gradually broke out between Eric Gairy's government and some opposition parties, including the Marxist New Jewel Movement
Gairy and the GULP won the 1976 Grenadian general election
, albeit with an reduced majority;
however the opposition deemed the results invalid due to fraud and the violent intimidation performed by the so-called 'Mongoose Gang
', a private militia loyal to Gairy.
[Nohlen, D (2005) ''Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I'', p301-302 ]
On 13 March 1979, whilst Gairy was out of the country, the NJM launched a bloodless coup
which removed Gairy, suspended the constitution, and established a People's Revolutionary Government
(PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop
who declared himself Prime Minister.
government established close ties with Cuba
, Nicaragua, and other communist bloc
All political parties except for the New Jewel Movement were banned and no elections were held during the four years of PRG rule.
Invasion by the United States (1983)
Coup and execution of Maurice Bishop
Some years later a dispute developed between Bishop and certain high-ranking members of the NJM. Though Bishop cooperated with Cuba
and the USSR
on various trade and foreign policy issues, he sought to maintain a "non-aligned" status. Bishop had been taking his time making Grenada wholly socialist
, simultaneously encouraging private-sector development in an attempt to make the island a popular tourist destination. Hardline Marxist
party members, including communist
Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard
, deemed Bishop insufficiently revolutionary and demanded that he either step down or enter into a power-sharing arrangement.
On 16 October 1983 Bernard Coard and his wife, Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest
These actions led to street demonstrations in various parts of the island because Bishop had widespread support from the population. Because Bishop was a widely popular leader, he was freed by impassioned supporters who marched en masse on his guarded residence from a rally in the capital's central square. Bishop then led the crowd to the island's military headquarters to reassert his power. Grenadian soldiers were dispatched in armored vehicles by the Coard faction to retake the fort. A confrontation between soldiers and civilians at the fort ended in gunfire and panic. Three soldiers and at least eight civilians died in the tumult that also injured 100 others, a school-sponsored study later found. When the initial shooting ended with Bishop's surrender, he and seven of his closest supporters were taken prisoner and executed by a firing squad of soldiers. Besides Bishop, the group included three of his cabinet ministers, a trade union leader and three service-industry workers.
After the execution of Bishop, the People's Revolutionary Army
(PRA) formed a military Marxist government with General Hudson Austin
as chairman. The army declared a four-day total curfew, during which anyone leaving their home without approval would be shot on sight.
United States and allied response and reaction
US President Ronald Reagan
claimed that particularly worrying was the presence of Cuban construction workers and military personnel building a airstrip
Bishop had stated the purpose of the airstrip was to allow commercial jets to land, but some US military analysts argued that the only reason for constructing such a long and reinforced runway was so that it could be used by heavy military transport planes. The contractors, American and European companies, and the EEC
, which provided partial funding, all claimed the airstrip did not have military capabilities.
Reagan claimed that Cuba, under the direction of the Soviet Union, would use Grenada as a refuelling stop for Cuban and Soviet airplanes loaded with weapons destined for Central American communist insurgents.
The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Barbados, and Jamaica all appealed to the United States for assistance.
On 25 October 1983, combined forces from the United States and from the Regional Security System
(RSS) based in Barbados
invaded Grenada in an operation codenamed ''Operation Urgent Fury
''. The US stated this was done at the behest of Barbados, Dominica
and Governor-General of Grenada
, Sir Paul Scoon
. Scoon had requested the invasion through secret diplomatic channels, but it was not made public for his safety.
Progress was rapid and within four days the Americans had removed the military government of Hudson Austin
The invasion was heavily criticized by the governments of Britain, Trinidad and Tobago
, and Canada. The United Nations General Assembly
condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law" by a vote of 108 in favor to 9, with 27 abstentions.
The United Nations Security Council
considered a similar resolution, which was supported by 11 nations. However, the United States vetoed the motion.
After the invasion, the pre-revolutionary Grenadian constitution came into operation once again. Eighteen members of the PRG/PRA were arrested on charges related to the murder of Maurice Bishop and seven others. The 18 included the top political leadership of Grenada at the time of the execution, along with the entire military chain of command directly responsible for the operation that led to the executions. Fourteen were sentenced to death
, one was found not guilty, and three were sentenced to 45 years in prison. The death sentences were eventually commuted to terms of imprisonment. Those in prison have become known as 'the Grenada 17
Grenada since 1983
When US troops withdrew from Grenada in December 1983, Nicholas Brathwaite
of the National Democratic Congress
was appointed Prime Minister of an interim administration by Governor-General Scoon until elections could be organised.
The first democratic elections since 1976 were held in December 1984
, and were won by the Grenada National Party
under Herbert Blaize
, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989.
[''Political Parties of the World'' (6th edition, 2005), ed. Bogdan Szajkowski, page 265.] ["Jan 1985 – General election and resumption of Parliament – Formation of Blaize government – Foreign relations Opening of airport – Start of murder trial", ''Keesing's Record of World Events'', volume 31, January 1985, Grenada, page 33,327.]
briefly succeeded Blaize as Prime Minister and served until the March 1990 election
which was won by the National Democratic Congress under Nicholas Brathwaite who returned as Prime Minister for a second time until he resigned in February 1995.
He was succeeded by George Brizan
who served for a brief period until the June 1995 election
which was won by the New National Party
under Keith Mitchell
, who went on to win the 1999
and 2003 elections, serving for a record 13 years until 2008.
Mitchell re-established relations with Cuba
and also reformed the country's banking system, which had come in for criticism over potential money laundering concerns.
In 2000–02, much of the controversy of the late 1970s and early 1980s was once again brought into the public consciousness with the opening of the truth and reconciliation commission
The commission was chaired by a Roman Catholic priest
, Father Mark Haynes, and was tasked with uncovering injustices arising from the PRA, Bishop's regime, and before. It held a number of hearings around the country. Brother Robert Fanovich, head of Presentation Brothers' College (PBC) in St. George's tasked some of his senior students with conducting a research project into the era and specifically into the fact that Maurice Bishop's body was never discovered. Paterson also uncovered that there was still a lot of resentment in Grenadian society resulting from the era and a feeling that there were many injustices still unaddressed.
On 7 September 2004, after being hurricane-free for 49 years, the island was directly hit by Hurricane Ivan
. Ivan struck as a Category 3 hurricane
, resulting in 39 deaths and damage or destruction to 90% of the island's homes.
On 14 July 2005, Hurricane Emily
, a Category 1 hurricane at the time, struck the northern part of the island with winds, killing one person and causing an estimated USD $110 million (EC$297 million) worth of damage.
Agriculture, and in particular the nutmeg
industry, suffered serious losses, but that event has begun changes in crop management and it is hoped that as new nutmeg trees mature, the industry will gradually rebuild.
Mitchell was defeated in the 2008 election
by the NDC under Tillman Thomas
"Thomas wins by a landslide in Grenada"
, ''The Nation'' (Barbados), 10 July 2008.
however he won the 2013 Grenadian general election
by a landslide and the NNP returned to power, winning again by another landslide in 2018
. In March 2020, Grenada confirmed its first case of COVID-19
, of which the economic effects are expected to rival past downturns, including Hurricane Ivan
The island of Grenada is the southernmost island in the Antilles
archipelago, bordering the eastern Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic Ocean, and roughly north of both Venezuela
and Trinidad and Tobago
. Its sister islands make up the southern section of the Grenadines
, which include Carriacou
, Petite Martinique
, Ronde Island
, Caille Island
, Diamond Island
, Large Island
, Saline Island
, and Frigate Island
; the remaining islands to the north belong to St Vincent and the Grenadines
. Most of the population lives on Grenada, and major towns there include the capital, St. George's
. The largest settlement on the sister islands is Hillsborough
Grenada is of volcanic
as evident in its soil, mountainous interior, and several explosion craters, including Lake Antoine
, Grand Etang Lake
and Levera Pond
. Grenada's highest point is Mount St. Catherine
, rising to above sea level.
Other major mountains include Mount Granby
and South East Mountain
. Several small rivers with waterfalls flow into the sea from these mountains. The coastline contains several bays, most notably on the southern coast which is split into numerous thin peninsulas.
Grenada is home to four ecoregions: Windward Islands moist forests, Leeward Islands dry forests, Windward Islands dry forests, and Windward Islands xeric scrub.
It had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index
mean score of 4.22/10, ranking it 131st
globally out of 172 countries.
is tropical: hot and humid in the dry season
and cooled by the moderate rain fall in the rainy season
. Temperatures range from 32°C-22°C (89°F-71°F) and is rarely below 18°C (68°F) Grenada, being on the southern edge of the hurricane belt
, has suffered only three hurricanes in fifty years.
passed over Grenada on 23 September 1955, with winds of , causing severe damage. The most recent storms to hit have been Hurricane Ivan on 7 September 2004, causing severe damage and thirty-nine deaths, and Hurricane Emily on 14 July 2005, causing serious damage in Carriacou and in the north of Grenada, which had been relatively lightly affected by Hurricane Ivan.
Grenada is a Commonwealth realm
with Queen Elizabeth II
as head of state
, represented locally by a Governor-General
lies with the head of government, the Prime Minister
. The Governor-General role is largely ceremonial, while the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in Parliament
The Parliament of Grenada consists of a Senate (13 members) and a House of Representatives (15 members). Senators are appointed by the government and the opposition, while the Representatives are elected by the population for five-year terms.
Grenada operates a multi-party system, with the largest parties being the centre-right New National Party
(NNP) and the centre-left National Democratic Congress
Grenada is a full and participating member of both the Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) and the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Grenada is, along with much of the Caribbean region, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
. The organization, which primarily consists of former British colonies, focuses on fostering international relations between its members.
Organization of American States (OAS)
Grenada is one of the 35 states which has ratified the OAS
charter and is a member of the Organization. Grenada entered into the Inter-American system in 1975 according to the OAS's website.
Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty
On 6 July 1994 at Sherbourne Conference Centre
in St. Michael, Barbados
, George Brizan
signed the Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty on behalf of the Government of Grenada. This treaty covered concepts such as taxes, residence, tax jurisdictions, capital gains, business profits, interest, dividends, royalties and other areas.
On 30 June 2014, Grenada signed a Model 1 agreement with the United States of America in relation to Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA).
Grenada has no standing military, leaving typical military functions to the Royal Grenada Police Force
(including a Special Service Unit) and the Coast Guard of Grenada
In 2019, Grenada signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons
Grenada is divided into six parishes
Carriacou and Petite Martinique
(''not pictured'') have the status of a dependency.
Male homosexuality is illegal in Grenada and punishable by prison time.
Grenada has a small economy in which tourism is the major foreign exchange
Major short-term concerns are the rising fiscal deficit
and the deterioration in the external account balance. Grenada shares a common central bank
and a common currency (the East Caribbean dollar
) with seven other members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Grenada has suffered from a heavy external debt problem, with government debt service payments running at about 25% of total revenues in 2017; Grenada was listed as ninth from bottom in a study of 126 developing countries.
Agriculture and exports
Grenada is an exporter of several different spices, most notably nutmeg
, its top export and depicted on the national flag, and mace
Other major exports include bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, chocolate and fish.
Tourism is the mainstay of Grenada's economy.
Conventional beach and water-sports tourism is largely focused in the southwest region around St George, the airport and the coastal strip. Ecotourism
is growing in significance. Most small ecofriendly guesthouses are located in the Saint David
and Saint John
parishes. The tourism industry is increasing dramatically with the construction of a large cruise ship pier and esplanade.
Tourism is concentrated in the southwest of the island, around St. George's, Grand Anse, Lance Aux Epines, and Point Salines. Grenada has many beaches around its coastline, including the long Grand Anse Beach in St George, often hailed as one of the best beaches in the world. Grenada's many waterfalls are also popular with tourists. The nearest to St. George's is the Annandale Waterfalls, but other notable ones like Mt. Carmel, Concord, Seven Sisters and Tufton Hall also being within easy reach.
Several festivals also draw in tourists, such as Carriacou Maroon and String Band Music Festival in April,
the Annual Budget Marine Spice Island Bill Fish Tournament, the Island Water World Sailing Week
and the Grenada Sailing Festival Work Boat Regatta.
Education in Grenada consists of kindergarten, pre-primary school, primary school, secondary school and tertiary education. The government has prioritised education, spending 10.3% of its budget to the sector in 2016, the third highest rate in the world.
Literacy rates are very high, with 98.6% of the population being able to read and write.
Maurice Bishop International Airport
is the country's main airport,
connecting the country with other Caribbean islands, the United States, Canada, and Europe. There is also an airport on Carriacou.
A majority of Grenadians (82%
) are descendants of the enslaved Africans
Few of the indigenous Carib and Arawak population survived the French purge at Sauteurs
. A small percentage of descendants of indentured workers from India
were brought to Grenada between 1857 and 1885, predominantly from the states of Bihar
and Uttar Pradesh
. Today, Grenadians of Indian descent constitute 2.2% of the population.
There is also a small community of French and English descendants.
The rest of the population is of mixed descent (13%).
Grenada, like many of the Caribbean islands, is subject to a large amount of out-migration, with a large number of young people seeking more prospects abroad. Popular migration points for Grenadians include more prosperous islands in the Caribbean (such as Barbados
), North American Cities (such as New York City, Toronto and Montreal
), the United Kingdom (in particular, London and Yorkshire
; see Grenadians in the UK
) and Australia.
Figures are 2011 estimates
** Seventh Day Adventist
** Church of God
** other 1.2%
* Roman Catholic
* none 5.7%
* unspecified 1.3%
* Jehovah's Witness
* other 5.5%
English is the country's official language
but the main spoken language is either of two creole language
s (Grenadian Creole English
and, less frequently, Grenadian Creole French
) (sometimes called 'patois') which reflects the African, European, and native heritage of the nation. The creoles contain elements from a variety of African languages, French and English. Grenadian Creole French
is mainly spoken in smaller rural areas.
terms are still spoken amongst the Indo-Grenadian community descendants.
The indigenous languages were Iñeri
Island culture is heavily influenced by the African
roots of most of the Grenadians, coupled with the country's long experience of colonial rule under the British. Although French influence on Grenadian culture is much less visible than on some other Caribbean islands
, surnames and place names in French remain, and the everyday language is laced with French words and the local Creole, or Patois.
Stronger French influence is found in the well seasoned spicy food
and styles of cooking similar to those found in New Orleans
, and some French architecture has survived from the 1700s. Indian and Carib Amerindian
influence is also seen, especially in the island's cuisine.
, a stew, is considered to be the national dish.
The name refers to a dish cooked in coconut milk until all the milk is absorbed, leaving a bit of coconut oil in the bottom of the pot. Early recipes call for a mixture of salted pigtail, pig's feet (trotters), salt beef and chicken, dumplings made from flour, and provision like breadfruit, green banana, yam and potatoes. Callaloo
leaves are sometimes used to retain the steam and add extra flavour.
, and reggae
are popular music genres and are played at Grenada's annual Carnival
. Over the years rap
music became popular amongst Grenadian youths, and there have been numerous young rappers emerging in the island's underground rap scene. Zouk
is also being slowly introduced onto the island.
An important aspect of the Grenadian culture is the tradition of story telling
, with folk tale
s bearing both African and French influences. The character, ''Anancy
'', a spider who is a trickster
, originated in West Africa and is prevalent on other islands as well. French influence can be seen in ''La Diablesse
'', a well-dressed she-devil
, and ''Loogaroo
'' (from "loup-garou"), a werewolf
Grenada has competed in every Summer Olympics since the 1984 Summer Olympics
in Los Angeles. Kirani James
won the first Olympic gold medal
for Grenada in the men's 400 meters
in London and silver in 2016
As with other islands from the Caribbean, cricket
is the national and most popular sport and is an intrinsic part of Grenadian culture. The Grenada national cricket team
forms a part of the Windward Islands cricket team
in regional domestic cricket, however it plays as a separate entity in minor regional matches, as well as having previously played Twenty20
cricket in the Stanford 20/20
The Grenada National Cricket Stadium
in St. George's
hosts domestic and international cricket matches. Devon Smith
, West Indies record holder to win the List-A
West Indian domestic competition
for the second time, was born in the small town of Hermitage
In April 2007 Grenada jointly hosted (along with several other Caribbean nations) the 2007 Cricket World Cup
. The Island's Prime Minister was the CARICOM
representative on cricket and was instrumental in having the World Cup games brought to the region. After Hurricane Ivan, the government of the People's Republic of China
(PRC) paid for the new $40 million national stadium
and provided the aid of over 300 labourers to build and repair it. During the opening ceremony, the anthem of the Republic of China
) was accidentally played instead of the PRC's anthem, leading to the firing of top officials.
* Sydney Gun-Munro
, First Governor General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
*Outline of Grenada
*Index of Grenada-related articles
*Adkin, Mark. 1989. ''Urgent Fury: The Battle for Grenada: The Truth Behind the Largest US Military Operation Since Vietnam''. Trans-Atlantic Publications.
*Beck, Robert J.
1993. ''The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking''. Boulder: Westview Press.
*Brizan, George 1984. ''Grenada Island of Conflict: From Amerindians to People's Revolution 1498–1979''. London, Zed Books Ltd., publisher; Copyright, George Brizan, 1984.
*Martin, John Angus. 2007. ''A–Z of Grenada Heritage''. Macmillan Caribbean.
*Sinclair, Norma. 2003. ''Grenada: Isle of Spice (Caribbean Guides)''. Interlink Publishing Group; 3rd edition.
*Stark, James H. 1897. ''Stark's Guide-Book and History of Trinidad including Tobago, Grenada, and St. Vincent; also a trip up the Orinoco and a description of the great Venezuelan Pitch Lake''. Boston, James H. Stark, publisher; London, Sampson Low, Marston & Company.
*Steele, Beverley A. 2003. ''Grenada: A History of Its People (Island Histories)''. MacMillan Caribbean.
*Official Website of the Government of GrenadaGrenada
''The World Factbook
''. Central Intelligence Agency
at ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''.
from the BBC News
.Presentation Brothers CollegeKey Development Forecasts for Grenada
from International Futures
.''The Grenada Newsletter'', 1974–1994
in the Digital Library of the Caribbean
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