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The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe. Protestants and Eastern Orthodox countries continued to use the traditional Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and adopted the Gregorian reform, one by one, after a time, at least for civil purposes and for the sake of convenience in international trade. The last European country to adopt the reform was Greece, in 1923.[4] Many (but not all) countries that have traditionally used the Julian calendar, or the Islamic or other religious calendars, have come to adopt the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
for civil purposes. The Gregorian reform contained two parts: a reform of the Julian calendar as used prior to Pope Gregory XIII's time, and a reform of the lunar cycle used by the Church with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
to calculate the date of Easter. The reform was a modification of a proposal made by Aloysius Lilius,[5] who proposed to reduce the number of leap years that occur in every four centuries from 100 to 97, by making 3 out of 4 centurial years common years instead of leap years. Lilius also produced an original and practical scheme for adjusting the epacts of the moon when calculating the annual date of Easter, solving a long-standing obstacle to calendar reform. The Gregorian reform modified the Julian calendar's scheme of leap years as follows:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.[6]

In addition to the change in the mean length of the calendar year from 365.25 days (365 days 6 hours) to 365.2425 days (365 days 5 hours 49 minutes 12 seconds), a reduction of 10 minutes 48 seconds per year, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
reform also dealt with the accumulated difference between these lengths. The canonical Easter
Easter
tables were devised at the end of the third century, when the vernal equinox fell either on 20 March
March
or 21 March
March
depending on the year's position in the leap year cycle. As the rule was that the full moon preceding Easter was not to precede the equinox, the date was fixed at 21 March
March
for computational purposes and the earliest date for Easter
Easter
was fixed at 22 March. The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
reproduced these conditions by removing ten days.[7] To unambiguously specify a date, dual dating or Old Style and New Style dates are sometimes used. Dual dating
Dual dating
gives two consecutive years for a given date because of differences in the starting date of the year or to give both the Julian and the Gregorian dates. The "Old Style" (O.S.) and "New Style" (N.S.) notations indicate either that the start of the Julian year has (or has not) been adjusted to start on 1 January
January
(even though documents written at the time use a different start of year), or that a date conforms to the (old) Julian calendar rather than the (new) Gregorian.[Note 2] The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
continued to use the previous calendar era (year-numbering system), which counts years from the traditional date of the nativity (Anno Domini), originally calculated in the 6th century by Dionysius Exiguus.[8] This year-numbering system, also known as Dionysian era or Common Era, is the predominant international standard today.[Note 3]

Contents

1 Description 2 Gregorian reform

2.1 Background 2.2 Preparation 2.3 Adoption

3 Difference between Gregorian and Julian calendar
Julian calendar
dates 4 Beginning of the year 5 Dual dating

5.1 Old Style and New Style dates

6 Proleptic Gregorian calendar 7 Months 8 Weeks 9 Accuracy

9.1 Calendar
Calendar
seasonal error

10 Proposed reforms 11 See also 12 Notes 13 Citations 14 References 15 External links

Description

A year is divided into twelve months

No. Name Length in days

1 January 31

2 February 28 (29 in leap years)

3 March 31

4 April 30

5 May 31

6 June 30

7 July 31

8 August 31

9 September 30

10 October 31

11 November 30

12 December 31

Christopher Clavius
Christopher Clavius
(1538–1612), one of the main authors of the reform.

Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
in an early 17th-century engraving.

The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is a solar calendar. A regular Gregorian year consists of 365 days, but as in the Julian calendar, in certain years, a leap year, a leap day is added to February. In the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
a leap year occurs every 4 years, but the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
omits a leap day in three of every 400 years. In the Julian calendar, the leap day was inserted by doubling 24 February, and the Gregorian reform did not change the date of the leap day. In the modern period, it has become customary to number the days from the beginning of the month, and 29 February
February
is typically considered as the leap day. Before the 1969 revision of the Roman Calendar, the Roman Catholic Church delayed February
February
feasts after the 23rd by one day in leap years; Masses celebrated according to the previous calendar still reflect this delay.[10] Gregorian years are identified by consecutive year numbers.[11] The cycles repeat completely every 146,097 days, which equals 400 years.[Note 4][Note 5] Of these 400 years, 303 are regular years of 365 days and 97 are leap years of 366 days. A mean calendar year is 365 97/400 days = 365.2425 days, or 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes and 12 seconds.[Note 6] A calendar date is fully specified by the year (numbered by some scheme beyond the scope of the calendar itself), the month (identified by name or number), and the day of the month (numbered sequentially starting at 1). Although the calendar year currently runs from 1 January
January
to 31 December, at previous times year numbers were based on a different starting point within the calendar (see the "beginning of the year" section below).

Gregorian reform

First page of the papal bull Inter gravissimas

Detail of the pope's tomb by Camillo Rusconi
Camillo Rusconi
(completed 1723); Antonio Lilio is genuflecting before the pope, presenting his printed calendar.

The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was a reform of the Julian calendar. It was instituted in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by papal bull Inter gravissimas
Inter gravissimas
dated 24 February
February
1582.[3] The motivation for the adjustment was to bring the date for the celebration of Easter
Easter
to the time of year in which it was celebrated when it was introduced by the early Church. The error in the Julian calendar (its assumption that there are exactly 365.25 days in a year) had led to the date of the equinox according to the calendar drifting from the observed reality, and thus an error had been introduced into the calculation of the date of Easter. Although a recommendation of the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325 specified that all Christians should celebrate Easter
Easter
on the same day, it took almost five centuries before virtually all Christians achieved that objective by adopting the rules of the Church of Alexandria (see Easter
Easter
for the issues which arose).[Note 7] Background Further information: Computus Because the date of Easter
Easter
was tied to the Spring Equinox, the Roman Catholic Church considered the seasonal drift in the date of Easter undesirable. The Church of Alexandria celebrated Easter
Easter
on the Sunday after the 14th day of the moon (computed using the Metonic cycle) that falls on or after the vernal equinox, which they placed on 21 March. However, the Church of Rome still regarded 25 March
March
(Lady Day) as the equinox (until 342), and used a different cycle to compute the day of the moon.[13] In the Alexandrian system, since the 14th day of the Easter
Easter
moon could fall at earliest on 21 March
March
its first day could fall no earlier than 8 March
March
and no later than 5 April. This meant that Easter
Easter
varied between 22 March
March
and 25 April. In Rome, Easter
Easter
was not allowed to fall later than 21 April, that being the day of the Parilia
Parilia
or birthday of Rome and a pagan festival. The first day of the Easter
Easter
moon could fall no earlier than 5 March
March
and no later than 2 April. Easter
Easter
was the Sunday after the 15th day of this moon, whose 14th day was allowed to precede the equinox. Where the two systems produced different dates there was generally a compromise so that both churches were able to celebrate on the same day. By the 10th century all churches (except some on the eastern border of the Byzantine Empire) had adopted the Alexandrian Easter, which still placed the vernal equinox on 21 March, although Bede
Bede
had already noted its drift in 725—it had drifted even further by the 16th century.[14] Worse, the reckoned Moon that was used to compute Easter
Easter
was fixed to the Julian year by a 19-year cycle. That approximation built up an error of one day every 310 years, so by the 16th century the lunar calendar was out of phase with the real Moon by four days. European scholars had been well aware of the calendar drift since the early medieval period. Bede, writing in the 8th century, showed that the accumulated error in his day was more than three days. Roger Bacon in c. 1200 estimated the error at seven or eight days. Dante, writing c. 1300, was aware of the need of a calendar reform. The first attempt to go forward with such a reform was undertaken by Pope Sixtus IV, who in 1475 invited Regiomontanus
Regiomontanus
to the Vatican for this purpose. However, the project was interrupted by the death of Regiomontanus shortly after his arrival in Rome.[15] The increase of astronomical knowledge and the precision of observations towards the end of the 15th century made the question more pressing. Numerous publications over the following decades called for a calendar reform, among them a paper sent to the Vatican by the University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
in 1515,[citation needed] but the project was not taken up again until the 1540s, and implemented only under Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
(r. 1572–1585). Preparation In 1545, the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
authorized Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
to reform the calendar, requiring that the date of the vernal equinox be restored to that which it held at the time of the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325 and that an alteration to the calendar be designed to prevent future drift. This would allow for a more consistent and accurate scheduling of the feast of Easter. In 1577, a Compendium was sent to expert mathematicians outside the reform commission for comments. Some of these experts, including Giambattista Benedetti
Giambattista Benedetti
and Giuseppe Moleto, believed Easter
Easter
should be computed from the true motions of the sun and moon, rather than using a tabular method, but these recommendations were not adopted.[16] The reform adopted was a modification of a proposal made by the Calabrian doctor Aloysius Lilius
Aloysius Lilius
(or Lilio).[5] Lilius's proposal included reducing the number of leap years in four centuries from 100 to 97, by making three out of four centurial years common instead of leap years. He also produced an original and practical scheme for adjusting the epacts of the moon when calculating the annual date of Easter, solving a long-standing obstacle to calendar reform. Ancient tables provided the sun's mean longitude.[17][18] Christopher Clavius, the architect of the Gregorian calendar, noted that the tables agreed neither on the time when the sun passed through the vernal equinox nor on the length of the mean tropical year. Tycho Brahe also noticed discrepancies.[19][20] The Gregorian leap year rule (97 leap years in 400 years) was put forward by Petrus Pitatus of Verona in 1560. He noted that it is consistent with the tropical year of the Alfonsine tables and with the mean tropical year of Copernicus (De revolutionibus) and Reinhold (Prutenic tables). The three mean tropical years in Babylonian sexagesimals as the excess over 365 days (the way they would have been extracted from the tables of mean longitude) were 14,33,9,57 (Alphonsine), 14,33,11,12 (Copernicus) and 14,33,9,24 (Reinhold). All values are the same to two places (14:33) and this is also the mean length of the Gregorian year. Thus Pitatus' solution would have commended itself to the astronomers.[21] Lilius's proposals had two components. Firstly, he proposed a correction to the length of the year. The mean tropical year is 365.24219 days long.[22] As the average length of a Julian year is 365.25 days, the Julian year is almost 11 minutes longer than the mean tropical year. The discrepancy results in a drift of about three days every 400 years. Lilius's proposal resulted in an average year of 365.2425 days (see Accuracy). At the time of Gregory's reform there had already been a drift of 10 days since the Council of Nicaea, resulting in the vernal equinox falling on 10 or 11 March
March
instead of the ecclesiastically fixed date of 21 March, and if unreformed it would drift further. Lilius proposed that the 10-day drift should be corrected by deleting the Julian leap day on each of its ten occurrences over a period of forty years, thereby providing for a gradual return of the equinox to 21 March. Lilius's work was expanded upon by Christopher Clavius
Christopher Clavius
in a closely argued, 800-page volume. He would later defend his and Lilius's work against detractors. Clavius's opinion was that the correction should take place in one move, and it was this advice which prevailed with Gregory. The second component consisted of an approximation which would provide an accurate yet simple, rule-based calendar. Lilius's formula was a 10-day correction to revert the drift since the Council of Nicaea, and the imposition of a leap day in only 97 years in 400 rather than in 1 year in 4. The proposed rule was that years divisible by 100 would be leap years only if they were divisible by 400 as well. The 19-year cycle used for the lunar calendar was also to be corrected by one day every 300 or 400 years (8 times in 2500 years) along with corrections for the years that are no longer leap years (i.e., 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, etc.). In fact, a new method for computing the date of Easter
Easter
was introduced. When the new calendar was put in use, the error accumulated in the 13 centuries since the Council of Nicaea was corrected by a deletion of 10 days. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
day Thursday, 4 October
October
1582 was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October
October
1582 (the cycle of weekdays was not affected).

Adoption Main article: Adoption of the Gregorian calendar Although Gregory's reform was enacted in the most solemn of forms available to the Church, the bull had no authority beyond the Catholic Church and the Papal States. The changes that he was proposing were changes to the civil calendar, over which he had no authority. They required adoption by the civil authorities in each country to have legal effect. The bull Inter gravissimas
Inter gravissimas
became the law of the Catholic Church in 1582, but it was not recognised by Protestant
Protestant
Churches, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox Churches, and a few others. Consequently, the days on which Easter
Easter
and related holidays were celebrated by different Christian Churches again diverged. A month after having decreed the reform, the pope with a brief of 3 April
April
1582 granted to Antonio Lilio, the brother of Luigi Lilio, the exclusive right to publish the calendar for a period of ten years. The Lunario Novo secondo la nuova riforma printed by Vincenzo Accolti, one of the first calendars printed in Rome after the reform, notes at the bottom that it was signed with papal authorization and by Lilio (Con licentia delli Superiori... et permissu Ant(onii) Lilij). The papal brief was later revoked, on 20 September
September
1582, because Antonio Lilio proved unable to keep up with the demand for copies.[23] On 29 September
September
1582, Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
decreed the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.[24] This affected much of Roman Catholic Europe, as Philip was at the time ruler over Spain and Portugal as well as much of Italy. In these territories, as well as in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth[citation needed] (ruled by Anna Jagiellon) and in the Papal States, the new calendar was implemented on the date specified by the bull, with Julian Thursday, 4 October 1582, being followed by Gregorian Friday, 15 October
October
1582. The Spanish and Portuguese colonies followed somewhat later de facto because of delay in communication.[25] Many Protestant
Protestant
countries initially objected to adopting a Catholic innovation; some Protestants feared the new calendar was part of a plot to return them to the Catholic fold. For example, the British could not bring themselves to adopt the Catholic system explicitly: the Annexe to their Calendar (New Style) Act 1750
Calendar (New Style) Act 1750
established a computation for the date of Easter
Easter
that achieved the same result as Gregory's rules, without actually referring to him.[26] Britain and the British Empire
British Empire
(including the eastern part of what is now the United States) adopted the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
in 1752. Sweden followed in 1753. Prior to 1917, Turkey used the lunar Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
with the Hegira era for general purposes and the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
for fiscal purposes. The start of the fiscal year was eventually fixed at 1 March
March
and the year number was roughly equivalent to the Hegira year (see Rumi calendar). As the solar year is longer than the lunar year this originally entailed the use of "escape years" every so often when the number of the fiscal year would jump. From 1 March
March
1917 the fiscal year became Gregorian, rather than Julian. On 1 January
January
1926 the use of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was extended to include use for general purposes and the number of the year became the same as in most other countries.

Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar

1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

1582: Spain, Portugal, France, Poland, Italy, Catholic Low Countries, Luxemburg, and colonies 1584: Kingdom of Bohemia

1610: Prussia 1648: Alsace 1682: Strasbourg

1700: 'Germany', Swiss Cantons, Protestant
Protestant
Low Countries, Norway, Denmark 1752: Great Britain and colonies 1753: Sweden and Finland

1873: Japan 1875: Egypt 1896: Korea

1912: China, Albania 1915: Latvia, Lithuania 1916: Bulgaria 1918: USSR, Estonia 1919: Romania, Yugoslavia[Note 8] 1923: Greece 1926: Turkey

Difference between Gregorian and Julian calendar
Julian calendar
dates

Conversion from Julian to Gregorian dates.[27]

Gregorian range Julian range Difference

From 15 October
October
1582 to 28 February
February
1700 From 5 October
October
1582 to 18 February
February
1700 10 days

From 1 March
March
1700 to 28 February
February
1800 From 19 February
February
1700 to 17 February
February
1800 11 days

From 1 March
March
1800 to 28 February
February
1900 From 18 February
February
1800 to 16 February
February
1900 12 days

From 1 March
March
1900 to 28 February
February
2100 From 17 February
February
1900 to 15 February
February
2100 13 days

From 1 March
March
2100 to 28 February
February
2200 From 16 February
February
2100 to 14 February
February
2200 14 days

Since the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, the difference between Gregorian and Julian calendar
Julian calendar
dates has increased by three days every four centuries (all date ranges are inclusive): This section always places the intercalary day on 29 February
February
even though it was always obtained by doubling 24 February
February
(the bissextum (twice sixth) or bissextile day) until the late Middle Ages. The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is proleptic before 1582 (assumed to exist before 1582). The following equation gives the number of days (actually, dates) that the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is ahead of the Julian calendar, called the secular difference between the two calendars. A negative difference means the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
is ahead of the Gregorian calendar.[28]

D =

Y

/

100

Y

/

400

− 2

displaystyle D=leftlfloor Y/100 rightrfloor -leftlfloor Y/400 rightrfloor -2

where

D

displaystyle D

is the secular difference and

Y

displaystyle Y

is the year using astronomical year numbering, that is, use (year BC) − 1 for BC years.

x

displaystyle leftlfloor x rightrfloor

means that if the result of the division is not an integer it is rounded down to the nearest integer. Thus during the 1900s, 1900/400 = 4, while during the −500s, −500/400 = −2. The general rule, in years which are leap years in the Julian calendar but not the Gregorian, is as follows: Up to 28 February
February
in the calendar you are converting from add one day less or subtract one day more than the calculated value. Remember to give February
February
the appropriate number of days for the calendar you are converting into. When you are subtracting days to move from Julian to Gregorian be careful, when calculating the Gregorian equivalent of 29 February
February
(Julian), to remember that 29 February
February
is discounted. Thus if the calculated value is −4 the Gregorian equivalent of this date is 24 February.[29][30]

Beginning of the year

Country Start numbered year on 1 January Adoption of Gregorian calendar

Denmark Gradual change from 13th to 16th centuries[31] 1700

Venice 1522 1582

Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(Catholic states) 1544 1583

Spain, Poland, Portugal 1556 1582

Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
( Protestant
Protestant
states) 1559 1700

Sweden 1559 1753

France 1564[32] 1582[n 1]

Southern Netherlands 1576[33] 1582

Lorraine 1579 1682

Dutch Republic 1583 1582

Scotland 1600[34][35] 1752

Russia 1700[36] 1918

Tuscany 1721 1750

Great Britain and the British Empire except Scotland 1752[34] 1752

The year used in dates during the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the Roman Empire was the consular year, which began on the day when consuls first entered office—probably 1 May
May
before 222 BC, 15 March
March
from 222 BC and 1 January
January
from 153 BC.[37] The Julian calendar, which began in 45 BC, continued to use 1 January
January
as the first day of the new year. Even though the year used for dates changed, the civil year always displayed its months in the order January
January
to December
December
from the Roman Republican period until the present. During the Middle Ages, under the influence of the Catholic Church, many Western European countries moved the start of the year to one of several important Christian festivals—25 December
December
(supposed Nativity of Jesus), 25 March
March
(Annunciation), or Easter
Easter
(France),[38] while the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
began its year on 1 September
September
and Russia did so on 1 March
March
until 1492 when the new year was moved to 1 September.[39] In common usage, 1 January
January
was regarded as New Year's Day
Day
and celebrated as such,[40] but from the 12th century until 1751 the legal year in England began on 25 March
March
(Lady Day).[41] So, for example, the Parliamentary record lists the execution of Charles I on 30 January
January
as occurring in 1648 (as the year did not end until 24 March),[42] although later histories adjust the start of the year to 1 January
January
and record the execution as occurring in 1649.[43] Most Western European countries changed the start of the year to 1 January
January
before they adopted the Gregorian calendar. For example, Scotland changed the start of the Scottish New Year
Year
to 1 January
January
in 1600 (this means that 1599 was a short year). England, Ireland and the British colonies changed the start of the year to 1 January
January
in 1752 (so 1751 was a short year with only 282 days) though in England the start of the tax year remained at 25 March
March
(O.S.), 5 April
April
(N.S.) till 1800, when it moved to 6 April. Later in 1752 in September
September
the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was introduced throughout Britain and the British colonies (see the section Adoption). These two reforms were implemented by the Calendar
Calendar
(New Style) Act 1750.[44] In some countries, an official decree or law specified that the start of the year should be 1 January. For such countries a specific year when a 1 January-year became the norm can be identified. In other countries the customs varied, and the start of the year moved back and forth as fashion and influence from other countries dictated various customs. Neither the papal bull nor its attached canons explicitly fix such a date, though it is implied by two tables of saint's days, one labelled 1582 which ends on 31 December, and another for any full year that begins on 1 January. It also specifies its epact relative to 1 January, in contrast with the Julian calendar, which specified it relative to 22 March. The old date was derived from the Greek system: the earlier Supputatio Romana specified it relative to 1 January.

^ In 1793 France abandoned the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
in favour of the French Republican Calendar. This change was reverted in 1805.

Dual dating Main article: Dual dating During the period between 1582, when the first countries adopted the Gregorian calendar, and 1923, when the last European country adopted it, it was often necessary to indicate the date of some event in both the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and in the Gregorian calendar, for example, "10/21 February
February
1750/51", where the dual year accounts for some countries already beginning their numbered year on 1 January
January
while others were still using some other date. Even before 1582, the year sometimes had to be double dated because of the different beginnings of the year in various countries. Woolley, writing in his biography of John Dee (1527–1608/9), notes that immediately after 1582 English letter writers "customarily" used "two dates" on their letters, one OS and one NS.[45] Old Style and New Style dates Main articles: Old Style and New Style dates
Old Style and New Style dates
and Dual dating "Old Style" (OS) and "New Style" (NS) are sometimes added to dates to identify which calendar reference system is used for the date given. In Britain and its Colonies, where the Calendar
Calendar
Act of 1750 altered the start of the year,[Note 9] and also aligned the British calendar with the Gregorian calendar, there is some confusion as to what these terms mean. They can indicate that the start of the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January
January
(NS) even though contemporary documents use a different start of year (OS); or to indicate that a date conforms to the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
(OS), formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(NS).[43][46][47][48] Proleptic Gregorian calendar Main article: Proleptic Gregorian calendar Extending the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
backwards to dates preceding its official introduction produces a proleptic calendar, which should be used with some caution. For ordinary purposes, the dates of events occurring prior to 15 October
October
1582 are generally shown as they appeared in the Julian calendar, with the year starting on 1 January, and no conversion to their Gregorian equivalents. For example, the Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
is universally considered to have been fought on 25 October
October
1415 which is Saint
Saint
Crispin's Day. Usually, the mapping of new dates onto old dates with a start of year adjustment works well with little confusion for events that happened before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar. But for the period between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
on 15 October 1582 and its introduction in Britain on 14 September
September
1752, there can be considerable confusion between events in continental western Europe and in British domains in English language histories. Events in continental western Europe are usually reported in English language histories as happening under the Gregorian calendar. For example, the Battle of Blenheim
Battle of Blenheim
is always given as 13 August
August
1704. Confusion occurs when an event affects both. For example, William III of England arrived at Brixham
Brixham
in England on 5 November
November
1688 (Julian calendar), after setting sail from the Netherlands on 11 November
November
1688 (Gregorian calendar). Shakespeare and Cervantes seemingly died on exactly the same date (23 April
April
1616), but Cervantes predeceased Shakespeare by ten days in real time (as Spain used the Gregorian calendar, but Britain used the Julian calendar). This coincidence encouraged UNESCO
UNESCO
to make 23 April the World Book and Copyright Day. Astronomers avoid this ambiguity by the use of the Julian day number. For dates before the year 1, unlike the proleptic Gregorian calendar used in the international standard ISO 8601, the traditional proleptic Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(like the Julian calendar) does not have a year 0 and instead uses the ordinal numbers 1, 2, … both for years AD and BC. Thus the traditional time line is 2 BC, 1 BC, AD 1, and AD 2. ISO 8601 uses astronomical year numbering which includes a year 0 and negative numbers before it. Thus the ISO 8601 time line is −0001, 0000, 0001, and 0002.

Months The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
continued to employ the Julian months, which have Latinate names and irregular numbers of days:

January
January
(31 days), from Latin mēnsis Iānuārius, " Month
Month
of Janus",[49] the Roman god of gates, doorways, beginnings and endings February
February
(28 days in common and 29 in leap years), from Latin mēnsis Februārius, " Month
Month
of the Februa", the Roman festival of purgation and purification,[50][51] cognate with fever,[50] the Etruscan death god Februus
Februus
("Purifier"),[citation needed] and the PIE word for sulfur[50] March
March
(31 days), from Latin mēnsis Mārtius, " Month
Month
of Mars",[52] the Roman war god[51] April
April
(30 days), from Latin mēnsis Aprīlis, of uncertain meaning[53] but usually derived from some form of the verb aperire ("to open")[54] or the name of the goddess Aphrodite[51][58] May
May
(31 days), from Latin mēnsis Māius, " Month
Month
of Maia",[59] a Roman vegetation goddess[51] whose name is cognate with Latin magnus ("great")[59] and English major June
June
(30 days), from Latin mēnsis Iūnius, " Month
Month
of Juno",[60] the Roman goddess of marriage, childbirth, and rule[51] July
July
(31 days), from Latin mēnsis Iūlius, " Month
Month
of Julius Caesar", the month of Caesar's birth, instituted in 44 BC[61] as part of his calendrical reforms[51] August
August
(31 days), from Latin mēnsis Augustus, " Month
Month
of Augustus", instituted by Augustus
Augustus
in 8 BC in agreement with July
July
and from the occurrence during the month of several important events during his rise to power[62] September
September
(30 days), from Latin mēnsis september, "seventh month", from its position in the Roman calendar
Roman calendar
before 153 BC[63] October
October
(31 days), from Latin mēnsis octōber, "eighth month",[64] from its position in the Roman calendar
Roman calendar
before 153 BC[63] November
November
(30 days), from Latin mēnsis november, "ninth month",[65] from its position in the Roman calendar
Roman calendar
before 153 BC[63] December
December
(31 days), from Latin mēnsis december, "tenth month",[66] from its position in the Roman calendar
Roman calendar
before 153 BC[63]

Europeans sometimes attempt to remember the number of days in each month by memorizing some form of the traditional verse "Thirty Days Hath September". It appears in Latin,[67][68] Italian,[69] and French,[70] and belongs to a broad oral tradition but the earliest currently attested form of the poem is the English marginalia inserted into a calendar of saints c. 1425:[71][72][73]

Thirti dayes hath novembir April
April
june and Septembir. Of xxviij is but oon And alle the remenaunt xxx and j[72]

  

Thirty days have November, April, June, and September. Of 28 is but one And all the remnant 30 and 1.

The knuckle mnemonic for the days of the months of the year

Variations appeared in Mother Goose
Mother Goose
and continue to be taught at schools. The unhelpfulness of such involved mnemonics has been parodied as "Thirty days hath September / But all the rest I can't remember"[74] but it has also been called "probably the only sixteenth-century poem most ordinary citizens know by heart".[75] A common nonverbal alternative is the knuckle mnemonic, considering the knuckles of one's hands as months with 31 days and the lower spaces between them as the months with fewer days. Using two hands, one may start from either pinkie knuckle as January
January
and count across, omitting the space between the index knuckles ( July
July
and August). The same procedure can be done using the knuckles of a single hand, returning from the last (July) to the first (August) and continuing through. A similar mnemonic is to move up a piano keyboard in semitones from an F key, taking the white keys as the longer months and the black keys as the shorter ones.

Weeks Main article: Seven-day week In conjunction with the system of months there is a system of weeks. A physical or electronic calendar provides conversion from a given date to the weekday, and shows multiple dates for a given weekday and month. Calculating the day of the week is not very simple, because of the irregularities in the Gregorian system. When the Gregorian calendar was adopted by each country, the weekly cycle continued uninterrupted. For example, in the case of the few countries that adopted the reformed calendar on the date proposed by Gregory XIII
Gregory XIII
for the calendar's adoption, Friday, 15 October
October
1582, the preceding date was Thursday, 4 October
October
1582 (Julian calendar). Opinions vary about the numbering of the days of the week. ISO 8601, in common use worldwide, starts with Monday=1; printed monthly calendar grids often list Mondays in the first (left) column of dates and Sundays in the last. Software often starts with Sunday=0, which places Sundays in the left column of a monthly calendar page. Accuracy The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
improves the approximation made by the Julian calendar by skipping three Julian leap days in every 400 years, giving an average year of 365.2425 mean solar days long.[76] This approximation has an error of about one day per 3,030 years[77] with respect to the current value of the mean tropical year. However, because of the precession of the equinoxes, which is not constant, and the movement of the perihelion (which affects the Earth's orbital speed) the error with respect to the astronomical vernal equinox is variable; using the average interval between vernal equinoxes near 2000 of 365.24237 days[78] implies an error closer to 1 day every 7,700 years. By any criterion, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is substantially more accurate than the 1 day in 128 years error of the Julian calendar (average year 365.25 days). In the 19th century, Sir John Herschel
John Herschel
proposed a modification to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
with 969 leap days every 4000 years, instead of 970 leap days that the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would insert over the same period.[79] This would reduce the average year to 365.24225 days. Herschel's proposal would make the year 4000, and multiples thereof, common instead of leap. While this modification has often been proposed since, it has never been officially adopted.[80] On time scales of thousands of years, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
falls behind the astronomical seasons because the slowing down of the Earth's rotation
Earth's rotation
makes each day slightly longer over time (see tidal acceleration and leap second) while the year maintains a more uniform duration. Calendar
Calendar
seasonal error

This image shows the difference between the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and the astronomical seasons. The y-axis is the date in June
June
and the x-axis is Gregorian calendar years. Each point is the date and time of the June
June
solstice in that particular year. The error shifts by about a quarter of a day per year. Centurial years are ordinary years, unless they are divisible by 400, in which case they are leap years. This causes a correction in the years 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, and 2300. For instance, these corrections cause 23 December
December
1903 to be the latest December
December
solstice, and 20 December
December
2096 to be the earliest solstice—about 2.35 days of variation compared with the seasonal event. Proposed reforms The following are proposed reforms of the Gregorian calendar:

Holocene calendar International Fixed Calendar (also called the International Perpetual calendar) World Calendar World Season
Season
Calendar Leap week calendars

Pax Calendar Symmetry454 Hanke–Henry Permanent Calendar

See also

Christianity portal

Calendar
Calendar
(New Style) Act 1750 Calendar
Calendar
reform Conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars Doomsday rule French revolutionary calendar Hebrew calendar Islamic calendar Inter gravissimas
Inter gravissimas
in English – Wikisource Julian day calculation History
History
of calendars List of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
per country List of calendars Old Calendarists

Greek Old Calendarists

Revised Julian calendar
Julian calendar
(Milanković) – used in Eastern Orthodoxy

Precursors of the Gregorian reform

Johannes de Sacrobosco, De Anni Ratione ("On reckoning the years"), c. 1235 Roger Bacon, Opus Majus
Opus Majus
("Greater Work"), c. 1267

Notes

^ The international standard for the representation of dates and times, ISO 8601, uses the Gregorian calendar. Section 3.2.1. ^ In Great Britain and its colonies, "Old Style" typically implies that the date is given in the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
with the year beginning on 25 March, whereas "New Style" implies use of the Gregorian calendar with years beginning 1 January. ^ The first known occurrence of Common Era
Common Era
in English dates to 1708. Years before the beginning of the era are abbreviated in English as either BC for "Before Christ", or as BCE for "Before the Common Era". Two era names occur within the bull Inter gravissimas
Inter gravissimas
itself, anno Incarnationis dominicæ ("in the year of the Incarnation of the Lord") for the year it was signed, and anno à Nativitate Domini nostri Jesu Christi ("in the year from the Nativity of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ") for the year it was printed.[9] ^ The cycle described applies to the solar, or civil, calendar. If one also considers the ecclesiastical lunar rules, the lunisolar Easter computus cycle repeats only after 5,700,000 years of 2,081,882,250 days in 70,499,183 lunar months, based on an assumed mean lunar month of 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2 49928114/70499183 seconds. (Seidelmann (1992), p. 582) [To properly function as an Easter computus, this lunisolar cycle must have the same mean year as the Gregorian solar cycle, and indeed that is exactly the case.] ^ The extreme length of the Gregorian Easter
Easter
computus is due to its being the product of the 19-year Metonic cycle, the thirty different possible values of the epact, and the least common multiple (10,000) of the 400-year and 2,500-year solar and lunar correction cycles.[12] ^ The same result is obtained by summing the fractional parts implied by the rule: 365 + 1/4 − 1/100 + 1/400 = 365 + 0.25 − 0.01 + 0.0025 = 365.2425 ^ The last major Christian region to accept the Alexandrian rules was the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(most of Western Europe) during 780–800. The last monastery in England to accept the Alexandrian rules did so in 931, and a few churches in southwest Asia beyond the eastern border of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
continued to use rules that differed slightly, causing four dates for Easter
Easter
to differ every 532 years. ^ 1919 in the regions comprising the former Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro (present-day Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia and Macedonia). The western and northern regions of what became Yugoslavia were already using the Gregorian calendar. For example, most of Slovenia adopted the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
at the same time as Austria in 1583. Coastal Croatia, which was at the time ruled by Venice, adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1582. Inland Croatia, ruled by the Habsburgs, adopted it in 1587 along with Hungary. The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina since the 16th century by the Catholic population and was formally adopted for government use in 1878 following occupation by Austria-Hungary. ^ In Scotland the legal start of year had been moved to 1 January
January
in 1600 (Mike Spathaky. Old Style New Style dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar).

Citations

^ Introduction to Calendars. United States Naval Observatory. Retrieved 15 January
January
2009. ^ Calendars Archived 1 April
April
2004 at the Wayback Machine. by L. E. Doggett. Section 2. ^ a b See Wikisource English translation of the (Latin) 1582 papal bull Inter gravissimas. ^ Blegen n.d. ^ a b Moyer (1983). ^ Introduction to Calendars. (15 May
May
2013). United States Naval Observatory. ^ Ziggelaar (1983), p. 223. ^ Nineteen- Year
Year
Cycle of Dionysius Archived 9 January
January
2006 at the Wayback Machine.. Introduction and first argumentum. ^ Les canons of Les textes fondateurs du calendrier grégorien (in Latin) (in French) ^ Richards, p. 101 ^ Clause 3.2.1 ISO 8601 ^ Walker (1945), p.218. ^ Pedersen (1983), pp. 42–43. ^ For example, in the Julian calendar, at Rome in 1550, the March equinox occurred at 11 Mar 6:51 AM local mean time. "Seasons calculator", Time
Time
and Date AS, 2014. ^ Ari Ben-Menahem, Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences vol. 1 (2009), p. 863. ^ Ziggelaar (1983), pp. 211, 214. ^ See, for example,Tabule illustrissimi principis regis alfonsii, Prague 1401 −4 (Latin). A full set of Alphonsine Tables (including tables for mean motions, conjunctions of sun and moon, equation of time, spherical astronomy, longitudes and latitudes of cities, star tables, eclipse tables). ^ For an example of the information provided see Jacques Cassini, Tables astronomiques du soleil, de la lune, des planetes, des etoiles fixes, et des satellites de Jupiter et de Saturne, Paris 1740, available at [1] (go forward ten pages to Table III on p. 10). ^ Dreyer, J L E (2014). Tycho Brahe. Cambridge. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-108-06871-0. He remarks that both the Alphonsine and the Prutenic Tables are several hours wrong with regard to the time of the equinoxes and solstices.  ^ North, J (1989). The Universal frame: historical essays in astronomy, natural philosophy and scientific method. London. p. 29. ISBN 0-907628-95-8. He noted on one occasion that the Alphonsine tables differed from the Prutenic by nineteen hours as to the time of the vernal equinox of 1588.  ^ Swerdlow (1986). ^ Meeus and Savoie (1992). ^ Mezzi, E., and Vizza, F., Luigi Lilio Medico Astronomo e Matematico di Cirò, Laruffa Editore, Reggio Calabria, 2010, p. 14; p. 52, citing as primary references: Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale die Firenze, Magl. 5.10.5/a, ASV A.A., Arm. I‑XVII, 5506, f. 362r. ^ Kamen, Henry (1998). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. p. 248.  ^ "Pragmatica" on the Ten Days of the Year
Year
World Digital Library, the first known South American imprint, produced in 1584 by Antonio Ricardo, of a four-page edict issued by King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
in 1582, decreeing the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. ^ 24 Geo. II Ch. 23, § 3. ^ A more extensive list is available at Conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars ^ Blackburn & Holford-Strevens (1999), p. 788. ^ James Evans, The history and practice of ancient astronomy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 169. ISBN 0-19-509539-1. ^ Explanatory Supplement to The Astronomical Ephemeris
Ephemeris
and The American Ephemeris
Ephemeris
and Nautical Almanac (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1961) 417. ^ Herluf Nielsen: Kronologi (2nd ed., Dansk Historisk Fællesforening, Copenhagen 1967), pp. 48–50. ^ Le calendrier grégorien en France (in French) ^ Per decree of 16 June
June
1575. Hermann Grotefend, "Osteranfang" (Easter beginning), Zeitrechnung de Deutschen Mittelalters und der Neuzeit ( Chronology
Chronology
of the German Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and modern times) (1891–1898) ^ a b Blackburn & Holford-Strevens (1999), p. 784. ^ John James Bond, Handy-book of rules and tables for verifying dates with the Christian era Scottish decree on pp. xvii–xviii. ^ Roscoe Lamont, The reform of the Julian calendar, Popular Astronomy 28 (1920) 18–32. Decree of Peter the Great is on pp. 23–24. ^ "Roman Dates: Eponymous Years". Tyndalehouse.com. Retrieved 14 September
September
2010.  ^ Mike Spathaky Old Style and New Style Dates and the change to the Gregorian Calendar: A summary for genealogists ^ S. I. Seleschnikow: Wieviel Monde hat ein Jahr? (Aulis-Verlag, Leipzig/Jena/Berlin 1981, p. 149), which is a German translation of С. И. Селешников: История календаря и хронология (Издательство "Наука", Moscow 1977). The relevant chapter is available online here: История календаря в России и в СССР ( Calendar
Calendar
history in Russia and the USSR). Anno Mundi
Anno Mundi
7000 lasted from 1 March
March
1492 to 31 August
August
1492. (in Russian) ^ Tuesday 31 December
December
1661, The Diary of Samuel Pepys "I sat down to end my journell for this year, ..." ^ Nørby, Toke. The Perpetual Calendar: What about England Version 29 February
February
2000 ^ "House of Commons Journal Volume 8, 9 June
June
1660 (Regicides)". British History
History
Online. Retrieved 18 March
March
2007.  ^ a b Death warrant of Charles I web page of the UK National Archives. A demonstration of New Style meaning Julian calendar
Julian calendar
with a start of year adjustment. ^ Nørby, Toke. The Perpetual Calendar ^ Benjamin Woolley, The Queen's Conjurer: The science and magic of Dr. John Dee, adviser to Queen Elizabeth I (New York: Henry Holt, 2001) p. 173 ^ Spathaky, Mike Old Style New Style dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar. "increasingly parish registers, in addition to a new year heading after 24th March
March
showing, for example '1733', had another heading at the end of the following December
December
indicating '1733/4'. This showed where the New Style 1734 started even though the Old Style 1733 continued until 24th March. ... We as historians have no excuse for creating ambiguity and must keep to the notation described above in one of its forms. It is no good writing simply 20th January
January
1745, for a reader is left wondering whether we have used the Old or the New Style reckoning. The date should either be written 20th January
January
1745 OS (if indeed it was Old Style) or as 20th January 1745/6. The hyphen (1745-6) is best avoided as it can be interpreted as indicating a period of time." ^ The October
October
(November) Revolution Britannica encyclopaedia, A demonstration of New Style meaning the Gregorian calendar. ^ Stockton, J.R. Date Miscellany I: The Old and New Styles "The terms 'Old Style' and 'New Style' are now commonly used for both the 'Start of Year' and 'Leap Year' [(Gregorian calendar)] changes (England & Wales: both in 1752; Scotland: 1600, 1752). I believe that, properly and historically, the 'Styles' really refer only to the 'Start of Year' change (from March 25th to January 1st); and that the 'Leap Year' change should be described as the change from Julian to Gregorian." ^ "January, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press . ^ a b c "February, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ a b c d e f g Liberman, Anatoly (7 March
March
2007), "On a Self-Congratulatory Note", Oxford Etymologist Archives, Oxford: Oxford University Press . ^ "March, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ "April, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ It's not unusual for month names to be based on natural descriptions but this etymology is sometimes doubted since no other Roman months have such names.[51] ^ Plutarch, Life of Numa, Ch. xix . ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 96 . ^ Forsythe, Time
Time
in Roman Religion, p. 10 . ^ This derivation was apparently a popular one in ancient Rome, given by Plutarch[55] but rejected by Varro
Varro
and Cincius.[where?][56][57] ^ a b "May, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ "June, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ "July, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ "August, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ a b c d "September, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ "October, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ "November, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ "December, n.", Oxford English Dictionary . ^ Ballew, Pat (1 September
September
2015), "On This Day
Day
in Math", Pat's Blog . ^ Anianus, Computus
Computus
Metricus Manualis, Strasbourg . (in Latin) ^ Onofri, Francesca Romana; et al. (2012), Italian for Dummies, Berlitz, pp. 101–2 . ^ Bond, Otto Ferdinand; et al. (1918), Military Manual of Elementary French, Austin: E.L. Steck, p. 11 . ^ Misstear, Rachael (16 January
January
2012), "Welsh Author Digs Deep to Find Medieval Origins of Thirty Days Hath Verse", Wales Online, Media Wales . ^ a b Bryan, Roger (30 October
October
2011), "The Oldest Rhyme in the Book", The Times, London: Times Newspapers . ^ "Memorable Mnemonics", Today, London: BBC
BBC
Radio 4, 30 November 2011 . ^ The Cincinnati Enquirer, Cincinnati, 20 September
September
1924, p. 6 . ^ Holland, Norman N. (1992), The Critical I, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 64–5 . ^ Seidelmann (1992), pp. 580–581. ^ Using value from Richards (2013, p. 587) for tropical year in mean solar days, the calculation is 1/(365.2425-365.24217) ^ Meeus and Savoie (1992), p. 42 ^ John Herschel, Outlines of Astronomy, 1849, p. 629. ^ Steel, Duncan (2000). Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar. John Wiley & Sons. p. 185. ISBN 0-471-29827-1. 

References

Barsoum, Ignatius A. (2003). The Scattered Pearls. Piscataway: Georgias Press. Blackburn, B. & Holford-Strevens, L. (1999). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-214231-3. Blackburn, B. & Holford-Strevens, L. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the Year: An exploration of calendar customs and time-reckoning, Oxford University Press. Blegen, Carl W. (n.d.). "An Odd Christmas". Posted with an introduction by Natalia Vogeikoff-Brogan on 25 December
December
2013. From the Archivist's Notebook retrieved 1 April
April
2018. Borkowski, K. M., (1991). "The tropical calendar and solar year", J. Royal Astronomical Soc. of Canada 85(3): 121–130. Coyne, G. V., Hoskin, M. A., Pedersen, O. (Eds.) (1983). Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary, 1582–1982. Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican Observatory (Pontificia Academia Scientarum, Specola Vaticana). Duncan, D. E. (1999). Calendar: Humanity's Epic Struggle To Determine A True And Accurate Year. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780380793242. Gregory XIII. (2002 [1582]). Inter Gravissimas(subscription required) (W. Spenser & R. T. Crowley, Trans.). International Organization for Standardization. Meeus, J. & Savoie, D. (1992). The history of the tropical year. Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 102(1): 40–42. Morrison, L. V. & Stephenson, F. R. (2004). Historical values of the Earth's clock error ΔT
ΔT
and the calculation of eclipses. Journal for the History
History
of Astronomy
Astronomy
Vol. 35, Part 3, No. 120, pp. 327–336. Moyer, Gordon ( May
May
1982). "The Gregorian Calendar". Scientific American, pp. 144–152. Moyer, Gordon (1983). "Aloisius Lilius and the Compendium Novae Rationis Restituendi Kalendarium". In Coyne, Hoskin, Pedersen (1983), pp. 171–188. Pattie, T.S. (1976) "An unexpected effect of the change in calendar in 1752". British Library Journal. Pedersen, O. (1983). "The Ecclesiastical Calendar
Calendar
and the Life of the Church". In Coyne, Hoskin, Pedersen (eds), Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary. Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Specolo Vaticano, pp. 17–74. Richards, E. G. (1998). Mapping Time: The Calendar
Calendar
and its History. Oxford U. Press. Richards, E. G. (2013). "Calendars". In S. E. Urban and P. K. Seidelmann (eds.), Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (pp. 585–624). Mill Valley CA: University Science Books. ISBN 978-1-891389-85-6 Seidelmann, P. K. (Ed.) (1992). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. Swerdlow, N. M. (1986). The Length of the Year
Year
in the Original Proposal for the Gregorian Calendar. Journal for the History
History
of Astronomy
Astronomy
Vol. 17, No. 49, pp. 109–118. Walker, G. W. " Easter
Easter
Intervals". Popular Astronomy
Astronomy
June
June
1945, Vol. 53, pp. 162–178, 218–232. Ziggelaar, A. (1983). "The Papal Bull of 1582 Promulgating a Reform of the Calendar". In Coyne, Hoskin, Pedersen (eds), Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary. Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Specolo Vaticano, pp. 201–239.

External links

Gregorian calendar
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on In Our Time
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of Gregorian Calendar The Perpetual Calendar
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Calendar
FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions about Calendars Today's date (Gregorian) in over 400 more-or-less obscure foreign languages

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Gregorian Proleptic Gregorian Old Style and New Style dates Adoption of the Gregorian calendar Dual dating

Astronomical

Lunisolar Solar Lunar Astronomical year numbering

Others

Chinese sexagenary cycle Geologic Calendar Hebrew Iranian Islamic ISO week date Mesoamerican

Maya Aztec

Winter count
Winter count
(Plains Indians)

Astronomic time

Cosmic Calendar Ephemeris Galactic year Metonic cycle Milankovitch cycles

Geologic time

Concepts

Deep time Geological history of Earth Geological time units

Standards

Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA) Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)

Methods

Chronostratigraphy Geochronology Isotope geochemistry Law of superposition Luminescence dating Samarium–neodymium dating

Chronological dating

Absolute dating

Amino acid racemisation Archaeomagnetic dating Dendrochronology Ice core Incremental dating Lichenometry Paleomagnetism Radiometric dating

Radiocarbon Uranium–lead Potassium–argon

Tephrochronology Luminescence dating Thermoluminescence dating

Relative dating

Fluorine absorption Nitrogen dating Obsidian hydration Seriation Stratigraphy

Genetic methods

Molecular clock

Linguistic methods

Glottochronology

Related topics

Chronicle New Chronology Periodization Synchronoptic view Timeline Year
Year
zero Circa Floruit Terminus post quem ASPRO chronology

Portal

v t e

Time
Time
in religion and mythology

Time
Time
and fate deities Eternity Eschatology Golden Age Divination Prophecy Calendar Fate

Authority control

LCCN: sh85018

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