Gregoria Álvarez de Jesús (9 May 1875 – 15 March 1943), also known
as Aling Oriang, was the founder and vice-president of the women's
chapter of the
of the Philippines. She was also the
custodian of the documents and seal of the Katipunan. She married
Gat Andrés Bonifacio, the Supremo of the
and President of
the Katagalugan Revolutionary Government. She played a major and one
of the important roles in the Philippine Revolution. After the
death of Bonifacio, she married Julio Nakpil, one of the generals of
the revolution. She had one son from
children from Julio Nakpil.
1 Early life
2 First marriage and the Philippine Revolution
3 Later life and death
4 In popular culture
5 Site Link
Gregoria de Jesús
Gregoria de Jesús was born in the town of Kalookan to a middle-class,
pious Roman Catholic family. Her father, Nicolás de Jesús, was a
carpenter who later served as a gobernadorcillo. As a young girl,
she was an exceptional student and a silver medal recipient in an
examination organized by the Governor-General and the local parish
priest. When she became a secondary school student, she was induced by
her parents to stay home and look after her younger sister and the
family farm, since both of her older brothers had moved to
continue their education.
First marriage and the Philippine Revolution
Main article: Philippine Revolution
When De Jesús was only 18 years old,
Andrés Bonifacio fell in love
with her and wanted to marry her. He revealed his intentions to her
parents, but her father disapproved of the marriage because Bonifacio
was a Freemason.
Bonifacio nevertheless continued to pursue De Jesús,
and after almost six months of courtship, she had fallen in love with
him. She revealed that to her father and asked for his approval on
their marriage, to which he eventually agreed.
Before they got married in March 1893, she joined the Katipunan
adopting the name Lakambini (Tagalog, "noblewoman", also "goddess" or
"Muse"). They had a traditional religious wedding at the Binondo
Church, followed a week later by a ceremony according to the
Katipunan's rites, as the society's members did not approve of their
marriage in the Catholic Church, which was seen as an oppressive
colonial force. On the evening of the same day, the women’s
chapter of the
Katipunan was formed, and she was appointed its
vice-president and the custodian of the society's documents, swearing
fealty to the group's purposes. When the
Guardia Civil inspected
homes unannounced, De Jesús would gather all the secret society's
documents and drive all night around town in a calesa, returning home
only when assured of safety.
A year later, she returned to her family's house because she was
pregnant. She gave birth to their only son, whom she christened
Andrés after her husband. Two months later, during Holy Week of
1896, Gregoria and her husband returned to
Manila to find their house
destroyed by a fire. The couple with their child were then forced to
live in friends' and relatives' houses, but had to move quickly from
house to house. A few months later, their infant son died of
On 19 August 1896, the
Katipunan was exposed by Teodoro Patino, a
disgruntled member. The Spanish forces reacted quickly to halt the
revolution. Many Filipinos were arrested, jailed, and shot, but
Bonifacio and De Jesús went into hiding. The Spanish government was
able to tighten its surveillance over the Katipunan. The remaining
Katipuneros gathered and planned an attack on a Spanish gunpowder
storehouse. With an army of almost 800, the Katipuneros were
successful in their first attack, and were encouraged to advance to
Manila, but Spanish reinforcements arrived, routing the Katipuneros,
hundreds of whom were killed or captured in the skirmish.
Furthermore, an internal conflict in the
Katipunan between the
Magdiwang and the Magdalo faction in the province of Cavite—had
weakened the society.
On 28 April 1897, De Jesús, Bonifacio, along with his brother
Procopio were captured by Aguinaldo's men, led by Agapito Bonzón and
José Ignacio Paua, in Indang, Cavite. Andrés was shot in the arm
by Bonzón and Paua, who stabbed him in the neck, was prevented from
striking further by one of Bonifacio's men, who offered to die in the
Supermo's stead. Another
Bonifacio brother, Ciriaco was shot dead,
while Procopio was beaten; Bonzón may have even raped De Jesús
during the attack.
The brothers were found guilty and sentenced to death on charges that
included sedition, and later executed on 10 May 1897 in the mountains
of Maragondon, Cavite.
Later life and death
Julio Nakpil, a commander of the
Katipunan forces in northern
Philippines loyal to Bonifacio, took care of the widowed De Jesús.
The two fell in love, and were married at
Quiapo Church on 10 December
1898 in Manila. After the end of the Philippine Revolution, De
Jesús lived with Nakpil and their six children in a house of Nakpil's
sister, Petrona, and her husband, philanthropist Dr. Ariston Bautista.
The childless Bautistas cared for De Jesús and her children, helped
raise and educate them.
De Jesús later died in 1943 during the Japanese Occupation of the
In popular culture
Portrayed by Grace Amilbangsa in the 1995 TV series, Bayani.
Danielle Castaño in the 2010 film, Ang Paglilitis ni
Sunshine Cruz in the 2012 film, El Presidente.
Portrayed by Nica Naval in the 2012 film, Supremo.
Glaiza de Castro
Glaiza de Castro in the 2013 TV series,
2014 TV series Ilustrado.
Vina Morales in the 2014 film, Bonifacio: Ang Unang
GREGORIA DE JESUS (in English)
Gregoria de Jesus:Lakambini of the
Katipunan (in English)
National Heroes of the Philippines
Philippines Australia Network Retrieved 2006-12-28. (in
^ a b c d e "Excerpt". Archived from the original on 2006-04-27.
Santiago, Lilia Quindoza (1997). Tales of Courage & Compassion:
Stories of Women in the Philippine Revolution. HASIK inc.
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Jesus, Gregoria de. "Filipino Women". Solidarity Philippines
Australia Network. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
^ a b c d e f g h Jesus, Gregoria de. "The Katipunera
(autobiography)". Filipinas Heritage Library. Archived from the
original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
^ a b c d e f "Excerpt". Medina, Isagani (1992). Great Lives -
Andrés Bonifacio. Tahanan Books. ISBN 978-971-630-005-5.
^ Struggle for Freedom' 2008 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2008.
pp. 150–. ISBN 978-971-23-5045-0.
^ Ocampo, Ambeth (1999), Rizal Without the Overcoat (Expanded ed.),
Anvil Publishing, Inc., ISBN 971-27-0920-5 ..
^ "The Katipunera (autobiography)". MSC. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
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