GREGG SHORTHAND is a form of shorthand that was invented by John
Robert Gregg in 1888. Like cursive longhand, it is completely based on
elliptical figures and lines that bisect them.
There is a reasonable possibility that John Robert Gregg structured his shorthand on the Mnemonic major system based on the previous work of Pierre Hérigone and others following the publication of The Anti-Absurd or Phrenotypic English Pronouncing and Orthographical Dictionary by Major Beniowski in 1845.
Several versions of this system were published. Pre-Anniversary includes the first five editions, the first one published in two small paper-covered pamphlets in 1888, the second published in 1893, the third in book form in 1897, the fourth in 1902, and the fifth in 1916. Anniversary, a revised and simplified form published in 1929, was so called because it was to be published on the fortieth anniversary of the system (1928), but there was some delay in publication. In 1949, Simplified was created, in which many of the principles and memorized forms were removed or simplified due to findings of studies by the publishers and suggestions of many shorthand teachers. Diamond Jubilee was published in 1963, which simplified the Simplified version. Series 90 was published in 1978, which simplified it further. The last version was Centennial, published in 1988, with several similarities to the Diamond Jubilee system earlier. Besides these main editions, which were designed for the dictation speeds expected of any shorthand system of the time, a number of simpler, personal-use editions were published from 1924 to 1968. These included "Greghand" in 1935, and "Notehand" in 1960 and 1968.
Gregg is often contrasted to
* 1 Writing
* 2 Versions
* 2.1 Pre-Anniversary
* 3 Adaptations * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
Many of the letters shown are also brief forms, or standard abbreviations for the most common words for increased speed in writing. For instance, instead of writing kan for "can", the Gregg stenographer just writes k. These brief forms are shown on the adjacent image. There are several others not shown, however. For instance, "please" is written in Simplified and back as simply pl, and "govern" as gv.
Phrasing is another mechanism for increasing the speed of shorthand writing. Based on the notion that lifting the pen between words would have a heavy speed cost, phrasing is the combination of several smaller distinct forms into one outline. For example "it may be that the" can be written in one outline, "(tm)ab(th)a(th)". "I have not been able" would be written, "avnba" (note that to the eye of the reader this phrase written in shorthand looks like "I-have-not-been-able", and so phrasing is far more legible than a longhand explanation of the principle may lead one to believe).
The vowels in
There are special vowel markings for certain diphthongs . The ow in how /aʊ/ is just an a circle followed by a u hook. The io in lion /aɪ.ə/ , or any diphthong involving a long i and a vowel, is written with a small circle inside a large circle. The ia in piano /i.æ/ and repudiate /i.eɪ/ is notated as a large circle with a dot in its center. In Anniversary and back, if ea need be distinguished from ia, it is notated with a small downward tick inside the circle instead of the dot. The u in united /juː/ is notated with a small circle followed by an u hook above it.
Due to the very simple alphabet,
Some left-handed shorthand writers have found it more comfortable to
Throughout its history, different forms of
PRE-ANNIVERSARY GREGG SHORTHAND
Gregg Shorthand was first published in 1888 by John Robert Gregg ; however, it was in a very primal stage, and therefore did not gain much success. Five years later, a much better version was published. This version was published in a second edition in 1893, then in a third edition titled "Gregg Shorthand" in 1897. The fourth edition, published in 1902, developed more shortcuts. The fifth edition, published in 1916, is the version most commonly referred to as "Pre-Anniversary" Gregg shorthand; this version has the largest number of brief forms, phrases, and shortcuts.
GREGG SHORTHAND ANNIVERSARY EDITION
In 1929 another version of
GREGG SHORTHAND SIMPLIFIED
Gregg Shorthand Simplified was published in 1949. This system drastically reduced the number of brief forms that needed to be memorized to only 181. Even with this reduction in the number of brief forms, one could still reach speeds upward of 150 WPM . The system was simplified in order to directly address the need of business stenographers, who only needed to produce 100-120 WPM transcription. The creator of an advanced reporting version of Gregg Shorthand, Charles Lee Swem, wrote in The National Shorthand Reporter, "An abbreviated, simplified edition of our system has been published and accepted for the purpose of training office stenographers, and not necessarily reporters." He also advised, "I do not believe any young student should hesitate to study Simplified for fear it will jeopardize his chances of becoming a reporter. It is fundamentally the same system as we reporters learned from the Anniversary edition. Once Simplified is learned, the change-over to the reporting style is comparatively simple and can be made by any writer."
GREGG SHORTHAND DIAMOND JUBILEE EDITION
The Diamond Jubilee series was published through most of the sixties and the seventies (1963–1977). It was simpler than the Simplified version, and reduced the number of brief forms to 129. For Diamond Jubilee students who wanted to increase speed for reporting, an edition of "Expert" Diamond Jubilee was available to push speeds upward.
GREGG SHORTHAND SERIES 90
Series 90 (1978–1987) was an even simpler version, which used a minimal number of brief forms and placed a great emphasis on clear transcription, rather than reporting speed. Although it introduced a couple of new abbreviations and reintroduced some short forms that were missing in Diamond Jubilee, it eliminated several other short forms, and was in the main simpler, longer, and slower than the previous editions. Shorthand was dwindling in popularity during this series' usage.
GREGG SHORTHAND CENTENNIAL EDITION
Published in 1988, this is the most recent series of Gregg shorthand. It was the only version since the Pre-anniversary edition of 1916 to increase the complexity of the system from the previous one, having 132 brief forms.
The Mandarin Chinese version slightly modified the original system, under the name 'Beifang Suji (Northern Shorthand)'.
* Writing portal
* ^ Gregg, John Robert (1922). Basic Principles of Gregg Shorthand
(PDF). New York: Gregg Publishing. p. 5.
* ^ History of the Major System
* ^ The Anti-absurd Or Phrenotypic English Pronouncing &
Orthographical Dictionary by Major Beniowski
* ^ The Mnemonic Major System and Gregg
Shorthand Have the Same
* ^ Gregg, John Robert (1895). Gregg\'s Shorthand: A Light-Line
Phonography for the Million. Boston: John Robert Gregg.
* ^ Gregg, John Robert (1905). Gregg Shorthand: A Light Line
Phonography for the Million. New York: Gregg Publishing Co.
* ^ Gregg, John Robert (1916). Gregg Shorthand: A Light-Line
Phonography for the Million. New York: Gregg Publishing.
* ^ Gregg, John Robert (1929). Gregg Shorthand: A Light-Line
Phonography for the Million (PDF). New York: Gregg Publishing.
* ^ Gregg, John Robert (1955). Gregg
Shorthand Manual Simplified
(2d ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-024548-7 .
* ^ Gregg, John Robert (1971).
Hollier, Dennis (June 24, 2014). "How to Write 225 Words Per Minute
With a Pen".