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Greenland
Greenland
(Greenlandic: Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat, pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈɡʁɶnˌlanˀ]) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland
Greenland
has been politically and culturally associated with Europe
Europe
(specifically Norway
Norway
and Denmark, the colonial powers, as well as the nearby island of Iceland) for more than a millennium.[9] The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island. Greenland
Greenland
is the world's largest island. Australia
Australia
and Antarctica, although larger, are generally considered to be continental landmasses rather than islands.[10] Three-quarters of Greenland
Greenland
is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480[6] (2013), it is the least densely populated territory in the world.[11] About a third of the population live in Nuuk, the capital and largest city. The Arctic Umiaq Line
Arctic Umiaq Line
ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland
Greenland
has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic
Arctic
peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.[12][13] Norsemen
Norsemen
settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland
Greenland
beginning in the 10th century, having previously settled Iceland
Iceland
to escape persecution from the King of Norway
Norway
and his central government. These Norsemen
Norsemen
would later set sail from Greenland
Greenland
and Iceland, with Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
becoming the first known European to reach North America
North America
nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit
Inuit
peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway
Norway
and Norwegians, Greenland
Greenland
was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262. The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway
Norway
was hit by the Black Death
Black Death
and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador (later applied to Labrador
Labrador
in Canada).[14] In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark- Norway
Norway
affirmed sovereignty over the island. Because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland
Greenland
in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland
Greenland
became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm
Danish Realm
in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland
Greenland
joined the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland
Greenland
to withdraw from the EEC, which was effected in 1985. Greenland
Greenland
contains the world's largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park
Northeast Greenland National Park
(Kalaallit Nunaanni nuna eqqissisimatitaq). Established in 1974 and expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres (375,292 sq mi) of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland
Greenland
and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland
Greenland
is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Kujalleq, Qeqertalik, Qeqqata, and Avannaata.[15] In 1979, Denmark
Denmark
had granted home rule to Greenland, and in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favour of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009,[16] Greenland
Greenland
can gradually assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law, accounting, and auditing; mineral resource activities; aviation; law of legal capacity, family law and succession law; aliens and border controls; the working environment; and financial regulation and supervision, while the Danish government retains control of foreign affairs and defence. It also retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland
Greenland
expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources. The capital, Nuuk, held the 2016 Arctic
Arctic
Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, mostly coming from hydropower.[17][additional citation(s) needed]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
cultures 2.2 Norse settlement 2.3 The Thule Culture
Thule Culture
(1300 – present) 2.4 1500–1814 2.5 Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
to World War II 2.6 Home rule and self-rule

3 Geography and climate

3.1 Postglacial glacier advances on the peninsula Nugssuaq

4 Biodiversity 5 Politics

5.1 Political system 5.2 Government 5.3 Administrative divisions

6 Economy

6.1 Economics and business 6.2 Transportation

7 Population

7.1 Demographics 7.2 Languages 7.3 Religion 7.4 Social issues 7.5 Education

8 Culture

8.1 Sport

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Footnotes 11.2 Bibliography 11.3 Works cited

12 External links

12.1 Overviews and data 12.2 Government 12.3 Maps 12.4 News and media 12.5 Trade 12.6 Travel 12.7 Other

Etymology[edit] The early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red
Erik the Red
was said to be exiled from Iceland
Iceland
for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls (i.e. slaves or serfs), he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland (translated as "Greenland"), supposedly in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers.[18][19][20] The Saga of Erik the Red
Erik the Red
states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."[21] The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language
Greenlandic language
is Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat ("land of the Kalaallit").[22] The Kalaallit
Kalaallit
are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit
Greenlandic Inuit
people who inhabit the country's western region.

Maps showing the different cultures in Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland and the Canadian arctic islands in the years 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500. Green: Dorset Culture; blue: Thule Culture; red: Norse Culture; yellow: Innu; orange: Beothuk.

History[edit] Main article: History of Greenland Early Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
cultures[edit] In prehistoric times, Greenland
Greenland
was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
cultures known today primarily through archaeological finds. The earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
into Greenland
Greenland
is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland
Greenland
were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named.[23][24] From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture
Independence I culture
existed in northern Greenland. It was a part of the Arctic
Arctic
small tool tradition.[25][26][27] Towns, including Deltaterrasserne, started to appear. Around 800 BC, the Saqqaq culture
Saqqaq culture
disappeared and the Early Dorset culture
Dorset culture
emerged in western Greenland
Greenland
and the Independence II culture in northern Greenland.[28] The Dorset culture
Dorset culture
was the first culture to extend throughout the Greenlandic coastal areas, both on the west and east coasts. It lasted until the total onset of the Thule culture in 1500 AD. The Dorset culture
Dorset culture
population lived primarily from hunting of whales and caribou.[29][30][31][32] Norse settlement[edit] See also: Herjolfsnes
Herjolfsnes
(Norse Greenland)

Kingittorsuaq Runestone
Kingittorsuaq Runestone
from Kingittorsuaq Island
Kingittorsuaq Island
(Middle Ages)

From 986, Greenland's west coast was settled by Icelanders
Icelanders
and Norwegians, through a contingent of 14 boats led by Erik the Red. They formed three settlements—known as the Eastern Settlement, the Western Settlement
Western Settlement
and the Middle Settlement—on fjords near the southwestern-most tip of the island.[9][33] They shared the island with the late Dorset culture
Dorset culture
inhabitants who occupied the northern and western parts, and later with the Thule culture
Thule culture
that entered from the north. Norse Greenlanders submitted to Norwegian rule in the 13th century under the Norwegian Empire. Later the Kingdom of Norway entered into a personal union with Denmark
Denmark
in 1380, and from 1397 was a part of the Kalmar Union.[34] Erik the Red's recruitment of others to colonize Greenland
Greenland
has been characterized recently as a land scam, the scam (and the name) portraying Greenland
Greenland
as better farm land than in Iceland.[35] The Norse settlements, such as Brattahlíð, thrived for centuries but disappeared sometime in the 15th century, perhaps at the onset of the Little Ice Age.[36] Apart from some runic inscriptions, no contemporary records or historiography survives from the Norse settlements. Medieval Norwegian sagas and historical works mention Greenland's economy as well as the bishops of Gardar and the collection of tithes. A chapter in the Konungs skuggsjá
Konungs skuggsjá
(The King's Mirror) describes Norse Greenland's exports and imports as well as grain cultivation. Icelandic saga accounts of life in Greenland
Greenland
were composed in the 13th century and later, and do not constitute primary sources for the history of early Norse Greenland.[20] Modern understanding therefore mostly depends on the physical data from archeological sites. Interpretation of ice core and clam shell data suggests that between 800 and 1300, the regions around the fjords of southern Greenland experienced a relatively mild climate several degrees Celsius higher than usual in the North Atlantic,[37] with trees and herbaceous plants growing, and livestock being farmed. Barley
Barley
was grown as a crop up to the 70th parallel.[38] What is verifiable is that the ice cores indicate Greenland
Greenland
has had dramatic temperature shifts many times over the past 100,000 years.[39] Similarly the Icelandic Book of Settlements records famines during the winters, in which "the old and helpless were killed and thrown over cliffs".[37]

One of the last contemporary written mentions of the Norse Greenlanders records a marriage which took place in 1408 in the church of Hvalsey—today the best-preserved Nordic ruins in Greenland.

These Icelandic settlements vanished during the 14th and early 15th centuries.[40] The demise of the Western Settlement coincides with a decrease in summer and winter temperatures. A study of North Atlantic seasonal temperature variability during the Little Ice Age showed a significant decrease in maximum summer temperatures beginning in the late 13th century to early 14th century—as much as 6 to 8 °C (11 to 14 °F) lower than modern summer temperatures.[41] The study also found that the lowest winter temperatures of the last 2000 years occurred in the late 14th century and early 15th century. The Eastern Settlement
Eastern Settlement
was likely abandoned in the early to mid-15th century, during this cold period. Theories drawn from archeological excavations at Herjolfsnes
Herjolfsnes
in the 1920s, suggest that the condition of human bones from this period indicates that the Norse population was malnourished, maybe due to soil erosion resulting from the Norsemen's destruction of natural vegetation in the course of farming, turf-cutting, and wood-cutting. Malnutrition
Malnutrition
may also have resulted from widespread deaths due to pandemic plague;[42] the decline in temperatures during the Little Ice Age; and armed conflicts with the Skrælings (Norse word for Inuit). In 1379, the Inuit
Inuit
attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman.[36] Recent archeological studies somewhat challenge the general assumption that the Norse colonisation had a dramatic negative environmental effect on the vegetation. Data support traces of a possible Norse soil amendment strategy.[43] More recent evidence suggests that the Norse, who never numbered more than about 2,500, gradually abandoned the Greenland
Greenland
settlements over the 1400s as walrus ivory,[44] the most valuable export from Greenland, decreased in price due to competition with other sources of higher-quality ivory, and that there was actually little evidence of starvation or difficulties.[45] Other theories about the disappearance of the Norse settlement have been proposed;

Lack of support from the homeland.[42] Ship-borne marauders (such as Basque, English, or German pirates) rather than Skraelings, could have plundered and displaced the Greenlanders.[46] They were "the victims of hidebound thinking and of a hierarchical society dominated by the Church and the biggest land owners. In their reluctance to see themselves as anything but Europeans, the Greenlanders failed to adopt the kind of apparel that the Inuit employed as protection against the cold and damp or to borrow any of the Eskimo hunting gear."[9]

The Thule Culture
Thule Culture
(1300 – present)[edit] The Thule people
Thule people
are the ancestors of the current Greenlandic population. No genes from the Paleo-Eskimos have been found in the present population of Greenland.[47] The Thule Culture
Thule Culture
migrated eastward from what is now known as Alaska
Alaska
around 1000, reaching Greenland
Greenland
around 1300. The Thule culture
Thule culture
was the first to introduce to Greenland
Greenland
such technological innovations as dog sleds and toggling harpoons. 1500–1814[edit] In 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal
Portugal
sent Gaspar Corte-Real
Gaspar Corte-Real
to Greenland
Greenland
in search of a Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
to Asia which, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas, was part of Portugal's sphere of influence. In 1501, Corte-Real returned with his brother, Miguel Corte-Real. Finding the sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador
Labrador
and Newfoundland. Upon the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented to Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, by Alberto Cantino in 1502. The Cantino planisphere, made in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern coastline of Greenland.[48] In 1605–1607, King Christian IV of Denmark
Denmark
sent a series of expeditions to Greenland
Greenland
and Arctic
Arctic
waterways to locate the lost eastern Norse settlement and assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland. The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful, partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice and weather conditions, and partly because the expedition leaders were given instructions to search for the Eastern Settlement
Eastern Settlement
on the east coast of Greenland
Greenland
just north of Cape Farewell, which is almost inaccessible due to southward drifting ice. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall.

A 1747 map based on Egede's descriptions and misconceptions

After the Norse settlements died off, Greenland
Greenland
came under the de facto control of various Inuit
Inuit
groups, but the Danish government never forgot or relinquished the claims to Greenland
Greenland
that it had inherited from the Norse. When it re-established contact with Greenland
Greenland
in the early 18th century, Denmark
Denmark
asserted its sovereignty over the island. In 1721, a joint mercantile and clerical expedition led by Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland, not knowing whether a Norse civilization remained there. This expedition is part of the Dano-Norwegian colonization of the Americas. After 15 years in Greenland, Hans Egede left his son Paul Egede
Paul Egede
in charge of the mission there and returned to Denmark, where he established a Greenland
Greenland
Seminary. This new colony was centred at Godthåb ("Good Hope") on the southwest coast. Gradually, Greenland was opened up to Danish merchants, and closed to those from other countries. Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
to World War II[edit]

Eirik Raudes Land

When the union between the crowns of Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
was dissolved in 1814, the Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
severed Norway's former colonies and left them under the control of the Danish monarch. Norway
Norway
occupied then-uninhabited eastern Greenland
Greenland
as Erik the Red's Land
Erik the Red's Land
in July 1931, claiming that it constituted terra nullius. Norway
Norway
and Denmark agreed to submit the matter in 1933 to the Permanent Court of International Justice, which decided against Norway.[49] Main article: Greenland
Greenland
in World War II Greenland's connection to Denmark
Denmark
was severed on 9 April 1940, early in World War II, after Denmark
Denmark
was occupied by Nazi Germany. On 8 April 1941, the United States
United States
occupied Greenland
Greenland
to defend it against a possible invasion by Germany.[50] The United States
United States
occupation of Greenland
Greenland
continued until 1945. Greenland
Greenland
was able to buy goods from the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
by selling cryolite from the mine at Ivittuut. The major air bases were Bluie West-1
Bluie West-1
at Narsarsuaq and Bluie West-8
Bluie West-8
at Søndre Strømfjord (Kangerlussuaq), both of which are still used as Greenland's major international airports. Bluie
Bluie
was the military code name for Greenland. During this war, the system of government changed: Governor Eske Brun ruled the island under a law of 1925 that allowed governors to take control under extreme circumstances; Governor Aksel Svane was transferred to the United States
United States
to lead the commission to supply Greenland. The Danish Sirius Patrol guarded the northeastern shores of Greenland
Greenland
in 1942 using dogsleds. They detected several German weather stations and alerted American troops, who destroyed the facilities. After the collapse of the Third Reich, Albert Speer
Albert Speer
briefly considered escaping in a small aeroplane to hide out in Greenland, but changed his mind and decided to surrender to the United States
United States
Armed Forces.[51] Greenland
Greenland
had been a protected and very isolated society until 1940. The Danish government had maintained a strict monopoly of Greenlandic trade, allowing only small scale troaking with Scottish whalers. In wartime Greenland
Greenland
developed a sense of self-reliance through self-government and independent communication with the outside world. Despite this change, in 1946 a commission including the highest Greenlandic council, the Landsrådene, recommended patience and no radical reform of the system. Two years later, the first step towards a change of government was initiated when a grand commission was established. A final report (G-50) was presented in 1950: Greenland was to be a modern welfare state with Denmark
Denmark
as sponsor and example. In 1953 Greenland
Greenland
was made an equal part of the Danish Kingdom. Home rule was granted in 1979. Home rule and self-rule[edit] See also: Greenlandic independence

The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language
Greenlandic language
is governed by Oqaasileriffik, the Greenlandic language
Greenlandic language
secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland, Nuuk.

Following World War II, the United States
United States
developed a geopolitical interest in Greenland, and in 1946 the United States
United States
offered to buy the island from Denmark
Denmark
for $100,000,000. Denmark
Denmark
refused to sell it.[52][53] In the 21st century, the United States, according to Wikileaks, remains highly interested in investing in the resource base of Greenland
Greenland
and in tapping hydrocarbons off the Greenlandic coast.[54][55] In 1950 Denmark
Denmark
agreed to allow the US to reestablish Thule Air Base in Greenland; it was greatly expanded between 1951 and 1953 as part of a unified NATO
NATO
Cold War
Cold War
defense strategy. The local population of three nearby villages was moved more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) away in the winter. The United States
United States
tried to construct a subterranean network of secret nuclear missile launch sites in the Greenlandic ice cap, named Project Iceworm. It managed this project from Camp Century
Camp Century
from 1960 to 1966 before abandoning it as unworkable. The Danish government did not become aware of the program's mission until 1997, when they discovered it while looking for records related to the crash of a nuclear-equipped B-52 bomber at Thule in 1968. With the 1953 Danish constitution, Greenland's colonial status ended as the island was incorporated into the Danish realm as an amt (county). Danish citizenship was extended to Greenlanders. Danish policies toward Greenland
Greenland
consisted of a strategy of cultural assimilation—or de-Greenlandification. During this period, the Danish government promoted the exclusive use of the Danish language
Danish language
in official matters, and required Greenlanders to go to Denmark
Denmark
for their post-secondary education. Many Greenlandic children grew up in boarding schools in southern Denmark, and a number lost their cultural ties to Greenland. While the policies "succeeded" in the sense of shifting Greenlanders from being primarily subsistence hunters into being urbanized wage earners, the Greenlandic elite began to reassert a Greenlandic cultural identity. A movement developed in favour of independence, reaching its peak in the 1970s.[56] As a consequence of political complications in relation to Denmark's entry into the European Common Market in 1972, Denmark
Denmark
began to seek a different status for Greenland, resulting in the Home Rule Act of 1979. This gave Greenland
Greenland
limited autonomy with its own legislature taking control of some internal policies, while the Parliament of Denmark maintained full control of external policies, security, and natural resources. The law came into effect on 1 May 1979. The Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, remains Greenland's Head of state. In 1985, Greenland
Greenland
left the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC) upon achieving self-rule, as it did not agree with the EEC's commercial fishing regulations and an EEC ban on seal skin products.[57] Greenland
Greenland
voters approved a referendum on greater autonomy on 25 November 2008.[58][59] On 21 June 2009, Greenland
Greenland
gained self-rule with provisions for assuming responsibility for self-government of judicial affairs, policing, and natural resources. Also, Greenlanders were recognized as a separate people under international law. (One country, two systems)[60] Denmark
Denmark
maintains control of foreign affairs and defence matters. Denmark
Denmark
upholds the annual block grant of 3.2 billion Danish kroner, but as Greenland
Greenland
begins to collect revenues of its natural resources, the grant will gradually be diminished. This is generally considered to be a step toward eventual full independence from Denmark.[61] Greenlandic was declared the sole official language of Greenland
Greenland
at the historic ceremony.[3][8][62][63][64] Geography and climate[edit]

Greenland
Greenland
map of Köppen climate classification

Main article: Geography of Greenland See also: Administrative divisions of Greenland, Territorial claims in the Arctic, Climate
Climate
change in the Arctic, Climate
Climate
of the Arctic § Greenland, and Retreat of glaciers since 1850 § Greenland

Map of Greenland

Greenland
Greenland
is the world's largest non-continental island[65] and the third largest country in North America.[66] It is between latitudes 59° and 83°N, and longitudes 11° and 74°W. The Atlantic Ocean borders Greenland's southeast; the Greenland Sea
Greenland Sea
is to the east; the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
is to the north; and Baffin Bay
Baffin Bay
is to the west. The nearest countries are Canada, to the west and southwest across Baffin Bay, and Iceland, east of Greenland
Greenland
in the Atlantic Ocean. Greenland also contains the world's largest national park, and it is the largest dependent territory by area in the world, as well as the fourth largest country subdivision in the world, after Sakha Republic
Sakha Republic
in Russia, Australia's state of Western Australia, and Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai, and the largest in North America.

Southeast coast of Greenland

The average daily temperature of Nuuk, Greenland
Greenland
varies over the seasons from −8 to 7 °C (18 to 45 °F). The total area of Greenland
Greenland
is 2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi) (including other offshore minor islands), of which the Greenland ice sheet
Greenland ice sheet
covers 1,755,637 km2 (677,855 sq mi) (81%) and has a volume of approximately 2,850,000 km3 (680,000 cu mi).[67] The highest point on Greenland
Greenland
is Gunnbjørn Fjeld
Gunnbjørn Fjeld
at 3,700 m (12,139 ft) of the Watkins Range
Watkins Range
( East Greenland
East Greenland
mountain range). The majority of Greenland, however, is less than 1,500 m (4,921 ft) in elevation. The weight of the ice sheet has depressed the central land area to form a basin lying more than 300 m (984 ft) below sea level,[68][69] while elevations rise suddenly and steeply near the coast.[70] The ice flows generally to the coast from the centre of the island. A survey led by French scientist Paul-Emile Victor
Paul-Emile Victor
in 1951 concluded that, under the ice sheet, Greenland
Greenland
is composed of three large islands.[71] This is disputed, but if it is so, they would be separated by narrow straits, reaching the sea at Ilulissat
Ilulissat
Icefjord, at Greenland's Grand Canyon
Greenland's Grand Canyon
and south of Nordostrundingen. All towns and settlements of Greenland
Greenland
are situated along the ice-free coast, with the population being concentrated along the west coast. The northeastern part of Greenland
Greenland
is not part of any municipality, but it is the site of the world's largest national park, Northeast Greenland
Greenland
National Park.[72]

View of mountains on Greenland
Greenland
from the air

At least four scientific expedition stations and camps had been established on the ice sheet in the ice-covered central part of Greenland
Greenland
(indicated as pale blue in the map to the right): Eismitte, North Ice, North GRIP Camp and The Raven Skiway. Currently, there is a year-round station Summit Camp
Summit Camp
on the ice sheet, established in 1989. The radio station Jørgen Brønlund Fjord
Fjord
was, until 1950, the northernmost permanent outpost in the world.

Southern Greenland
Greenland
lives up to its name as it is truly a green land. Agriculture
Agriculture
thrives here with many farms and luxuriant vegetables, in contrast to a barren ice world that covers much of Greenland. Hay is harvested in Igaliku, Kujalleq.

The extreme north of Greenland, Peary Land, is not covered by an ice sheet, because the air there is too dry to produce snow, which is essential in the production and maintenance of an ice sheet. If the Greenland ice sheet
Greenland ice sheet
were to melt away completely, the world's sea level would rise by more than 7 m (23 ft).[73] Between 1989 and 1993, US and European climate researchers drilled into the summit of Greenland's ice sheet, obtaining a pair of 3 km (1.9 mi) long ice cores. Analysis of the layering and chemical composition of the cores has provided a revolutionary new record of climate change in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
going back about 100,000 years and illustrated that the world's weather and temperature have often shifted rapidly from one seemingly stable state to another, with worldwide consequences.[74] The glaciers of Greenland are also contributing to a rise in the global sea level faster than was previously believed.[75] Between 1991 and 2004, monitoring of the weather at one location (Swiss Camp) showed that the average winter temperature had risen almost 6 °C (11 °F).[76] Other research has shown that higher snowfalls from the North Atlantic oscillation caused the interior of the ice cap to thicken by an average of 6 cm or 2.36 in/y between 1994 and 2005.[77] However, a recent study suggests a much warmer planet in relatively recent geological times:[78]

Scientists who probed 2 km (1.2 mi) through a Greenland glacier to recover the oldest plant DNA
DNA
on record said that the planet was far warmer hundreds of thousands of years ago than is generally believed. DNA
DNA
of trees, plants, spiders and insects including butterflies from beneath the southern Greenland
Greenland
glacier was estimated to date to 450,000 to 900,000 years ago, according to the remnants retrieved from this long-vanished boreal forest. That view contrasts sharply with the prevailing one that a lush forest of this kind could not have existed in Greenland
Greenland
any later than 2.4 million years ago. These DNA
DNA
samples suggest that the temperature probably reached 10 °C (50 °F) in the summer and −17 °C (1.4 °F) in the winter. They also indicate that during the last interglacial period, 130,000–116,000 years ago, when local temperatures were on average 5 °C (9 °F) higher than now, the glaciers on Greenland
Greenland
did not completely melt away.

View of Kangertittivaq in eastern Greenland, one of the largest sund-fjord systems in the world

Greenland
Greenland
bedrock, at current elevation above sea level

In 2003, a small island, 35 by 15 metres (115 by 49 feet) in length and width, was discovered by arctic explorer Dennis Schmitt
Dennis Schmitt
and his team at the coordinates of 83-42. Whether this island is permanent is not confirmed as of yet. If it is, it is the northernmost permanent known land on Earth. In 2007 the existence of a new island was announced. Named "Uunartoq Qeqertaq" (English: Warming Island), this island has always been present off the coast of Greenland, but was covered by a glacier. This glacier was discovered in 2002 to be shrinking rapidly, and by 2007 had completely melted away, leaving the exposed island.[79] The island was named Place of the Year by the Oxford Atlas of the World in 2007.[80] Ben Keene, the atlas's editor, commented: "In the last two or three decades, global warming has reduced the size of glaciers throughout the Arctic
Arctic
and earlier this year, news sources confirmed what climate scientists already knew: water, not rock, lay beneath this ice bridge on the east coast of Greenland. More islets are likely to appear as the sheet of frozen water covering the world's largest island continues to melt".[81] Some controversy surrounds the history of the island, specifically over whether the island might have been revealed during a brief warm period in Greenland
Greenland
during the mid-20th century.[82] See also: Greenland's Grand Canyon Postglacial glacier advances on the peninsula Nugssuaq[edit] The 1310 m-high Qaqugdluit-mountain-land on the south-side of the peninsula Nugssuaq, situated 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of the Greenland
Greenland
inland ice at 70°07’50.92"N 51°44’30.52"W, is exemplary of the numerous mountain areas of West-Greenland. Up to the year 1979 (Stage 0) it shows Historical to Holocene, i.e. Postglacial glacier stages dating back at least 7000 and at most about 10 000 years.[83][84] In 1979 the glacier tongues came to an end – according to the extent and height of the glacier nourishing area – between 660 and 140 metres (2,170 and 460 feet) above sea level. The pertinent climatic glacier snowline (ELA) ran at about 800 metres (2,600 feet) in height. The snowline of the oldest (VII) of the three Holocene
Holocene
glacier stages (V–VII) ran about 230 metres (750 feet) deeper, i.e. at about 570 metres (1,870 feet) in height.[85] The four youngest glacier stages (IV-I) are of a Historical age. They have to be classified as belonging to the global glacier advances in the years 1811 to 1850 and 1880 to 1900 ("Little Ice Age"), 1910 to 1930, 1948 and 1953.[84] Their snowlines rose step by step up to the level of 1979. The current snowline (Stage 0) runs nearly unchanged. During the oldest Postglacial Stage VII an ice-stream-network from valley glaciers joining each other, has completely covered the landscape. Its nourishing areas consisted of high-lying plateau-glaciers and local ice caps. Due to the uplift of the snowline about that about 230 metres (750 feet) – what corresponds to a warming about 1.5 °C (2.7 °F), since 1979 there exists a plateau-glaciation with small glacier tongues hanging down on the margins that nearly did not reach the main valley bottoms any more.[85] Biodiversity[edit]

muskox

See also: Flora and fauna of Greenland, Reindeer
Reindeer
hunting in Greenland, and Fishing industry
Fishing industry
in Greenland There are approximately 700 known species of insects in Greenland, which is low compared with other countries (over one million species have been described worldwide). The sea is rich in fish and invertebrates, especially in the milder West Greenland
Greenland
Current, and a large part of the Greenland
Greenland
fauna associated with marine production, including large colonies of seabirds. The few native land mammals in Greenland
Greenland
include the polar bear, reindeer, arctic fox, arctic hare, musk ox, collared lemming, ermine, and arctic wolf. The last four are found naturally only in East Greenland, having immigrated from Ellesmere Island. There are dozens of species of seals and whales along the coast. Land fauna consists predominantly of animals that have spread from North America
North America
or for a lot of birds and insects coming from Europe. There are no native or free-living reptiles or amphibians on the island.[86] Phytogeographically, Greenland
Greenland
belongs to the Arctic
Arctic
province of the Circumboreal Region
Circumboreal Region
within the Boreal Kingdom. The island is sparsely populated in vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland and small bushes, which is regularly grazed by livestock. The most common tree native to Greenland
Greenland
is the European white birch (Betula pubescens) along with gray-leaf willow (Salix glauca), rowans (Sorbus aucuparia), common junipers (Juniperus communis) and other smaller trees, mainly willows. Greenland's flora comprises about 500 species of higher plants, i.e. flowering plants, ferns, horsetails and lycopodiophyta. Of the other groups, the lichens are the largest with about 950 species; of major fungal species are known 600–700; mosses and algae anything less. Most of Greenland's higher plants are widespread, particularly in arctic and alpine regions, and only a dozen species of particular saxifrage and hawkweed is endemic. A few species were introduced by the Norsemen, such as cow vetch. The animals of Greenland
Greenland
include the Greenland
Greenland
dog, which was introduced by the Inuit, as well as European-introduced species such as Greenlandic sheep, goats, cattle, reindeer, horse, chicken and sheepdog, all descendants of animals imported by Europeans. Marine mammals include the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) as well as the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).[87] Whales frequently pass very close to Greenlandic shores in the late summer and early autumn. Species represented include the beluga whale, blue whale, Greenland
Greenland
whale, fin whale, humpback whale, minke whale, narwhal, pilot whale, sperm whale.[88] Approximately 225 species of fish are known from the waters surrounding Greenland, and the fishing industry is a major part of Greenland's economy, accounting for the majority of the country's total exports. Birds, especially seabirds, are an important part of Greenland's animal life. On steep mountainsides breed large colonies of auks, puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes. By common ducks include eiders, long-tailed ducks and the king eider and in West Greenland white-fronted goose and in East Greenland
East Greenland
pink-footed goose and barnacle goose. Breeding migratory birds are also including snow bunting, lapland bunting, ringed plover, red-throated loon and red-necked phalarope. Of land birds that are usually sedentary, can be highlighted arctic redpoll, ptarmigan, short-eared owl, snowy owl, gyrfalcon and in West Greenland
Greenland
the white-tailed eagle.[86] Politics[edit]

Margrethe II, Queen since 1972

Kim Kielsen, Premier since 2014

Lars Løkke Rasmussen, Prime Minister since 2015

Main article: Politics of Greenland See also: Politics of Denmark, Politics of the Faroe Islands, and Greenland– European Union
European Union
relations

Map of the European Union
European Union
in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

The Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
is a constitutional monarchy, in which Queen Margrethe II is the head of state. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State (privy council).[89][90] However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial,[91] such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government. The monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and the monarch's person is sacrosanct.[92] Political system[edit] The party system is currently dominated by the social democratic Forward Party (14 MPs), and the democratic socialist Inuit Community Party (11 MPs), both of which broadly argue for greater independence from Denmark. While the 2009 election saw the unionist—and largely Danish—Democrat Party (2 MPs) decline greatly, the 2013 election consolidated the power of the two main parties at the expense of the smaller groups, and saw the far-left Inuit
Inuit
Party (2 MPs) elected to the Parliament for the first time. The non-binding 2008 referendum on self-governance favoured increased self-governance 21,355 votes to 6,663. In 1985, Greenland
Greenland
left the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC), unlike Denmark, which remains a member. The EEC later became the European Union (EU, renamed and expanded in scope in 1992). Greenland
Greenland
retains some ties with the EU via Denmark. However, EU law largely does not apply to Greenland
Greenland
except in the area of trade. Greenland
Greenland
is a member state of the Council of Europe.[93] Government[edit] Main article: Politics of Greenland

Municipalities of Greenland

Greenland's head of state is Margrethe II, Queen regnant
Queen regnant
of Denmark. The Queen's government in Denmark
Denmark
appoints a High Commissioner (Rigsombudsmand) to represent it on the island. The current commissioner is Mikaela Engell. Greenlanders elect two representatives to the Folketing, Denmark's parliament, out of a total of 179. The current representatives are Aleqa Hammond
Aleqa Hammond
of the Siumut
Siumut
Party and Aaja Chemnitz Larsen of the Inuit
Inuit
Community Party.[94] Greenland
Greenland
also has its own Parliament, which has 31 members. The government is the Naalakkersuisut whose members are appointed by the Premier. The head of government is the Premier, usually the leader of the majority party in Parliament. The current Premier is Kim Kielsen of the Siumut
Siumut
Party. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Greenland Formerly consisting of three counties comprising a total of 18 municipalities, Greenland
Greenland
abolished these in 2009 and has since been divided into large territories known as "municipalities" (Greenlandic: kommuneqarfiit, Danish: kommuner): Sermersooq
Sermersooq
("Much Ice") around the capital Nuuk
Nuuk
and also including all East Coast communities; Kujalleq ("South") around Cape Farewell; Qeqqata
Qeqqata
("Centre") north of the capital along the Davis Strait; Qeqertalik
Qeqertalik
("The one with islands") surrounding Disko Bay; and Avannaata
Avannaata
("Northern") in the northwest; the latter two having come into being as a result of the Qaasuitsup municipality, one of the original four, being partitioned in 2018. The northeast of the island composes the unincorporated Northeast Greenland
Greenland
National Park. Thule Air Base
Thule Air Base
is also unincorporated, an enclave within Avannaata
Avannaata
municipality administered by the United States Air Force. During its construction, there were as many as 12,000 American residents but in recent years the number has been below 1,000. Economy[edit]

Tasiilaq
Tasiilaq
is a town in the Sermersooq
Sermersooq
municipality in southeastern Greenland

Royal Greenland
Royal Greenland
fishing vessel "Akamalik", anchored at Sisimiut
Sisimiut
port

Graphical depiction of Greenland's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories

Main article: Economy of Greenland The Greenlandic economy is highly dependent on fishing. Fishing accounts for more than 90% of Greenland's exports.[95] The shrimp and fish industry is by far the largest income earner.[2] Greenland
Greenland
is abundant in minerals.[95] Mining of ruby deposits began in 2007. Other mineral prospects are improving as prices are increasing. These include iron, uranium, aluminium, nickel, platinum, tungsten, titanium, and copper. Despite resumption[when?] of several hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities, it will take several years before hydrocarbon production can materialize. The state oil company Nunaoil was created to help develop the hydrocarbon industry in Greenland. The state company Nunamineral has been launched on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange
Copenhagen Stock Exchange
to raise more capital to increase the production of gold, started in 2007. Electricity has traditionally been generated by oil or diesel power plants, even if there is a large surplus of potential hydropower. There is currently a programme to build hydro power plants. The first, and still the largest, is Buksefjord hydroelectric power plant. There are also plans to build a large aluminium smelter, using hydropower to create an exportable product. It is expected that much of the labour needed will be imported.[96] The European Union
European Union
has urged Greenland
Greenland
to restrict People's Republic of China development of rare-earth projects, as China accounts for 95% of the world's current supply. In early 2013, the Greenland
Greenland
government said that it had no plans to impose such restrictions.[97] The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays a dominant role in Greenland's economy. About half the government revenues come from grants from the Danish government, an important supplement to the gross domestic product (GDP). Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
per capita is equivalent to that of the average economies of Europe. Greenland
Greenland
suffered an economic contraction in the early 1990s. But, since 1993, the economy has improved. The Greenland
Greenland
Home Rule Government (GHRG) has pursued a tight fiscal policy since the late 1980s, which has helped create surpluses in the public budget and low inflation. Since 1990, Greenland
Greenland
has registered a foreign-trade deficit following the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine that year. More recently,[when?] new sources of ruby in Greenland
Greenland
have been discovered, promising to bring new industry and a new export to the country. (See Gemstone industry in Greenland). Economics and business[edit]

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About half of public spending on Greenland
Greenland
is funded by block grants from Denmark
Denmark
which in 2007 totalled over 3.2 billion kr. Additional proceeds from the sale of fishing licences and the annual compensation from the EU represents 280 million DKK per year. Greenland's economy is based on a narrow professional basis with the fishing industry as the dominant sector with some 90% of its exports. In a few years, quarrying and tourism could complement the fisheries that depend on the changing prices of fish and fishing opportunities. The long distances and lack of roads divides the domestic market into many small units that have high operating costs. Most of the fish factories are owned by Royal Greenland. Transportation[edit] Main articles: Transport in Greenland
Transport in Greenland
and List of airports in Greenland

Air Greenland
Air Greenland
Airbus A330-200
A330-200
in-flight

Air transportation exists both within Greenland
Greenland
and between the island and other nations. There is also scheduled boat traffic, but the long distances lead to long travel times and low frequency. There are no roads between cities because the coast has many fjords that would require ferry service to connect a road network.[citation needed] In addition, the lack of agriculture, forestry and similar countryside activities has meant that very few countryside roads have been built. All civil aviation matters are handled by the Danish Transport Authority. Most airports including Nuuk
Nuuk
Airport have short runways and can only be served by special fairly small aircraft on fairly short flights. Kangerlussuaq Airport
Kangerlussuaq Airport
around 100 kilometres (62 miles) inland from the west coast is the major airport of Greenland
Greenland
and the hub for domestic flights. Intercontinental flights connect mainly to Copenhagen. Travel between international destinations (except Iceland) and any city in Greenland
Greenland
requires a plane change. Air Iceland
Iceland
operates flights from Reykjavík
Reykjavík
to a number of airports in Greenland, and the company promotes the service as a day-trip option from Iceland
Iceland
for tourists.[98] There are no direct flights to USA or Canada, although there have been flights Kangerlussuaq
Kangerlussuaq
– Baltimore,[99] and Nuuk
Nuuk
– Iqaluit.,[100] which were cancelled because of too few passengers and financial losses.[101] An alternative between Greenland
Greenland
and USA/ Canada
Canada
is Air Iceland/ Icelandair
Icelandair
with a plane change in Iceland.[102] Sea passenger and freight transport is served by the coastal ferries operated by Arctic
Arctic
Umiaq Line. It makes a single round trip per week, taking 80 hours each direction. Population[edit]

Tunumiit
Tunumiit
Inuit
Inuit
couple from Kulusuk

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Greenland See also: List of Greenlanders Greenland
Greenland
has a population of 56,370 (January 2013 estimate),[6] of whom 88% are Greenlandic Inuit
Greenlandic Inuit
(including mixed persons). The remaining 12% are of European descent, mainly Greenland
Greenland
Danes. Several thousand Greenlandic Inuit
Greenlandic Inuit
reside in the Danish Penisula. The majority of the population is Lutheran. Nearly all Greenlanders live along the fjords in the south-west of the main island, which has a relatively mild climate.[103] More than 17,000 people reside in Nuuk, the capital city.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Greenland Statistics Greenland, Greenland
Greenland
in Figures 2013 and Population in localities (2013)

Rank Name Municipality Pop. Rank Name Municipality Pop.

Nuuk

Sisimiut 1 Nuuk Sermersooq 16,464 11 Uummannaq Avannaata 1,282

Ilulissat

Qaqortoq

2 Sisimiut Qeqqata 5,598 12 Upernavik Avannaata 1,181

3 Ilulissat Avannaata 4,541 13 Qasigiannguit Qeqertalik 1,171

4 Qaqortoq Kujalleq 3,229 14 Qeqertarsuaq Qeqertalik 845

5 Aasiaat Qeqertalik 3,142 15 Qaanaaq Avannaata 656

6 Maniitsoq Qeqqata 2,670 16 Kangaatsiaq Qeqertalik 558

7 Tasiilaq Sermersooq 2,017 17 Kangerlussuaq Qeqqata 512

8 Paamiut Sermersooq 1,515 18 Ittoqqortoormiit Sermersooq 452

9 Narsaq Kujalleq 1,503 19 Kullorsuaq Avannaata 448

10 Nanortalik Kujalleq 1,337 20 Kangaamiut Qeqqata 353

Languages[edit]

A bilingual sign in Nuuk, displaying the Danish and Kalaallisut for "Parking forbidden for all vehicles"

Both Greenlandic (an Eskimo–Aleut language) and Danish have been used in public affairs since the establishment of home rule in 1979; the majority of the population can speak both languages. Greenlandic became the sole official language in June 2009,[104] In practice, Danish is still widely used in the administration and in higher education, as well as remaining the first or only language for some Danish immigrants in Nuuk
Nuuk
and other larger towns. Debate about the roles of Greenlandic and Danish in the country's future is ongoing. The orthography of Greenlandic was established in 1851[105] and revised in 1973. The country has a 100% literacy rate.[2] A majority of the population speaks Greenlandic, most of them bilingually. It is spoken by about 50,000 people, making it the most populous of the Eskimo–Aleut language family, spoken by more people than all the other languages of the family combined. Kalaallisut is the Greenlandic dialect of West Greenland, which has long been the most populous area of the island. This has led to its de facto status as the official "Greenlandic" language, although the northern dialect Inuktun
Inuktun
remains spoken by 1,000 or so people around Qaanaaq, and the eastern dialect Tunumiisut by around 3,000.[106] Each of these dialects is almost unintelligible to the speakers of the other and are considered by some linguists to be separate languages.[citation needed] A UNESCO
UNESCO
report has labelled the other dialects as endangered, and measures are now being considered to protect the East Greenlandic dialects.[107] About 12% of the population speak Danish as a first or sole language, particularly Danish immigrants in Greenland, many of whom fill positions such as administrators, professionals, academics, or skilled tradesmen. While Greenlandic is dominant in all smaller settlements, a part of the population of Inuit
Inuit
or mixed ancestry, especially in towns, speaks Danish. Most of the Inuit
Inuit
population speaks Danish as a second language. In larger towns, especially Nuuk
Nuuk
and in the higher social strata, this is still a large group. While one strategy aims at promoting Greenlandic in public life and education, developing its vocabulary and suitability for all complex contexts, there are opponents of this.[citation needed]. English is another important language for Greenland, taught in schools from the first school year.[108] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Greenland

Religion in Greenland (2010)[109][110]    Protestantism
Protestantism
(95.5%)    Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
(0.2%)   Other Christian (0.4%)    Inuit
Inuit
spiritual beliefs (0.8%)    Agnostic
Agnostic
(2.3%)    Atheist
Atheist
(0.2%)   Other Religion (0.6%)

Most Greenlandic villages, including Nanortalik, have their own church.

The nomadic Inuit
Inuit
people were traditionally shamanistic, with a well-developed mythology primarily concerned with appeasing a vengeful and fingerless sea goddess who controlled the success of the seal and whale hunts. The first Norse colonists worshipped the Norse gods, but Erik the Red's son Leif was converted to Christianity
Christianity
by King Olaf Trygvesson on a trip to Norway
Norway
in 999 and sent missionaries back to Greenland. These swiftly established sixteen parishes, some monasteries, and a bishopric at Garðar. Rediscovering these colonists and spreading ideas of the Protestant Reformation among them was one of the primary reasons for the Danish recolonization in the 18th century. Under the patronage of the Royal Mission College in Copenhagen, Norwegian and Danish Lutherans and German Moravian missionaries searched for the missing Norse settlements, but no Norse were found, and instead they began preaching to the Inuit. The principal figures in the Christianization
Christianization
of Greenland
Greenland
were Hans and Poul Egede
Poul Egede
and Matthias Stach. The New Testament was translated piecemeal from the time of the very first settlement on Kangeq Island, but the first translation of the whole Bible was not completed until 1900. An improved translation using the modern orthography was completed in 2000.[111] Today, the major religion is Protestant
Protestant
Christianity, represented mainly by the Church of Denmark, which is Lutheran
Lutheran
in orientation. While there are no official census data on religion in Greenland, the Bishop of Greenland
Bishop of Greenland
Sofie Petersen[112] estimates that 85% of the Greenlandic population are members of her congregation.[113] The Church of Denmark
Denmark
is the established church through the Constitution of Denmark:

The Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State. — Section IV of Constitution of Denmark[114]

This applies to all of the Kingdom of Denmark, except for the Faroe Islands, as the Church of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
became independent in 2007. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
minority is pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Copenhagen. There are still Christian missionaries on the island, but mainly from charismatic movements proselytizing fellow Christians.[115][116][117][118] Social issues[edit] The rate of suicide in Greenland
Greenland
is very high. According to a 2010 census, Greenland
Greenland
holds the highest suicide rate in the world.[119][120] Other significant social issues faced by Greenland are high rates of unemployment, alcoholism, and HIV/AIDS.[121] Alcohol consumption rates in Greenland
Greenland
reached their height in the 1980s, when it was twice as high as in Denmark, and had by 2010 fallen slightly below the average level of consumption in Denmark
Denmark
(which is the 12th highest in the world). But at the same time alcohol prices are much higher, meaning that consumption has a high social impact.[122][123] Education[edit] There is a 10-year compulsory schooling for children. Secondary education is available in several places in the country. There are many higher schools in Greenland, including the University of Greenland
Greenland
in Nuuk. Traditionally many Greenlanders have received higher education in Denmark. Culture[edit]

Nive Nielsen, Greenlandic singer and songwriter

Panel discussion with Greenlandic movie maker Inuk Silis Høegh at the launch of his movie about groundbreaking Greenlandic band Sumé. Journalist and Sumé's record producer Karsten Sommer is speaking.

Main articles: Culture of Greenland
Culture of Greenland
and Music of Greenland Today Greenlandic culture is a blending of traditional Inuit (Kalaallit) and Scandinavian culture. Inuit, or Kalaallit, culture has a strong artistic tradition, dating back thousands of years. The Kalaallit
Kalaallit
are known for an art form of figures called tupilak or a "spirit object." Traditional art-making practices thrive in the Ammassalik.[124] Sperm whale
Sperm whale
ivory remains a valued medium for carving.[125] Greenland
Greenland
also has a successful, albeit small, music culture. Some popular Greenlandic bands and artists include Sume (classic rock), Chilly Friday (rock), Nanook (rock), Siissisoq (rock), Nuuk
Nuuk
Posse (hip hop) and Rasmus Lyberth
Rasmus Lyberth
(folk), who performed in the Danish Eurovision Song Contest 1979, performing in Greenlandic. The singer-songwriter Simon Lynge
Simon Lynge
is the first musical artist from Greenland
Greenland
to have an album released across the United Kingdom, and to perform at the UK's Glastonbury Festival. The music culture of Greenland
Greenland
also includes traditional Inuit
Inuit
music, largely revolving around singing and drums. Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Greenland Sport is an important part of Greenlandic culture, as the population is generally quite active.[126] Popular sports include association football, track and field, handball and skiing. Handball is often referred to as the national sport,[127] and Greenland's men's national team was ranked among the top 20 in the world in 2001. Greenland
Greenland
has excellent conditions for skiing, fishing, snowboarding, ice climbing and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public. Although the country's environment is generally ill-suited for golf, there are nevertheless golf courses on the island.

See also[edit]

Outline of Greenland Index of Greenland-related articles

Notes[edit]

^ Nuna asiilasooq has equal status as a national anthem but is generally used only on the self-government of Greenland.[1]

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ "Not one but two national anthems". Government of Greenland. Retrieved 7 October 2003.  ^ a b c "Greenland". CIA World Factbook.  ^ a b c (in Danish) TV 2 Nyhederne – "Grønland går over til selvstyre" TV 2 Nyhederne (TV 2 News) – Ved overgangen til selvstyre, er grønlandsk nu det officielle sprog. Retrieved 22 January 2012. ^ "Self-rule introduced in Greenland". BBC News. 21 June 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ "Grønlands Statistik". stat.gl. ^ a b c Greenland
Greenland
in Figures 2013 (PDF). Statistics Greenland. ISBN 978-87-986787-7-9. ISSN 1602-5709. Retrieved 2 September 2013.  ^ Avakov, Aleksandr Vladimirovich (2012). Quality of Life, Balance of Powers, and Nuclear Weapons (2012): A Statistical Yearbook for Statesmen and Citizens. Algora Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-87586-892-9.  ^ a b (in Danish) Law of Greenlandic Selfrule (see chapter 7) ^ a b c The Fate of Greenland's Vikings, by Dale Mackenzie Brown, Archaeological Institute of America, 28 February 2000 ^ "Joshua Calder's World Island Information". Worldislandinfo.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". The World Bank. Retrieved 3 November 2012.  ^ "Saqqaq-kulturen kronologi". National Museum of Denmark. Retrieved 2 August 2013.  ^ Saillard J, Forster P, Lynnerup N, Bandelt HJ, Nørby S (2000). "mt DNA
DNA
variation among Greenland
Greenland
Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (3): 718–26. doi:10.1086/303038. PMC 1287530 . PMID 10924403.  ^ The Portuguese Explorers. Heritage.nf.ca. Retrieved on 21 June 2016. ^ " Qaasuitsup
Qaasuitsup
kommunia".  ^ Greenland
Greenland
in Figures 2012 (PDF). stat.gl. ISBN 978-87-986787-6-2. ISSN 1602-5709. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Nordic Investment Bank. " Hydropower
Hydropower
creates clean energy and jobs in Greenland". NIB. Nordic Investment Bank. Retrieved 2 October 2016.  ^ "Eirik the Red's Saga". Gutenberg.org. 8 March 2006. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "How Greenland
Greenland
got its name". The Ancient Standard. 17 December 2010. ^ a b Grove, Jonathan (2009). "The place of Greenland
Greenland
in medieval Icelandic saga narrative". Journal of the North Atlantic. 2: 30–51. doi:10.3721/037.002.s206. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012.  ^ Evans, Andrew. "Is Iceland
Iceland
Really Green and Greenland
Greenland
Really Icy?", National Geographic
National Geographic
(June 30, 2016). ^ Stern, p. 89 ^ Grønnow, B. (1988). " Prehistory
Prehistory
in permafrost: Investigations at the Saqqaq site, Qeqertasussuk, Disco Bay, West Greenland". Journal of Danish Archaeology. 7 (1): 24–39. doi:10.1080/0108464X.1988.10589995 (inactive 2017-10-02).  ^ Møbjerg, T. (1999). "New adaptive strategies in the Saqqaq culture of Greenland, c. 1600–1400 BC". World Archaeology. 30 (3): 452–65. doi:10.1080/00438243.1999.9980423. JSTOR 124963.  ^ "The history of Greenland
Greenland
– From dog sled to snowmobile". Greenland.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011.  ^ "Migration to Greenland
Greenland
– the history of Greenland". Greenland.com. Retrieved 10 September 2011.  ^ Rasch, M.; Jensen, J. F. (1997). "Ancient Eskimo dwelling sites and Holocene
Holocene
relative sea‐level changes in southern Disko Bugt, central West Greenland". Polar Research. 16 (2): 101–15. Bibcode:1997PolRe..16..101R. doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.1997.tb00252.x.  ^ Ramsden, P.; Tuck, J. A. (2001). "A Comment on the Pre-Dorset/Dorset Transition in the Eastern Arctic". Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. New Series. 1: 7–11.  ^ Grønnow, B. (1986). "Recent archaeological investigations of West Greenland
Greenland
caribou hunting". Arctic
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anthropology. 23: 57–80. JSTOR 40316103.  ^ Rowley, G. (1940). "The Dorset culture
Dorset culture
of the eastern Arctic". American Anthropologist. 42 (3): 490–99. doi:10.1525/aa.1940.42.3.02a00080.  ^ Gulløv, H. C.; Appelt, M. (2001). "Social bonding and shamanism among Late Dorset groups in High Arctic
Arctic
Greenland". The archaeology of shamanism. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 0-415-25255-5.  ^ Gulløv, H. C. (1996). In search of the Dorset culture
Dorset culture
in the Thule culture. The Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
Cultures of Greenland. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Center (Publication No. 1). pp. 201–14.  ^ Kudeba, N. (19 April 2014). "Chapter 5 – Norse Explorers from Erik the Red to Leif Erikson", in Canadian Explorers. ^ Boraas, Tracey (2002). Sweden. Capstone Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-7368-0939-2.  ^ Grant Oster, "Unseen Property Cons and Land Scams in History", Hankering for History, January 2, 2014. (accessed 15 Dec. 2017). ^ a b Jared Diamond
Jared Diamond
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Greenland
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Greenland
Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., PCIJ Series A/B No. 53 (1933) ^ Justus D. Doenecke (8 July 1941). In Danger Undaunted: The Anti-Interventionist Movement of 1940–1941. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-8841-8.  ^ Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich, 1971 ^ "Deepfreeze Defense". Time. 27 January 1947.  ^ Miller, John J. (7 May 2001). "Let's Buy Greenland! — A complete missile-defense plan". National Review. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010.  ^ Keil, Kathrin (29 August 2011) "U.S. Interests in Greenland
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– On a Path Towards Full Independence?", The Arctic
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Institute ^ Andrews Kurth LLP, "Oil and Gas in Greenland
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– Still on Ice?" Archived 19 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Andrewskurth.com. Retrieved on 21 June 2016. ^ Loukacheva, Natalia (2007). The Arctic
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Promise: Legal and Political Autonomy of Greenland
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and Nunavut. University of Toronto Press, p. 25 ISBN 9780802094865 ^ Stern, pp. 55–56 ^ Cowell, Alan (26 November 2008). " Greenland
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Vote Favors Independence". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ "Vejledende folkeafstemning om selvstyre ? 25-11-2008" (in Kalaallisut). SermitValg. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.  ^ Description of the Greenlandic Self-Government Act on the webpage of the Danish Ministry of State Archived 22 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine."The Self-Government Act provides for the Self-Government authorities to assume a number of new fields of responsibility, such as administration of justice, including the establishment of courts of law; the prison and probation service; the police; the field relating to company law, accounting and auditing; mineral resource activities; aviation; law of legal capacity, family law and succession law; aliens and border controls; the working environment; as well as financial regulation and supervision, cf. Schedule I and II in the Annex to the Self-Government Act." ^ Greenland
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takes step toward independence from Denmark. The Daily Telegraph (21 June 2009). Retrieved 29 September 2012. ^ "Nearly independent day". The Economist. 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.  ^ " Greenland
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Greenland
takes big step towards full independence". Canwest News Services. Canada.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.  ^ "The Island of Greenland". Hidden Journeys – explore the world from the air. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.  ^ "Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area, and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. United Nations. 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ "IPCC Climate
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Glaciers Losing Ice Much Faster, Study Says". National Geographic. Retrieved 13 September 2006.  ^ Climate
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variability and trends along the western slope of the Greenland ice sheet
Greenland ice sheet
during 1991–2004, Konrad Steffen, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA Nicloas Cullen, and Russell Huff University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. ^ Satellite shows Greenland's ice sheets getting thicker, The Register, 7 November 2005. ^ Willerslev, E.; Cappellini, E.; Boomsma, W.; Nielsen, R.; Hebsgaard, M. B.; Brand, T. B.; Hofreiter, M.; Bunce, M.; Poinar, H. N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Johnsen, S.; Steffensen, J. P.; Bennike, O.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Nathan, R.; Armitage, S.; De Hoog, C.-J.; Alfimov, V.; Christl, M.; Beer, J.; Muscheler, R.; Barker, J.; Sharp, M.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Haile, J.; Taberlet, P.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Casoli, A.; Campani, E.; Collins, M. J. (2007). "Ancient Biomolecules from Deep Ice Cores Reveal a Forested Southern Greenland". Science. 317 (5834): 111–14. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..111W. doi:10.1126/science.1141758. PMC 2694912 . PMID 17615355.  ^ McCarthy, Michael (24 April 2007). "An island made by global warming". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ "Place of the Year". Blog.oup.com. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ Publications, Usa Int'L Business. Denmark
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– Section 3. ^ "The body of Ministers shall form the Council of State, in which the Successor to the Throne shall have a seat when he is of age. The Council of State shall be presided over by the King..." The Constitution of Denmark
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– Section 13. ^ "47 Member States".  ^ Folketinget – Folketinget.dk. Ft.dk. Retrieved on 21 June 2016. ^ a b Walsh, Maurice (2017-01-28). "'You can't live in a museum': the battle for Greenland's uranium". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-01-28.  ^ "Greenland's red hot labour market". Nordic Labour Journal. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Chinese Workers—in Greenland? 10 February 2013 BusinessWeek. ^ Perrin, Wendy. " Greenland
Greenland
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– Official national guide by Greenland
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Tourism and Business Council". Greenland.com. 24 May 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ " Air Greenland
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teams with First Air for Iqaluit
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Greenland
who Fasts for 21 hours". Malaysia News Hub. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Wetaka, Ahmed. "The only Muslim in Greenland
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who fasts for 21 hours". Uganda Muslims. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "Ramadan in Greenland: The only Muslim in the island fasts for 21 hours". Ummid.com. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "The Suicide Capital of the World". Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Rising suicide rate baffles Greenland". Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ " Greenland
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Greenland
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Bibliography[edit]

Hessel, Ingo (2006). Arctic
Arctic
Spirit. Vancouver, BC: Douglas and McIntyre. ISBN 978-1-55365-189-5.  Stern, Pamela (2004). Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-5058-3. OCLC 54768167.  Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-2074-3. 

Works cited[edit]

Bardarson, I. (ed. Jónsson, F.) "Det gamle Grønlands beskrivelse af Ívar Bárðarson (Ivar Bårdssön)", (Copenhagen, 1930). CIA World Factbook, 2000. Conkling, P. W. et al. 2011. The Fate of Greenland: Lessons from Abrupt Climate
Climate
Change, co-authored with Richard Alley, Wallace Broecker and George Denton, with photographs by Gary Comer, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Lund S (1959). "The Marine Algae
Algae
of East Greenland. 1. Taxonomical Part". Meddr Gronland. 156 (1): 1–245.  Lund S (1959). "The Marine Algae
Algae
of East Greenland. 11. Geographic Distribution". Meddr Gronland. 156: 1–70.  Steffen, Konrad, N. Cullen, and R. Huff (2005). " Climate
Climate
variability and trends along the western slope of the Greenland
Greenland
Ice Sheet during 1991–2004", Proceedings of the 85th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting (San Diego). Sowa F (2013). "Indigenous Peoples and the Institutionalization of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Greenland". Arctic
Arctic
Anthropology. 50 (1): 72–88. doi:10.3368/aa.50.1.72.  Sowa, F. 2013. Relations of Power & Domination in a World Polity: The Politics of Indigeneity & National Identity in Greenland. In: Heininen, L. Arctic
Arctic
Yearbook 2013. The Arctic
Arctic
of regions vs. the globalized Arctic. Akureyri: Northern Research Forum, pp. 184–198.www.arcticyearbook.com/ay2013 Sowa, F. 2014. Greenland. in: Hund, A. Antarctica
Antarctica
and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth's Polar Regions. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, pp. 312–316.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutGreenlandat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Overviews and data[edit]

Greenland
Greenland
entry at Denmark.dk. "Greenland". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Greenland
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entry at Encyclopædia Britannica. A guide to Greenlandic Culture at culture.gl. Greenland
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Government[edit]

Government Offices of Greenland Greenlandic Government Information Center, the official English-language online portal (administered by the Greenland
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Maps[edit]

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Travel[edit]

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The Norse in the North Atlantic: Newfoundland and Labrador
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Quest

IPY · IGY Modern research

Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE

Rymill

New Swabia

Ritscher

Operation Tabarin

Marr

Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey Operation Windmill

Ketchum

Ronne Expedition

F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach

Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Hillary V. Fuchs

Soviet Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

1st

Somov Klenova Mirny

2nd

Tryoshnikov

3rd

Tolstikov

Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty System Transglobe Expedition

Fiennes Burton

Lake Vostok Kapitsa

Farthest South South Pole

HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Weddell HMS Erebus

J. C. Ross

HMS Terror

Crozier

Southern Cross

Borchgrevink

Discovery

Barne

Nimrod

Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams

South Magnetic Pole

Mawson David Mackay

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim

Terra Nova

Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers

Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold

Vostok Station

Pole of inaccessibility

Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov

Crary A. Fuchs Messner

v t e

Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

Dependencies

Denmark

Faroe Islands1

autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia2

Sovereign Base Areas

Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

v t e

Countries and dependencies of North America

Sovereign states

Entire

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

In part

Colombia

San Andrés and Providencia

France

Guadeloupe Martinique

Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Dependencies

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon

Netherlands

Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands

United States

Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Venezuela

Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta

Greenland
Greenland
portal Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
portal Arctic
Arctic
portal NATO
NATO
portal North America
North America
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137138322 GND: 40221

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