GREEN POLITICS (also known as ECOPOLITICS ) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism , nonviolence , social justice , and grassroots democracy . It began taking shape in the western world in the 1970s; since then Green parties have developed and established themselves in many countries around the globe, and have achieved some electoral success.
The political term Green was used initially in relation to die
Grünen (German for "the Greens"), a
Supporters of green politics share many ideas with the ecology , conservation , environmentalism , feminism , and peace movements . In addition to democracy and ecological issues, green politics is concerned with civil liberties , social justice , nonviolence , sometimes variants of localism and tends to support social progressivism . The party's platform is largely considered left in the political spectrum.
The Green ideology has connections with various other ecocentric political ideologies, including ecosocialism , ecoanarchism , and ecofeminism , but to what extent these can be seen as forms of Green politics is a matter of debate.
As the left-wing 'Green' (i.e. capital 'G') political philosophy developed, there also came into separate existence unrelated and polar opposite movements on the right that include ecological components such as green conservatism and eco-capitalism .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Influences
* 1.1.1 Early development * 1.1.2 Further developments
* 2 Core tenets
* 3 Organization
* 3.1 Local movements
* 3.2 Global organization
* 3.2.1 Global Green meetings
* 3.3 Green federations
* 4 Currents * 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 6.1 References
* 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Adherents to green politics tend to consider it to be part of a 'higher' worldview and not simply a political ideology. Green politics draws its ethical stance from a variety of sources, from the values of indigenous peoples , to the ethics of Gandhi , Spinoza and Uexküll . These people influenced green thought in their advocacy of long-term "seventh generation " foresight, and on the personal responsibility of every individual to make moral choices.
Of course, unease about adverse consequences of human actions on nature predates the modern concept of “environmentalism". Social commentators as far apart as ancient Rome and China complained of air, water and noise pollution.
The philosophical roots of environmentalism can be traced back to
enlightenment thinkers such as
“Green politics” first began as conservation and preservation movements, such as the Sierra Club , founded in San Francisco in 1892.
Left-green platforms of the form that make up the green parties today draw terminology from the science of ecology, and policy from environmentalism , deep ecology , feminism , pacifism , anarchism , libertarian socialism , social democracy , eco-socialism , and/or social ecology . In the 1970s, as these movements grew in influence, green politics arose as a new philosophy which synthesized their goals.
The Green Party political movement is not to be confused with the unrelated fact that in some far-right and fascist parties, nationalism has on occasion been tied into a sort of green politics which promotes environmentalism as a form of pride in the "motherland" according to a minority of authors. German Green Party co-founder, Petra Kelly , with former German cabinet member, Otto Schily, at press conference in 1983.
In June 1970 in the
The first political party to be created with its basis in
environmental issues was the
United Tasmania Group , founded in
Australia in March 1972 to fight against deforestation and the
creation of a dam that would damage
Lake Pedder ; whilst it only
gained three percent in state elections, it had, according to Derek
Wall, "inspired the creation of Green parties all over the world." In
May 1972, a meeting at
Victoria University of Wellington , New
Zealand, launched the
Values Party , the world's first countrywide
green party to contest Parliamentary seats nationally. A year later
in 1973, Europe's first green party, the UK's
The German Green Party was not the first Green Party in Europe to
have members elected nationally but the impression was created that
they had been, because they attracted the most media attention: The
German Greens , contended in their first national election in 1980.
They started as a provisional coalition of civic groups and political
campaigns which, together, felt their interests were not expressed by
the conventional parties. After contesting the 1979 Euro elections
they held a conference which identified Four Pillars of the Green
Party which all groups in the original alliance could agree as the
basis of a common Party platform: welding these groups together as a
single Party. This statement of principles has since been utilised by
many Green Parties around the world. It was this party that first
coined the term "Green" ("Grün" in German) and adopted the sunflower
symbol. The term "Green" was coined by one of the founders of the
German Green Party,
Green parties worldwide. Dark green means in government, light green in parliament and yellow in local government.
The first Canadian foray into green politics took place in the
Maritimes when 11 independent candidates (including one in Montreal
and one in Toronto) ran in the 1980 federal election under the banner
of the Small Party. Inspired by Schumacher's Small is Beautiful, the
Small Party candidates ran for the expressed purpose of putting
forward an anti-nuclear platform in that election. It was not
registered as an official party, but some participants in that effort
went on to form the
Green Party of Canada
In Finland, in 1995, the
Green League became the first European Green
Party to form part of a state-level Cabinet. The German Greens
followed, forming a government with the Social Democratic Party of
Germany (the "
In Latvia, Indulis Emsis , leader of the Green Party and part of the Union of Greens and Farmers , an alliance of a Nordic agrarian party and the Green Party, was Prime Minister of Latvia for ten months in 2004, making him the first Green politician to lead a country in the history of the world. In 2015, Emsis' party colleague, Raimonds Vējonis , was elected President of Latvia by the Latvian parliament. Vējonis became the first green head of state worldwide.
In the German state of Baden-Württenburg, the Green Party became the
leader of the coalition with the Social Democrats after finishing
second in the
Baden-Württemberg state election, 2011 . In the
following state election, 2016 , the Green Party became the strongest
party for the first time in a German
In 2016, the former leader of the Austrian green party (1997-2008), Alexander Van der Bellen , officially running as an independent, won the Austrian presidential election, 2016 , making him the second green head of state worldwide, the first directly elected by popular vote. Van der Bellen became second in the election's first round with 21.3% of the votes, the best result for the Austrian greens in their history. He won the second round run-off against the far-right Freedom party's Norbert Hofer with 53.8% of the votes, making him the first President of Austria who was not backed by either the People's or the Social Democratic party.
The four green pillars
According to Derek Wall , a prominent British Green proponent, there are four pillars that define Green politics:
In 1984, the Green Committees of Correspondence in the United States expanded the Four Pillars into Ten Key Values which, in addition to the Four Pillars mentioned above, include:
The six guiding principles
Some Greens refer to productivism , consumerism and scientism as "grey", as contrasted with "green", economic views. "Grey" implies age, concrete, and lifelessness.
Therefore, adherents to green politics advocate economic policies designed to safeguard the environment. Greens want governments to stop subsidizing companies that waste resources or pollute the natural world, subsidies that Greens refer to as "dirty subsidies ". Some currents of green politics place automobile and agribusiness subsidies in this category, as they may harm human health. On the contrary, Greens look to a green tax shift that are seen to encourage both producers and consumers to make ecologically friendly choices.
Since green economics emphasizes biospheric health and biodiversity , an issue outside the traditional left-right spectrum, different currents within green politics incorporate ideas from socialism and capitalism. Greens on the Left are often identified as Eco-socialists , who merge ecology and environmentalism with socialism and Marxism and blame the capitalist system for environmental degradation, social injustice, inequality and conflict. Eco-capitalists , on the other hand, believe that the free market system, with some modification, is capable of addressing ecological problems. This belief is documented in the business experiences of eco-capitalists in the book, The Gort Cloud that describes the gort cloud as the green community that supports eco-friendly businesses.
Since the beginning, green politics has emphasized local, grassroots -level political activity and decision-making. According to its adherents, it is crucial that citizens play a direct role in the decisions that influence their lives and their environment. Therefore, green politics seeks to increase the role of deliberative democracy , based on direct citizen involvement and consensus decision making , wherever it is feasible.
In addition, many Greens believe that governments should not levy taxes against strictly local production and trade. Some Greens advocate new ways of organizing authority to increase local control, including urban secession , bioregional democracy , and co-operative / local stakeholder ownership.
The sunflower is an internationally recognized symbol of Green politics.
In the spirit of nonviolence,
In Europe, Green parties tend to support the creation of a democratic federal Europe .
Although Greens in the United States "call for an end to the 'War on Drugs '" and "for decriminalization of victimless crimes ", they also call for developing "a firm approach to law enforcement that directly addresses violent crime, including trafficking in hard drugs".
Green platforms generally favor tariffs on fossil fuels , restricting genetically modified organisms , and protections for ecoregions or communities . In keeping with their commitment to the preservation of diversity, greens are often committed to the maintenance and protection of indigenous communities, languages, and traditions. An example of this is the Irish Green Party 's commitment to the preservation of the Irish Language.
Some of the green movement has focused on divesting in fossil fuels.
Academics Stand Against Poverty states "it is paradoxical for
universities to remain invested in fossil fuel companies". Thomas
Pogge says that the fossil fuel divestment movement can increase
political pressure at events like the international climate change
conference (COP). Alex Epstein of Forbes notes that it is
hypocritical to ask for divestment without a boycott and that a
boycott would be more effective. Some institutions that are leading
by example in the academic area are
Green ideology emphasizes participatory democracy and the principle of "thinking globally, acting locally ". As such, the ideal Green Party is thought to grow from the bottom up, from neighborhood to municipal to (eco-)regional to national levels. The goal is to rule by a consensus decision making process.
Strong local coalitions are considered a pre-requisite to higher-level electoral breakthroughs. Historically, the growth of Green parties has been sparked by a single issue where Greens can appeal to ordinary citizens' concerns. In Germany, for example, the Greens' early opposition to nuclear power won them their first successes in the federal elections.
There is a growing level of global cooperation between Green parties.
Global gatherings of Green Parties now happen. The first Planetary
Meeting of Greens was held 30–31 May 1992, in Rio de Janeiro,
immediately preceding the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development held there. More than 200 Greens from 28 nations attended.
The first formal
Global Greens Gathering took place in
Global Green networking dates back to 1990. Following the Planetary
Meeting of Greens in
Rio de Janeiro
At the 2001
The Gatherings also agree on organizational matters. The first
Gathering voted unanimously to set up the Global Green Network (GGN).
The GGN is composed of three representatives from each Green Party. A
companion organization was set up by the same resolution: Global Green
Coordination (GGC). This is composed of three representatives from
each Federation (Africa, Europe, The Americas, Asia/Pacific, see
below). Discussion of the planned organization took place in several
Green Parties prior to the
Thirdly, Global Green Gatherings are an opportunity for informal
networking, from which joint campaigning may arise. For example, a
campaign to protect the New Caledonian coral reef, by getting it
nominated for World Heritage Status: a joint campaign by the New
Caledonia Green Party, New Caldonian indigenous leaders, the French
Green Party , and the
Australian Greens . Another example concerns
Ingrid Betancourt , the leader of the Green Party in
Global Green Meetings
Separately from the Global Green Gatherings, Global Green Meetings take place. For instance, one took place on the fringe of the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. Green Parties attended from Australia, Taiwan, Korea, South Africa, Mauritius, Uganda, Cameroon, Republic of Cyprus, Italy, France, Belgium, Germany, Finland, Sweden, Norway, the USA, Mexico and Chile.
The Global Green Meeting discussed the situation of Green Parties on the African continent; heard a report from Mike Feinstein , former Mayor of Santa Monica , about setting up a web site of the GGN; discussed procedures for the better working of the GGC; and decided two topics on which the Global Greens could issue statements in the near future: Iraq and the 2003 WTO meeting in Cancun.
The member parties of the Global Greens are organised into four continental federations:
Federation of Green Parties of Africa
Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas / Federación de
los Partidos Verdes de las Américas
Asia-Pacific Green Network
European Federation of Green Parties
European Federation of Green Parties
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Greens on the Left adhere to eco-socialism , an ideology that
combines ecology, environmentalism, socialism, and
Despite this stereotype, some centrist Greens may subscribe to a more classical liberal Georgist or geolibertarian philosophy emphasizing individual property rights and free-market environmentalism – and shifting taxes away from value created by labor or service and charging instead for human consumption of the wealth created by the natural world (see land value tax and ecotax ).
Greens may view the processes by which living beings compete for mates, homes, and food, ecology, and the cognitive and political sciences very differently. These differences tend to drive debate on ethics, formation of policy, and the public resolution of these differences in leadership races. There is no single "Green Ethic".
* Sustainable development portal
* Outline of green politics (list of related articles, organized for easy browsing)
* ^ Peter Reed; David Rothenberg (1993). Wisdom in the Open Air:
The Norwegian Roots of Deep Ecology. University of Minnesota Press. p.
84. ISBN 978-0-8166-2182-8 .
* ^ A B Wall 2010 . p. 12-13.
Derek Wall (2010). The No-nonsense Guide to Green Politics. New
Internationalist. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-906523-39-8 .
* ^ Jon Burchell (2002). The Evolution of Green Politics:
Development and Change Within European Green Parties. Earthscan. p.
52. ISBN 978-1-85383-751-7 .
* ^ Playing by the Rules: The Impact of Electoral Systems on
Emerging Green Parties. ProQuest. 2007. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-549-13249-3
* ^ Peet and Watts, 1996, p.6.
* ^ Robbins, 2012.
* ^ Dustin Mulvaney (2011). Green Politics, An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE
publications. p. 394.
* ^ Wall 2010 . p. 47-66.
* ^ Keys, David (December 2003). "How Rome polluted the world".
Geographical. 75 (12).
* ^ McCormick, John. The Global Environmental Movement (London:
John Wiley, 1995).
* ^ Staudenmaier, Peter. "Fascist Ecology: The \'Green Wing\' of
the Nazi Party and its Historical Antecedents.". Archived from the
original on 13 March 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
* ^ Biehl, Janet; Staudenmaier, Peter (1995). ""Ecology" and the
* Wall, Derek (2010). The No-Nonsense Guide to Green Politics. Oxford: New Internationalist Publications. ISBN 978-1-906523-39-8 .
* Dobson, Andrew (2007). Green Political Thought. 4. Edition (1. Edition 1980), London/ New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40351-0 (Hardcover) * Gilk, Paul (2009). "Green Politics is Eutopian". The Lutterworth Press. * Spretnak, Charlene (1986). The Spiritual Dimension of Green Politics. Santa Fe, N.M.: Bear line-height:1.2em">Library resources about GREEN POLITICS -------------------------
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