Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology
that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in
environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots
democracy. It began taking shape in the western world in the 1970s
and since then Green parties have developed and established themselves
in many countries around the globe and have achieved some electoral
The political term Green was used initially in relation to die Grünen
(German for "the Greens"), a
Green party formed in the late
1970s. The term "political ecology" is sometimes used in academic
circles, but in the latter has come to represent an interdisciplinary
field of study, as the academic discipline offers wide-ranging studies
integrating ecological social sciences with political economy in
topics such as degradation and marginalization, environmental
conflict, conservation and control and environmental identities and
Supporters of green politics share many ideas with the ecology,
conservation, environmentalism, feminism and peace movements. In
addition to democracy and ecological issues, green politics is
concerned with civil liberties, social justice, nonviolence, sometimes
variants of localism and tends to support social progressivism. The
party's platform is largely considered left in the political spectrum.
The Green ideology has connections with various other ecocentric
political ideologies, including ecosocialism, ecoanarchism and
ecofeminism, but to what extent these can be seen as forms of Green
politics is a matter of debate.
As the left-wing Green (i.e. capital 'G') political philosophy
developed, there also came into separate existence unrelated and polar
opposite movements on the right that include ecological components
such as green conservatism and eco-capitalism.
1.1.1 Early development
1.1.2 Further developments
2 Core tenets
2.3 Participatory democracy
2.4 Other issues
3.1 Local movements
3.2 Global organization
3.2.1 Global Green meetings
3.3 Green federations
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
Adherents to green politics tend to consider it to be part of a
'higher' worldview and not simply a political ideology. Green politics
draws its ethical stance from a variety of sources, from the values of
indigenous peoples, to the ethics of Gandhi, Spinoza and Uexküll.
These people influenced green thought in their advocacy of long-term
"seventh generation" foresight, and on the personal responsibility of
every individual to make moral choices.
Of course, unease about adverse consequences of human actions on
nature predates the modern concept of “environmentalism". Social
commentators as far apart as ancient Rome and China complained of air,
water and noise pollution.
The philosophical roots of environmentalism can be traced back to
enlightenment thinkers such as
Rousseau in France and, later, the
author and naturalist
Thoreau in America. Organised environmentalism
began in late 19th Century Europe and the United States as a reaction
Industrial Revolution with its emphasis on unbridled economic
“Green politics” first began as conservation and preservation
movements, such as the Sierra Club, founded in San Francisco in 1892.
Left-green platforms of the form that make up the green parties today
draw terminology from the science of ecology, and policy from
environmentalism, deep ecology, feminism, pacifism, anarchism,
libertarian socialism, social democracy, eco-socialism, and/or social
ecology. In the 1970s, as these movements grew in influence, green
politics arose as a new philosophy which synthesized their goals.
The Green Party political movement is not to be confused with the
unrelated fact that in some far-right and fascist parties, nationalism
has on occasion been tied into a sort of green politics which promotes
environmentalism as a form of pride in the "motherland"
according to a minority of authors.
German Green Party co-founder, Petra Kelly, with former German cabinet
member, Otto Schily, at press conference in 1983.
In June 1970 in the
Netherlands a group called
Kabouters won 5 of the
45 seats on the
Amsterdam Gemeenteraad (City Council), as well as two
seats each on councils in
The Hague and
Leeuwarden and one seat apiece
Alkmaar and Leiden. The
Kabouters were an outgrowth of
Provo’s environmental White Plans and they proposed “Groene
Plannen” (“Green Plans”).
The first political party to be created with its basis in
environmental issues was the United Tasmania Group, founded in
Australia in March 1972 to fight against deforestation and the
creation of a dam that would damage Lake Pedder; whilst it only gained
three percent in state elections, it had, according to Derek Wall,
"inspired the creation of Green parties all over the world." In
May 1972, a meeting at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand,
launched the Values Party, the world's first countrywide green party
to contest Parliamentary seats nationally. In November 1972,
Europe's first green party, PEOPLE in the UK came into existence.
The German Green Party was not the first Green Party in Europe to have
members elected nationally but the impression was created that they
had been, because they attracted the most media attention: The German
Greens, contended in their first national election in 1980. They
started as a provisional coalition of civic groups and political
campaigns which, together, felt their interests were not expressed by
the conventional parties. After contesting the 1979 Euro elections
they held a conference which identified Four Pillars of the Green
Party which all groups in the original alliance could agree as the
basis of a common Party platform: welding these groups together as a
single Party. This statement of principles has since been utilised by
many Green Parties around the world. It was this party that first
coined the term "Green" ("Grün" in German) and adopted the sunflower
symbol. The term "Green" was coined by one of the founders of the
German Green Party, Petra Kelly, after she visited Australia and saw
the actions of the
Builders Labourers Federation
Builders Labourers Federation and their green ban
actions. In the 1983 federal election, the Greens won 27 seats in
Green parties worldwide. Dark green means in government, light green
in parliament and yellow in local government.
The first Canadian foray into green politics took place in the
Maritimes when 11 independent candidates (including one in Montreal
and one in Toronto) ran in the 1980 federal election under the banner
of the Small Party. Inspired by Schumacher's Small is Beautiful, the
Small Party candidates ran for the expressed purpose of putting
forward an anti-nuclear platform in that election. It was not
registered as an official party, but some participants in that effort
went on to form the
Green Party of Canada
Green Party of Canada in 1983 (the Ontario Greens
and British Columbia Greens were also formed that year). Current Green
Party of Canada leader
Elizabeth May was the instigator and one of the
candidates of the Small Party and she was eventually elected as a
member of the Green Party in 2011 Canadian federal election.
In Finland, in 1995, the
Green League became the first European Green
Party to form part of a state-level Cabinet. The German Greens
followed, forming a government with the Social Democratic Party of
Germany (the "Red-Green Alliance") from 1998 to 2005. In 2001, they
reached an agreement to end reliance on nuclear power in Germany, and
agreed to remain in coalition and support the German government of
Gerhard Schröder in the 2001 Afghan War. This put them at
odds with many Greens worldwide, but demonstrated that they were
capable of difficult political tradeoffs.
In Latvia, Indulis Emsis, leader of the Green Party and part of the
Union of Greens and Farmers, an alliance of a Nordic agrarian party
and the Green Party, was
Prime Minister of Latvia
Prime Minister of Latvia for ten months in
2004, making him the first Green politician to lead a country in the
history of the world. In 2015, Emsis' party colleague, Raimonds
Vējonis, was elected President of Latvia by the Latvian parliament.
Vējonis became the first green head of state worldwide.
In the German state of Baden-Württenburg, the Green Party became the
leader of the coalition with the Social Democrats after finishing
second in the Baden-Württemberg state election, 2011. In the
following state election, 2016, the Green Party became the strongest
party for the first time in a German Landtag.
In 2016, the former leader of the Austrian green party (1997-2008),
Alexander Van der Bellen, officially running as an independent, won
the Austrian presidential election, 2016, making him the second green
head of state worldwide, the first directly elected by popular vote.
Van der Bellen became second in the election's first round with 21.3%
of the votes, the best result for the Austrian greens in their
history. He won the second round run-off against the far-right Freedom
Norbert Hofer with 53.8% of the votes, making him the first
President of Austria who was not backed by either the People's or the
Social Democratic party.
The four green pillars
According to Derek Wall, a prominent British Green proponent, there
are four pillars that define Green politics:
In 1984, the Green Committees of Correspondence in the United States
expanded the Four Pillars into Ten Key Values which, in addition to
the Four Pillars mentioned above, include:
Post-patriarchal values (later translated to feminism)
Respect for diversity
The six guiding principles
In 2001, the
Global Greens were organized as an international Green
Global Greens Charter identified six guiding principles:
Respect for diversity
Main article: Green economics
Green economics focuses on the importance of the health of the
biosphere to human well-being. Consequently, most Greens distrust
conventional capitalism, as it tends to emphasize economic growth
while ignoring ecological health; the "full cost" of economic growth
often includes damage to the biosphere, which is unacceptable
according to green politics.
Green economics considers such growth to
be "uneconomic growth"— material increase that nonetheless lowers
overall quality of life.
Green economics inherently takes a longer
term perspective than conventional economics, because such loss in
quality of life is often delayed. According to green economics, the
present generation should not borrow from future generations, but
rather attempt to achieve what Tim Jackson calls "prosperity without
Some Greens refer to productivism, consumerism and scientism[citation
needed] as "grey", as contrasted with "green", economic views. "Grey"
implies age, concrete, and lifelessness.
Therefore, adherents to green politics advocate economic policies
designed to safeguard the environment. Greens want governments to stop
subsidizing companies that waste resources or pollute the natural
world, subsidies that Greens refer to as "dirty subsidies". Some
currents of green politics place automobile and agribusiness subsidies
in this category, as they may harm human health. On the contrary,
Greens look to a green tax shift that are seen to encourage both
producers and consumers to make ecologically friendly choices.
Green economics is on the whole anti-globalist. According to Greens,
economic globalization is considered a threat to well-being, which
will replace natural environments and local cultures with a single
trade economy, termed the global economic monoculture.
Since green economics emphasizes biospheric health and biodiversity,
an issue outside the traditional left-right spectrum, different
currents within green politics incorporate ideas from socialism and
capitalism. Greens on the Left are often identified as Eco-socialists,
who merge ecology and environmentalism with socialism and
blame the capitalist system for environmental degradation, social
injustice, inequality and conflict. Eco-capitalists, on the other
hand, believe that the free market system, with some modification, is
capable of addressing ecological problems. This belief is documented
in the business experiences of eco-capitalists in the book, The Gort
Cloud that describes the gort cloud as the green community that
supports eco-friendly businesses.
Since the beginning, green politics has emphasized local,
grassroots-level political activity and decision-making. According to
its adherents, it is crucial that citizens play a direct role in the
decisions that influence their lives and their environment. Therefore,
green politics seeks to increase the role of deliberative democracy,
based on direct citizen involvement and consensus decision making,
wherever it is feasible.
Green politics also encourages political action on the individual
level, such as ethical consumerism, or buying things that are made
according to environmentally ethical standards. Indeed, many green
parties emphasize individual and grassroots action at the local and
regional levels over electoral politics. Historically, green parties
have grown at the local level, gradually gaining influence and
spreading to regional or provincial politics, only entering the
national arena when there is a strong network of local support.
In addition, many Greens believe that governments should not levy
taxes against strictly local production and trade. Some Greens
advocate new ways of organizing authority to increase local control,
including urban secession, bioregional democracy, and co-operative /
local stakeholder ownership.
The sunflower is an internationally recognized symbol of Green
Green politics on the whole is opposed to nuclear power and the
buildup of persistent organic pollutants, supporting adherence to the
precautionary principle, by which technologies are rejected unless
they can be proven to not cause significant harm to the health of
living things or the biosphere.
In the spirit of nonviolence,
Green politics opposes the War on
Terrorism and the curtailment of civil rights, focusing instead on
nurturing deliberative democracy in war-torn regions and the
construction of a civil society with an increased role for women.
In Europe, Green parties tend to support the creation of a democratic
Although Greens in the United States "call for an end to the 'War on
Drugs'" and "for decriminalization of victimless crimes", they also
call for developing "a firm approach to law enforcement that directly
addresses violent crime, including trafficking in hard drugs".
Green platforms generally favor tariffs on fossil fuels, restricting
genetically modified organisms, and protections for ecoregions or
communities. In keeping with their commitment to the preservation of
diversity, greens are often committed to the maintenance and
protection of indigenous communities, languages, and traditions. An
example of this is the Irish Green Party's commitment to the
preservation of the Irish Language.
Some of the green movement has focused on divesting in fossil fuels.
Academics Stand Against Poverty
Academics Stand Against Poverty states "it is paradoxical for
universities to remain invested in fossil fuel companies". Thomas
Pogge says that the fossil fuel divestment movement can increase
political pressure at events like the international climate change
conference (COP). Alex Epstein of Forbes notes that it is
hypocritical to ask for divestment without a boycott and that a
boycott would be more effective. Some institutions that are
leading by example in the academic area are Stanford University,
Syracuse University, Sterling College and over 20 more. A number of
cities, counties and religious institutions have also joined the
movement to divest.
Green ideology emphasizes participatory democracy and the principle of
"thinking globally, acting locally". As such, the ideal Green Party is
thought to grow from the bottom up, from neighborhood to municipal to
(eco-)regional to national levels. The goal is to rule by a consensus
decision making process.
Strong local coalitions are considered a pre-requisite to higher-level
electoral breakthroughs. Historically, the growth of Green parties has
been sparked by a single issue where Greens can appeal to ordinary
citizens' concerns. In Germany, for example, the Greens' early
opposition to nuclear power won them their first successes in the
There is a growing level of global cooperation between Green parties.
Global gatherings of Green Parties now happen. The first Planetary
Meeting of Greens was held 30–31 May 1992, in Rio de Janeiro,
immediately preceding the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development held there. More than 200 Greens from 28 nations attended.
The first formal
Global Greens Gathering took place in Canberra, in
2001, with more than 800 Greens from 72 countries in attendance. The
second Global Green Congress was held in São Paulo, Brazil, in May
2008, when 75 parties were represented.
Global Green networking dates back to 1990. Following the Planetary
Meeting of Greens in Rio de Janeiro, a Global Green Steering Committee
was created, consisting of two seats for each continent. In 1993 this
Global Steering Committee met in Mexico City and authorized the
creation of a Global Green Network including a Global Green Calendar,
Global Green Bulletin, and Global Green Directory. The Directory was
issued in several editions in the next years. In 1996, 69 Green
Parties from around the world signed a common declaration opposing
French nuclear testing in the South Pacific, the first statement of
global greens on a current issue. A second statement was issued in
December 1997, concerning the Kyoto climate change treaty.
At the 2001
Canberra Global Gathering delegates for Green Parties from
72 countries decided upon a
Global Greens Charter which proposes six
key principles. Over time, each Green Party can discuss this and
organize itself to approve it, some by using it in the local press,
some by translating it for their web site, some by incorporating it
into their manifesto, some by incorporating it into their
constitution. This process is taking place gradually, with online
dialogue enabling parties to say where they are up to with this
The Gatherings also agree on organizational matters. The first
Gathering voted unanimously to set up the Global Green Network (GGN).
The GGN is composed of three representatives from each Green Party. A
companion organization was set up by the same resolution: Global Green
Coordination (GGC). This is composed of three representatives from
each Federation (Africa, Europe, The Americas, Asia/Pacific, see
below). Discussion of the planned organization took place in several
Green Parties prior to the
Canberra meeting. The GGC communicates
chiefly by email. Any agreement by it has to be by unanimity of its
members. It may identify possible global campaigns to propose to Green
Parties worldwide. The GGC may endorse statements by individual Green
Parties. For example, it endorsed a statement by the US Green Party on
the Israel-Palestine conflict.
Thirdly, Global Green Gatherings are an opportunity for informal
networking, from which joint campaigning may arise. For example, a
campaign to protect the New Caledonian coral reef, by getting it
nominated for World Heritage Status: a joint campaign by the New
Caledonia Green Party, New Caldonian indigenous leaders, the French
Green Party, and the Australian Greens. Another example concerns
Ingrid Betancourt, the leader of the Green Party in Colombia, the
Green Oxygen Party (Partido Verde Oxigeno).
Ingrid Betancourt and the
party's Campaign Manager, Claire Rojas, were kidnapped by a hard-line
faction of FARC on 7 March 2002, while travelling in FARC-controlled
territory. Betancourt had spoken at the
Canberra Gathering, making
many friends. As a result, Green Parties all over the world have
organized, pressing their governments to bring pressure to bear. For
example, Green Parties in African countries, Austria, Canada, Brazil,
Peru, Mexico, France, Scotland, Sweden and other countries have
launched campaigns calling for Betancourt's release. Bob Brown, the
leader of the Australian Greens, went to Colombia, as did an envoy
from the European Federation, Alain Lipietz, who issued a report.
The four Federations of Green Parties issued a message to FARC.
Ingrid Betancourt was rescued by the Colombian military in Operation
Jaque in 2008.
Global Green meetings
Separately from the Global Green Gatherings, Global Green Meetings
take place. For instance, one took place on the fringe of the World
Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. Green Parties
attended from Australia, Taiwan, Korea, South Africa, Mauritius,
Uganda, Cameroon, Republic of Cyprus, Italy, France, Belgium, Germany,
Finland, Sweden, Norway, the USA, Mexico and Chile.
The Global Green Meeting discussed the situation of Green Parties on
the African continent; heard a report from Mike Feinstein, former
Mayor of Santa Monica, about setting up a web site of the GGN;
discussed procedures for the better working of the GGC; and decided
two topics on which the
Global Greens could issue statements in the
near future: Iraq and the 2003 WTO meeting in Cancun.
The member parties of the
Global Greens are organised into four
Federation of Green Parties of Africa
Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas / Federación de los
Partidos Verdes de las Américas
Asia-Pacific Green Network
European Federation of Green Parties
European Federation of Green Parties
European Federation of Green Parties formed itself as the European
Green Party on 22 February 2004, in the run-up to European Parliament
elections in June 2004, a further step in trans-national integration.
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Green politics is usually said to include the green anarchism,
eco-anarchism, green libertarianism, green liberalism, anti-nuclear
movements, and peace movements, although these often claim not to be
aligned with any party. Some claim it also includes feminism, pacifism
and the animal rights movements. Some Greens support policy measures
to empower women, especially mothers, great ape personhood; to oppose
war, to de-escalate conflicts, and to stop proliferating technologies
useful in conflict or likely to lead to conflict.
Greens on the Left adhere to eco-socialism, an ideology that combines
ecology, environmentalism, socialism, and
Marxism to criticize the
capitalist system as the cause of ecological crises, social exclusion,
inequality, and conflict. Green parties are not eco-socialist, but
some Green parties around the world have or have had a significant
eco-socialist membership.
Despite this stereotype, some centrist Greens may subscribe to a more
classical liberal Georgist or geolibertarian philosophy emphasizing
individual property rights and free-market environmentalism –
and shifting taxes away from value created by labor or service and
charging instead for human consumption of the wealth created by the
natural world (see land value tax and ecotax).
Greens may view the processes by which living beings compete for
mates, homes, and food, ecology, and the cognitive and political
sciences very differently. These differences tend to drive debate on
ethics, formation of policy, and the public resolution of these
differences in leadership races. There is no single "Green Ethic".
Sustainable development portal
Outline of green politics (list of related articles, organized for
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^ Robbins, 2012.
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are used widely in the symbols of ecologists, the former evoking
vegetation and the latter the sun. The sunflower, a popular symbol,
embodies both colours, and turns towards the sun, the source of
renewable energy. The bicycle is another important icon as bicycle
transportation is regarded as one of the means to re-humanise
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^ "Divestment Commitments". FossilFree.org. Retrieved 7 April
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Green Party of Canada
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Library resources about
Resources in your library
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Global Greens Charter,
Ecology and Society – book on politics and sociology of
List of topics
Bright green environmentalism
Asia Pacific Greens Federation
European Green Party
Federation of Green Parties of Africa
Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas
Federation of Young European Greens
Global Young Greens
Climate change politics
Progressivism (Progressive conservatism)
Green parties by country
Greens of Burkina
Rally of the Ecologists
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Green Party
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Nuclear Disarmament (defunct)
United Tasmania Group
The Green Movement
Green Civil Society
Papua New Guinea
Flanders and Brussels
Wallonia and Brussels
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Socialist People's Party
Ecology – The Greens
Mouvement Ecologiste Indépendant
Alliance 90/The Greens
Ecological Democratic Party
Dialogue for Hungary
Politics Can Be Different
Federation of the Greens
Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union
Civil United Green Alternative
Ecological Party "The Greens"
Union of Greens
Alliance of Greens and Social Democrats
Greens of Serbia
Confederation of the Greens
England and Wales (Wales)
Italic links indicate non-members or observers of